Central Kalahari Game Reserve is an extensive national park in the Kalahari desert of Botswana. Established in 1961 it covers an area of 52,800 square kilometres (20,400 sq mi) (larger than the Netherlands, and almost 10% of Botswana's total land area), making it the second largest game reserve in the world.
The park contains wildlife such as South African giraffe, bush elephant, white rhino, cape buffalo, spotted hyena, brown hyena, honey badger, meerkat, yellow mongoose, warthog, South African cheetah, caracal, Cape wild dog, black-backed jackal, bat-eared fox, cape fox, African leopard, lion, blue wildebeest, plains zebra, common eland, sable antelope, gemsbok, springbok, steenbok, impala, greater kudu, aardvark, cape ground squirrel, cape hare, cape porcupine, chacma baboon, red hartebeest and ostrich. The land is mostly flat, and gently undulating covered with bush and grasses covering the sand dunes, and areas of larger trees. Many of the river valleys are fossilized with salt pans. Four fossilized rivers meander through the reserve including Deception Valley which began to form around 16,000 years ago.
The Bushmen, or San, have inhabited the lands for thousands of years since they roamed the area as nomadic hunters. However, since the mid-1990s the Botswana government has tried to relocate the Bushmen from the reserve, claiming they were a drain on financial resources despite revenues from tourism. In 1997, three quarters of the entire San population were relocated from the reserve, and in October 2005 the government had resumed the forced relocation into resettlement camps outside of the park leaving only about 250 permanent occupiers. In 2006 a Botswana court proclaimed the eviction illegal and affirmed the Bushmen's right to return to living in the reserve. However, as of 2015 most Bushmen are blocked from access to their traditional lands in the reserve. A nationwide ban on hunting made it illegal for the Bushmen to practice their traditional hunter-gatherer lifestyle, despite allowing private game ranches to provide hunting opportunities for tourists.
In 2014 a diamond mine operated by Gem Diamonds opened in the southeast portion of the reserve. The company estimated that the mine could yield $4.9 billion worth of diamonds. The Rapaport Diamond Report, a diamond-industry pricing guide, stated, "Ghaghoo's launch was not without controversy [...] given its location on the ancestral land of the Bushmen".
The 2011 Botswana Population and Housing Census was the latest national census of Botswana. The enumeration was managed by the Central Statistics Office and took place over ten days starting on 22 August 2011. The census counted a total population of 2,024,787, a 20.5% increase from the 2001 Census.Ancestral land conflict in Botswana
Ancestral land conflict in Botswana has centred on the desert land occupied by the San people, including the Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR), established in 1961 for wildlife, while the San were permitted to continue their hunter-gatherer lifestyle.
In the 1990s, the government of Botswana began a policy of "relocating" CKGR residents outside the reserve. In 2002, the government cut off all services to CKGR residents. A legal battle began, and in 2006 the High Court of Botswana ruled that the residents had been forcibly and unconstitutionally removed. The policy of relocation continued, however, and in 2012 the San people (Basarwa) appealed to the United Nations to force the government to recognize their land and resource rights.Chobe National Park
Chobe National Park is Botswana's first national park, and also the most biologically diverse. Located in the north of the country, it is Botswana's third largest park, after Central Kalahari Game Reserve and Gemsbok National Park, and has one of the greatest concentrations of game in all of Africa.
The park is noted for having a population of lions which prey on African elephants, mostly juveniles or subadults but occasionally adults.Cry of the Kalahari
Cry of the Kalahari (1984) is an autobiographical book detailing two young American zoologists, Mark and Delia Owens, and their experience studying wildlife in the Kalahari desert in Botswana in the mid-1970s. There they lived and worked for seven years in an uninhabited area named Deception Valley in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve. With no roads and the nearest civilization eight hours away they had only each other and the animals they studied as company, most of which had never seen humans before. Their research focused mainly on lions, brown hyenas, jackals and other African carnivores. Cry of the Kalahari is the personal story of the Owens' encounters with these and a myriad of other animals and depicts their own struggle to live and work in such an inhospitable and unforgiving environment.Cry of the Kalahari was a national and international bestseller, translated into seven languages and is the 1985 John Burroughs Medal winner.East Hanahai
East Hanahai is a village in Ghanzi District of Botswana. It is located in the central part of the district, close to the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, roughly 50 km south-east of Ghanzi. East Hanahai has a primary school and a health clinic. The building of the Trans-Kalahari Highway along its new route, rather than using the path of the old Gaborone - Ghanzi road has had a negative effect on East and West Hanahai due to the dramatic reduction in through traffic. The lack of jobs means that many members of the community rely on irregular government piece jobs (known as drought relief) and/or government food baskets. The population was 532 in 2011 census and is made up of a mixture of Basarwa (Bushmen) and Batswana.Eragrostis echinochloidea
Eragrostis echinochloidea, (English: African lovegrass; Afrikaans: Krummelgras, "crumb grass") is a species of grass native to South Africa (Limpopo. North West, and Northern Cape provinces). Listed as "safe" (LC) on the SANBI Red List, the plant can also be found in Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Namibia.
African lovegrass is a perennial tussock that grows straight and knee-high. The leaves have tapered, papery sheaths and seed clusters sunken under the edges. The flower is a scarcely branched plume with closely packed spines on single branches. The spines are edible by humans and baboons. The drought tolerant species grows on disturbed veld and stony hillsides.In Deception Valley, one of the three dry riverbeds of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve in Botswana, the species prospers along with Enneapogon desvauxii and Sporoborus iocladus in the rainy season (from November to April/May).Ghanzi District
Ghanzi (sometimes Gantsi) is a district in western Botswana, bordering Namibia in the west and extending east into much of the interior of the country. The district's administrative centre is the town of Ghanzi. Most of the eastern half of Ghanzi makes up the Central Kalahari Game Reserve. The human population at the 2001 census was 43,370, less populous than that of any other district in Botswana. Ghanzi's area is 117,910 km².
In the west, Ghanzi borders the Omaheke Region of Namibia. Domestically, it borders the following districts: North-West on the north, Central on the east, Kweneng on the southeast, Kgalagadi on the south. Ghanzi, Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Deception Valley, Ghanzi Craft, Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and Khutse Game Reserve are the major game areas in the district.
The district is administered by a district administration and district council which are responsible for local administration. The total number of workers constituted 10,294 with 5,959 males and 4,335 females, with agriculture as the major occupation.International Socialist Organization (Botswana)
The International Socialists Botswana (ISBO) is a small Botswanan Trotskyist organisation. It is part of the International Socialist Tendency and produces a newspaper called Socialism from Below.
They have campaigned over workers rights, particularly the workers sacked from the Debswana mine (a DeBeers and Government of Botswana partnership). They also support the Basarwa/Bushmen in their resistance against forced relocation by the Botswana Government out of their ancestral
land, the Central Kalahari Game Reserve.
They are the only Botswanan political group who publish a regular newspaper.John Hardbattle
John Qace Hardbattle (1945-1996) was one of the best-known Bushman activists in Botswana. "Son of a half-Bushman mother, Khwa, and an English father, Tom Hardbattle",His father a retired policeman who traveled to South Africa and then Botswana. There he married "Kawi", John's mother. John Hardbattle co-founded (with Roy Sesana) and became leader of the First People of Kalahari (FPK).Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands
Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands is an ecoregion located in Botswana, northern Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe.Kalahari Desert
The Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savanna in Southern Africa extending for 900,000 square kilometres (350,000 sq mi), covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia and regions of South Africa.
It is not to be confused with the Angolan, Namibian and S. African Namib coastal desert, whose name is of Khoekhoegowab origin and means "vast place".Kang, Botswana
Kang is a village in Kgalagadi District of Botswana. It is situated in the Kalahari Desert and lies on the Trans-Kalahari Highway between Ghanzi in the north and Sekoma in the south. Kang also provides access to the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in the south-west and the Central Kalahari Game Reserve in the north-east. The route via Ghanzi takes one to the Namibian border, whilst that to Sekoma leads to Gaborone, the capital of Botswana. The population was 5,985 according to the 2011 census.
Kang also falls under the Kgalagadi North constituency whose Member of Parliament is Hon. Phillip Khwae. The village is divided into two wards, Kang North and Kang South.
Kang is served by Kang Airport.Khutse Game Reserve
Khutse Game Reserve is a game reserve in Botswana.The name Khutse means "where one kneels to drink" in Sekwena (the local dialect of Tswana). Because of its proximity, and relative accessibility, to the nation's capital, Khutse game Reserve is a favorite retreat for Gaborone visitors or residents. The 240 km drive takes the traveller through a number of interesting Kalahari villages, including the ‘gateway to the Kalahari,’ Molepolole.
Adjoining the Central Kalahari Game Reserve to the north, and with no fences separating the two, the terrain of the 2 500 km2 reserve combines most types of Kalahari habitat – rolling grasslands, river beds, fossil dunes and grassed and bare pans.
There is a series of rather picturesque pans where wildlife often congregate, particularly during and following good rains; and indeed game drives are focused around the pans. These include the Motailane, Moreswa and Molose pans. Sometimes water is pumped at artificial waterholes at Moreswa and Molose, making for good game viewing year round.List of protected areas of Botswana
This is a list of protected areas in Botswana, Africa.New Xade
New Xade is a village located in the central part of the Ghanzi District of Botswana. The population was 930 in 2001 census.Roy Sesana
Roy Sesana (born c. 1950) is a San activist who worked together with the First People of the Kalahari for the rights of his tribe.Tourism in Botswana
Botswana's principal tourist attractions are its game reserves, with hunting and photographic safaris available. Other attractions include the Okavango Delta region, which during the rainy season is a maze of waterways, islands, and lakes. The tourism industry also helped to diversify Botswana's economy from traditional sources such as diamonds and beef and created 23,000 jobs in 2005.West Hanahai
West Hanahai is a village in Ghanzi District of Botswana. It is located in the central part of the district, close to the Central Kalahari Game Reserve roughly 50 km south west of Ghanzi. The building of the Trans-Kalahari Highway along its new route, rather than using the path of the old Gaborone - Ghanzi road has had a negative effect on West and East Hanahai due to the dramatic reduction in through traffic. The lack of jobs means that many members of the community rely on irregular government piece jobs (known as drought relief) and/or government food baskets. West Hanahai has a primary school and a health clinic. The population was 560 in 2001 census.Wildlife of Botswana
The wildlife of Botswana refers to the flora and fauna of Botswana. Botswana is around 90% covered in savanna, varying from shrub savanna in the southwest in the dry areas to tree savanna consisting of trees and grass in the wetter areas. Even under the hot conditions of the Kalahari Desert, many different species survive; in fact the country has more than 2500 species of plants and 650 species of trees. Vegetation and its wild fruits are also extremely important to rural populations living in the desert and are the principal source of food, fuel and medicine for many inhabitants.Three national parks and seven game reserves that are wildlife shelters occupy 17% of the land area of Botswana. The three national parks are the Chobe National Park, the Nxai Pan and Makgadikgadi National Park and the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park. The seven game reserves are the Central Kalahari Game Reserve, Gaborone Game Reserve, Khutse Game Reserve, Mannyelanong Game Reserve, Maun Game Reserve and Moremi Game Reserve. In addition, a number of small privately owned reserves are maintained.