Central Military Commission (China)

The Central Military Commission (CMC) refers to the parallel national defense organizations of the Communist Party of China and the People's Republic of China: the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China, a Party organ under the CPC Central Committee, and the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China, a central state organ under the National People's Congress, being the military branch of the national government.

The command and control of the People's Liberation Army, the People's Armed Police and the Militia is exercised in name by the State CMC, supervised by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. The State CMC is nominally considered the supreme military policy-making body and its chairman, elected by the National People's Congress, is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In reality, command and control of the PLA, however, still resides with the Central Military Commission of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee—the Party CMC.

Both commissions are identical in membership, thus actually forming one identical institution under two different names (called 一个机构两块牌子; yígè jīgòu liǎngkuài páizi), in order to fit in both state government and party systems. Both commissions are currently chaired by Xi Jinping, who is the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China as well as Paramount leader. The 11-man commission issues directives relating to the PLA, including senior appointments, troop deployments and arms spending. Almost all the members are senior generals, but the most important posts have always been held by the party's most senior leaders to ensure absolute loyalty of the armed forces and to ensure the survival of the regime.[1] CMC has control over 6.8 million personnel.

The CMC is housed in the Ministry of National Defense compound ("August 1st Building") in western Beijing.

Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China
中国共产党中央军事委员会
Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Jūnshì Wěiyuánhuì
Danghui
The emblem of the Communist Party of China
Agency overview
Formed28 September 1954
Preceding agency
JurisdictionPeople's Liberation Army, People's Armed Police, and China Militia
HeadquartersAugust 1st Building, Beijing
Agency executives
Parent agencyCPC Central Committee
Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国中央军事委员会
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Zhōngyāng Jūnshì Wěiyuánhuì
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2)
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China
Agency overview
Formed18 June 1983
JurisdictionPeople's Liberation Army, People's Armed Police and China Militia
HeadquartersAugust 1st Building, Beijing
Agency executives
Parent agencyNational People's Congress
WebsiteGOV.CN Ministry of National Defense
Central Military Commission
Simplified Chinese中央军事委员会
Traditional Chinese中央軍事委員會
Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China
Simplified Chinese中国共产党中央军事委员会
Traditional Chinese中國共產黨中央軍事委員會
Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China
Simplified Chinese中华人民共和国中央军事委员会
Traditional Chinese中華人民共和國中央軍事委員會
ChinaDOD
The CMC is cereminally housed in the Ministry of National Defense compound ("August 1st Building")

History

The Party military committee dates back to October 1925, and while operating under various degrees of authority and responsibility, was consistently named the CPC Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中共中央軍事委員會; pinyin: Zhōnggòng Zhōngyāng Jūnshì Wěiyuánhuì). Among Western commentators, “Affairs” is frequently dropped from the title.[2] As a commission, it ranks higher in the party hierarchy than departments such as the Organization or United Front Departments. In 1937 the CPC Central Revolutionary Military Commission (Chinese: 中共中央革命軍事委員會; pinyin: Zhōnggòng Zhōngyāng Gémìng Jūnshì Wěiyuánhuì) was created after the Chinese Soviet Republic's Chinese Red Army were integrated into the Kuomintang's army for the anti-Japanese war, and it later evolved into the Central Military Commission after the Party's 7th Congress in 1945. In this period, the Committee was always chaired by Mao Zedong.

In the September 1949 reorganization, military leadership was transferred to a government body, the People's Revolutionary Military Commission of the Central People's Government (traditional Chinese: 中央人民政府人民革命軍事委員會, Zhōngyāng Rénmín Zhèngfǔ Rénmín Gémìng Jūnshì Wěiyuánhuì). The final coexistence of two military committees was set in 1954, as the CPC Central Military Commission was re-established, while state military authority rested into a National Defense Council of the People's Republic of China (simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国国防委员会, Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guófáng Wěiyuánhuì) chaired by the President in keeping with the 1954 Constitution.

As Mao Zedong was also the Chairman of the Communist Party of China and led military affairs as a whole, the CMC and NDC's day-to-day work was carried out by its first-ranking vice-chairman, a post which was occupied by Lin Biao until his death in 1971, then by Ye Jianying. As a consequence of the Cultural Revolution, the Party CMC became the sole military overseeing body, and the National Defence Council was abolished in 1975.

Deng Xiaoping's efforts to institutionally separate the Party and the state led to the establishment of today’s State CMC, which was created in 1982 by the Constitution of China in order to formalize the role of the military within the government structure. Both the National Defense Commission and State CMC have been described as 'consultative' bodies.[2] Contrarily to the National Defense Commission, however, the Party and state CMCs are almost identical in leadership, composition, and powers.

The Commission included the post of secretary-general until 1992. This post was held by Yang Shangkun (1945–1954), Huang Kecheng (1954–1959), Luo Ruiqing (1959–1966), Ye Jianying (1966–1977), Luo Ruiqing (1977–1979), Geng Biao (1979–1981), Yang Shangkun (1981–1989), Yang Baibing (1989–1992).

In 2016, the 4 traditional general departments were dissolved by order of Chairman Xi Jinping, and in their place 15 new departments were created as part of the ongoing modernization of the PLA.

Command structure

Unlike in most countries, the Central Military Commission is not considered as just another ministry. Although China does have a Ministry of National Defense, headed by a Minister of National Defense, it exists solely for liaison with foreign militaries and does not have command authority.

The most important chain of command runs from the CMC to the four General Headquarters (Joint Staff Department, Political Works Department, Logistic Support Department, Equipments Development Department) and, in turn, to each of the service branches (ground, navy and air forces). In addition, the CMC also has direct control over the Rocket Forces, Strategic Support Forces, the National Defense University, and the Academy of Military Sciences. As stipulated in the 1997 National Defense Law, the CMC also controls the paramilitary People’s Armed Police (PAP), who have the politically sensitive role of guarding key government buildings (including the main leadership compound of Zhongnanhai in Beijing) and enforcing the law all around China. The CMC shared command authority over the PAP with of the State Council mostly via the Ministry of Public Security; from 2018 the PAP is under the sole control of the CMC.

Although in theory the CMC has the highest military command authority, in reality the ultimate decision making power concerning war, armed forces, and national defense resides with the Communist Party’s Politburo. The CMC is usually chaired by the General Secretary of the Communist Party, who is supported by two to three Vice-Chairmen, sometimes, but not currently, including the Defense Minister. Members of the CMC used to include the heads of the PLA’s four general departments and the Commanders of the Ground Force, Air Force, Navy and Rocket Force; but after the recent reform only Minister of National Defense, Chief of Joint Staff, Director of Political Work, and Secretary of Discipline Inspection are included.

Political structure

The armed forces of China also have Joint Staff Department, the Political Work Department, the Logistics Support Department and the Equipment Development Department , which implements the directives of the Central Military Commission. Along with the General Secretary of the Communist Party and Premier of the State Council, the Chairman of the Central Military Commission have consistently been one of the most powerful political leaders in China.

The Chairman of the CMC was twice in its history held by a senior official who had given up his other posts: by Deng in the late 1980s, and by Jiang in the early 2000s. In the case of Deng Xiaoping, because of his prestige, he was able to exercise considerable power after his retirement, in part due to his holding the position of CMC Chairman. There was speculation that Jiang Zemin would have been able to retain similar authority after his retirement from the positions of General Secretary and President, but ultimately Jiang was unable to do so. One major factor is that, in contrast to Deng Xiaoping, who always had close relations with the People's Liberation Army, Jiang had no military background. In addition, with the promotion of the fourth generation of Chinese leaders to lead the civilian party, there was also a corresponding promotion of military leaders. All the military members of the CMC come from Hu Jintao's generation rather than from Jiang's, and at the time of the leadership transition, there appeared some very sharp editorials from military officers suggesting that the military would have strong objections to Jiang attempting to exercise power behind the scenes.

Jiang Zemin relinquished his post as Chairman of the party's Central Military Commission in September 2004 to Hu Jintao, and from the state commission in March 2005, which appeared to solidify Hu's position as paramount leader. However, Jiang had appointed two generals who maintained good relations with him, Xu Caihou, and Guo Boxiong, to the Vice-Chairman positions, and continued to wield influence through them at the expense of Hu.[3] Unlike Deng and Jiang, Hu relinquished his CMC post along with his remaining leadership offices in favour of his successor Xi Jinping.

In China's state-party-military tripartite political system, the CMC itself is a decision-making body whose day-to-day affairs are not nearly as transparent as that of the Central Committee or the State Council. As one of China's three main decision making bodies the relative influence of the CMC can vary depending on the time period and the leaders. In the event of war or political crisis, for example, the CMC may well function as a de facto executive for the country's daily affairs.

The Tiananmen Protests of 1989 illustrates how the Central Military Commission functions. CMC Chairman Deng Xiaoping proposed the imposition martial law and the use of armed soldiers to suppress unarmed demonstrations in Beijing.

The Library of Congress says of the two CMCs: "The state Central Military Commission was the state's decision-making body in military affairs and directed and commanded the armed forces. The state Central Military Commission consisted of the chairman, who was commander in chief of the armed forces, an executive vice chairman, two vice chairmen, and four other members. Because the PLA has been under party control since its inception, the leadership of the party over the military did not change with the establishment of the state Central Military Commission. Although parallel leadership blurred the distinction between the two groups, the party Central Military Commission retained its traditional, preeminent position in charge of military affairs."

Election of members

Theoretically, the CPC (Party) CMC is elected by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and is subordinate to the Politburo and the Politburo Standing Committee (PBSC). In practice, membership is very closely controlled by the PBSC.

Similarly, the State CMC is nominally elected by the National People's Congress and theoretically reports to the Congress, but is in practice indistinguishable from the CPC CMC. This difference in elections also results in the only difference in membership between the two bodies, as party organs, such as the party congress and the Central Committee assemble at different times than the National People's Congress. For example, some were elected into the party CMC in the Sixteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China in November 2002, but they entered the State CMC in March 2003, when the 10th National People's Congress convened.

The members are generally uniformed military commanders, except for the chairman and first vice-chairman, who have both been drawn from the Politburo in recent years. The military members are generally members of neither the Politburo Standing Committee nor the State Council outside of the Minister of National Defense, although they all tend to be members of the Communist Party and are members of the Central Committee. The military members are apparently chosen with regular promotion procedures from within the PLA.

Members

The make-up of the current Central Military Commission of the Communist Party was determined at the 19th Party Congress held in October 2017; the state commission awaits confirmation at the 2018 National People's Congress.[4]

Chairman
Vice Chairmen (2)
  1. Air Force Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg Air Force General Xu Qiliang, Member of the 19th Politburo, Executive Deputy Leader of the CMC Leading Group for National Defence and Military Reform
  2. Ground Force Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg General Zhang Youxia[5], Member of the 19th Politburo, Deputy Leader of the CMC Leading Group for National Defence and Military Reform
Members (4)
  1. Rocket Force Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg General Wei Fenghe, State Councilor and Minister of National Defense
  2. Ground Force Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg General Li Zuocheng, Chief of Joint Staff
  3. Naval Ensign of China.svg Admiral Miao Hua, Director of the CMC Political Work Department
  4. Rocket Force Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg General Zhang Shengmin, Secretary of the CMC Commission for Discipline Inspection, also a Deputy Secretary of the CPC Central Commission for Discipline Inspection

Organization

The exact internal organisation of the CMC is highly secretive. However, until 2015 it is known that the CMC contained least five key departments. The Joint Staff Department is the nerve center of the entire Chinese military command and control system, responsible for daily administrative duties of the CMC. The General Office processes all CMC communications and documents, coordinate meetings, and convey orders and directives to other subordinate organs.

During the 2015 military reform, by order of Chairman Xi Jinping, 15 departments were created to replace the 5 organs, which were disbanded. The new 15 departments are:[6]

  1. General Office (办公厅)
  2. Joint Staff Department (联合参谋部)
  3. Political Work Department (政治工作部)
  4. Logistic Support Department (后勤保障部)
  5. Equipment Development Department (装备发展部)
  6. Training and Administration Department (训练管理部)
  7. National Defense Mobilization Department (国防动员部)
  8. Discipline Inspection Commission (纪律检查委员会)
  9. Politics and Legal Affairs Commission (政法委员会)
  10. Science and Technology Commission (科学技术委员会)
  11. Office for Strategic Planning (战略规划办公室)
  12. Office for Reform and Organizational Structure (改革和编制办公室)
  13. Office for International Military Cooperation (国际军事合作办公室)
  14. Audit Office (审计署)
  15. Agency for Offices Administration (机关事务管理总局)

References

Citations

  1. ^ BBC, "How China is Ruled: Military Affairs Commission", accessed 05-6-2010
  2. ^ a b The Pinnacle of the Pyramid: The Central Military Commission, Chapter 3, p. 97 archive
  3. ^ "少将踢爆徐才厚郭伯雄卖官 大军区司令二千万元". Boxun. 2015-03-10.
  4. ^ "新一届中央军委委员中3位是从战火中走出的将军". Sina. 2017-10-27.
  5. ^ Chan, Minnie (2017-10-25). "General Zhang Youxia: Xi Jinping's 'sworn brother' now his deputy on China's top military body". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2017-10-26.
  6. ^ "国防部新闻事务局官微发布中央军委机关英文译名". People's Daily Online. Retrieved 2016-01-15.

Sources

See also

Agency for Offices Administration of the Central Military Commission

The Agency for Offices Administration of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军委机关事务管理总局) is the chief organ under the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China. It was founded on January 11, 2016 under Xi Jinping's military reforms.

Audit Office of the Central Military Commission

The Audit Office of the Central Military Commission or simply Audit Office is the chief organ under the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China. It was founded on January 11, 2016 under Xi Jinping's military reforms. It is responsible for auditing People's Liberation Army and People's Armed Police Its current director is General Guo Chunfeng.

Central Leading Group for Military Reform

The Leading Group for National Defence and Military Reform of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军委深化国防和军队改革领导小组; pinyin: Zhōngyāng Jūnwěi Shēnhuà Guófáng hé Jūnduì Gǎigé Lǐngdǎo Xiǎozǔ) is a policy formulation and implementation body set up under the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China and ultimately answerable to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China for the purpose of formulating policies related to military reform. The group is headed by Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.

The decision to introduce wide-ranging military reforms was discussed in the communique of the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Central Committee in 2013. The Leading Group held its first meeting on March 15, 2014.

Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Central Military Commission

The Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军委纪律检查委员会; pinyin: Zhōngyāng Jūnwěi Jìlǜ Jiănchá Wĕiyuánhuì; abbreviated CMCCDI) is the top disciplinary organ of the Central Military Commission of China. The CMCCDI has "dual responsibility" to the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and the Central Military Commission. The membership of the CMCCDI is selected by the Central Military Commission.

The first military organ in charge of enforcing discipline and control was established in 1955, but was dissolved during the Cultural Revolution. The modern incarnation of the CMCCDI was formed in January 1980 under the direction of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. Since 1990, the DICCMC's work has largely been carried out by the Political Work Department, the supreme political organ of the military. The head of the CMCDIC is customarily also the deputy chief of the General Political Department, and since the 16th Party Congress in 2002, concurrently a Deputy Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.The CCDI has occasionally directly intervened in cases dealing with high-ranking officers in the People's Liberation Army. However, the direct involvement of the CCDI has only been cited in high-profile cases, such as those of Vice Admiral Wang Shouye in 2005, and Lt. General Gu Junshan in 2012. Usually, once the CMCCDI completes an investigation, the case is handed onto military prosecution authorities or to a court martial. Unlike CCDI cases, conclusions of which are generally publicly announced in the form of a press release, specific details about cases under the sole jurisdiction of the CMCCDI rarely appear on the public record. Occasionally, the CMCCDI will conduct the "initial investigation" into the purported wrongdoings of a military officer, and then hand over to the case to the CCDI for "further investigation".

Equipment Development Department of the Central Military Commission

The Equipment Development Department of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军委装备发展部) is the chief organ under the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China. It was founded on January 11, 2016 under Xi Jinping's military reforms.

The Department continues to oversee and improve military technology. Gen. Zhang Youxia served as the first director. The current director is Li Shangfu.

In September 2018, following a purchase of aircraft and missile equipment from Russian arms exporter Rosoboronexport, both the EDD and Li were sanctioned by the United States State Department per the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act.

General Office of the Central Military Commission

The General Office of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会办公厅) is an administrative agency of the Central Military Commission which assists the leaders with the day to day administrative operations of the CMC.

Joint Staff Department of the Central Military Commission

The Joint Staff Department of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军委联合参谋部) is the command organ and the headquarters for the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of China, superseding the former PLA General Staff Department. It was founded on January 11, 2016 under Xi Jinping's military reforms. It is under the absolute leadership of the Central Military Commission. The Department continues PLA Operations Command, Recruitments, Mobilizations, Formation, Trainings and Administration duties. Its Headquarters is located in Beijing and the current chief of Joint staff is General Li Zuocheng.

The current deputy chiefs are Lt General Ma Yiming, and Mj. General Shao Yuanming.

Logistic Support Department of the Central Military Commission

The Logistic Support Department of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军委后勤保障部) is a department under the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China. It was founded on January 11, 2016 under Xi Jinping's military reforms. The Department organize and lead the logistics construction as well as overseeing housing, supplies, hospitals, and barracks of the People's Liberation Army. Its first director was Gen. Zhao Keshi. The current director is Gen. Song Puxuan.

National Defense Mobilization Commission

The National Defense Mobilization Commission (Chinese: 国家国防动员委员会; pinyin: Guójiā Guófáng Dòngyuán Wěiyuánhuì; abbreviated NDMC) is an organization under the State Council of the People's Republic of China and the Central Military Commission responsible for coordinating decisions concerning military affairs, strategic plans and defense mobilization. It is responsible for bringing together civic resources in the event of a war, and coordinating these efforts with military operations. The Commission is usually chaired by the Premier of the People's Republic of China. It was established by the "National Defense Mobilization Law" in November 1994.

Since 2013, Premier Li Keqiang has served as chairman of the Commission, with State Council Secretary-General Yang Jing and Defense Minister Chang Wanquan as vice chairmen, and Admiral Sun Jianfeng as secretary-general.

National Defense Mobilization Department of the Central Military Commission

The National Defense Mobilization Department of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军委国防动员部) is the chief organ under the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China. It was founded on January 11, 2016 under Xi Jinping's military reforms.

Its current director is Lt. Gen. Sheng Bin.

Office for International Military Cooperation of the Central Military Commission

The Office for International Military Cooperation of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军委国际军事合作办公室) is the chief organ under the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China. It was founded on January 11, 2016 under Xi Jinping's military reforms. Its first and current director is Rear Admiral Guan Youfei.

Office for Reform and Organizational Structure

The Office for Reform and Organizational Structure of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会改革和编制办公室) is the chief organ under the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China. It was founded on January 11, 2016 under Xi Jinping's military reforms. Lt. Gen. Qin Shengxiang served as its first director.

Office for Strategic Planning of the Central Military Commission

The Office for Strategic Planning of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会战略规划办公室) is the chief organ under the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China. It was founded on January 11, 2016 under Xi Jinping's military reforms.Its current director is Wang Huiqing.

People's Liberation Army General Political Department

The People's Liberation Army General Political Department (GPD; Chinese: 中国人民解放军总政治部) is the former chief political organ under the Central Military Commission of Communist Party of China. It leads all political activities in the People's Liberation Army.

Its former director-generals include Liu Shaoqi, Luo Ronghuan, Tan Zheng, Xiao Hua, Li Desheng, Zhang Chunqiao, Wei Guoqing, Yu Qiuli, Yang Baibing, Yu Yongbo, Xu Caihou, and Li Jinai. Its last head was Zhang Yang, who committed suicide.

The department was disbanded in January 2016 and a new agency, the Political Work Department of the Central Military Commission was founded in its place.

People's Liberation Army General Staff Department

The People's Liberation Army General Staff Department (GSD, 1954–2016; simplified Chinese: 中国人民解放军总参谋部; traditional Chinese: 中國人民解放軍總參謀部; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Jiěfàngjūn Zǒngcānmóubù), preceded by the General Staff of the People's Revolutionary Military Committee (1949–1954), was the former command organ and headquarters for the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of China. Its duties included PLA Operations Command, Recruitment, Mobilization, Formation, Training and Administration. The PLA General Staff Headquarters was located in Beijing and its last commander was General Fang Fenghui.

The General Staff was under the absolute leadership of the Central Military Commission and (especially during the long Maoist era) under the political supervision of the PLA General Political Department.

During the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s the Intelligence Bureau of the General Staff, commonly referred to as "the 2nd Bureau" (the PLA adopted the numbering system of most continental European armies for staff bureaus) was active in funding, arming and training dozens of Asian, African and Latin American militant groups and liberation movements; especially in the case of Africa, the Intelligence Bureau "supplied, at one time or another, nearly all of the various African liberation movements with arms, money, food and medicines". Among those who received military training were Pol Pot (leader of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia) and Abimael Guzmán (leader of the Shining Path in Peru).The General Staff was disbanded as part of the January 2016 military reform and its operations were consolidated into the Joint Staff Department of the Central Military Commission.

Political Work Department of the Central Military Commission

The Political Work Department of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军委政治工作部) is the chief political organ under the Central Military Commission. It was founded on January 11, 2016, during Paramount Leader Xi Jinping's military reforms.The Department leads all political activities in the People's Liberation Army. Its current director is Admiral Miao Hua; its deputy directors are Hou Hehua and Yu Guang.

Training and Administration Department of the Central Military Commission

The Training and Administration Department of the Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军委训练管理部) is the chief organ under the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China. It was founded on January 11, 2016 under Xi Jinping's military reforms. Its first and current director is Major General Li Huohui

Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission

The office of Vice-Chairman of the Central Military Commission (CMC) functions as the deputy to the CMC Chairman. Currently, two People's Liberation Army generals serve as vice-chairman.

Zhang Shengmin

Zhang Shengmin (Chinese: 张升民; born February 1958) is a general of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Rocket Force. He is a member of the Central Military Commission (CMC) and Secretary of the CMC Commission for Discipline Inspection. He is also a Deputy Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, the top anti-corruption agency of China.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhōngyāng Jūnshì Wěiyuánhuì
Bopomofoㄓㄨㄥ ㄧㄤ ㄐㄩㄣ ㄕ` ㄨㄟˇ ㄩㄢ´ ㄏㄨㄟ`
other Mandarin
Xiao'erjingﺟْﻮ ﻳْﺎ کٌ شِ وِ ﻳُﻮًا ﺧُﻮِ
Hakka
RomanizationTûng-ông kiûn-sṳ ve yèn fi
Yue: Cantonese
Jyutpingzung1joeng1gwan1si6wai2jyun4wui2
other Yue
TaishaneseJüng-yëng gün-xù Vī-yõn-vòi
Southern Min
Hokkien POJTiong-ng kun-sū úi ôan hōe
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCDṳ̆ng iŏng gŭng-sê̤ṳ ūi uòng huôi
Pu-Xian Min
Hinghwa BUCDe̤ng ng geong seō ûi é̤ng hōi
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng Zhōngyāng Jūnshì Wěiyuánhuì
Yue: Cantonese
Jyutpingzung1gwok3gung6caan2dong2zung1joeng1gwan1si6wai2jyun4wui2
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Zhōngyāng Jūnshì Wěiyuánhuì
Yue: Cantonese
Jyutpingzung1waa4jan4man4gung6wo4gwok3zung1joeng1gwan1si6wai2jyun4wui2
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