Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time (MET, German: MEZ) and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time and Romance Standard Time (RST), Paris Time or Rome Time.[1]

The 15th meridian east is the central axis for UTC+01:00 in the world system of time zones.

As of 2011, all member states of the European Union observe summer time; those that during the winter use CET use Central European Summer Time (CEST) (or: UTC+02:00, daylight saving time) in summer (from last Sunday of March to last Sunday of October).[2]

A number of African countries use UTC+01:00 all year long, where it is called West Africa Time (WAT),[3] although Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia also use the term Central European Time.[4]

Time zones of Europe
Time in Europe:
light blue Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
blue Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
red Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
yellow Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
golden Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
light green Further-eastern European Time / Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
Light colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where a summer time is observed.
UTC hue4map X region Africa
Time zones of Africa:
 -01:00  Cape Verde Time[a]
 ±00:00 
 +01:00 
 +02:00 
 +03:00  East Africa Time
 +04:00 
Light colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where daylight saving is observed.
a The islands of Cape Verde are to the west of the African mainland.

Usage

Usage in Europe

Stargard 15 Południk
The monument 'The 15th Meridian' in Stargard, Poland

Current usage

Central European Time is currently (updated 2017)[5] used in Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.[4]

History

  • 1884
  • 1890
  • 1891
  • 1 April 1893
  • 1894
    • Switzerland switches from UTC+00:30 to CET[13]
    • Liechtenstein introduces CET.[14]
    • Denmark adopts CET.[15]
  • 1895
    • Norway adopts CET.[16]
  • 1900
    • Sweden adopts CET.[17]
  • 1904
    • Luxembourg introduces CET,[18] but leaves 1918.[19]
  • 1914
    • Albania adopts CET.[20]
  • 1914–1918
    • During World War I CET was implemented in all German-occupied territories.[21]
  • 1920
    • Lithuania adopts CET (but subsequently rescinded in 1940).[22]
  • 1922
    • Poland adopts CET.[23]
  • 1940
    • Under German occupation:[21]
      • The Netherlands was switched from UTC+00:20 to CET.
      • Belgium was switched from UTC+00:00.
      • Luxembourg was switched from UTC+00:00.
      • France, which had adopted Paris time on 14 March 1891 and Greenwich Mean Time on 9 March 1911,[24] was switched to CET.
    • Spain switched to CET.[21]

After World War II Monaco, Andorra and Gibraltar implemented CET.[21]

Portugal used CET in the years 1966–1976 and 1992–1996.

United Kingdom

The time around the world is based on Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) which is roughly synonymous with Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). From late March to late October, clocks in the United Kingdom are put forward by one hour for British Summer Time (BST). Since 1997, most of the European Union aligned with the British standards for BST.

In 1968[25] there was a three-year experiment called British Standard Time, when the UK and Ireland experimentally employed British Summer Time (GMT+1) all year round; clocks were put forward in March 1968 and not put back until October 1971.[26]

Central European Time is sometimes referred to as continental time in the UK.

Other countries

Several African countries use UTC+01:00 all year long, where it called West Africa Time (WAT), although Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia also use the term Central European Time, despite being located in North Africa.[4]

Between 2005 and 2008, Tunisia observed daylight saving time.[27] Libya also used CET during the years 1951–1959, 1982–1989, 1996–1997 and 2012–2013.

For other countries see UTC+01:00 and West Africa Time.

Discrepancies between official CET and geographical CET

Colour Legal time vs local mean time
1 h ± 30 m behind
0 h ± 30 m
1 h ± 30 m ahead
2 h ± 30 m ahead
3 h ± 30 m ahead
Tzdiff-Europe-winter
European winter
Tzdiff-Europe-summer
European summer

Legal, political and economic, as well as physical or geographical criteria are used in the drawing of time zones so official time zones rarely adhere to meridian lines. The CET time zone, were it drawn by purely geographical terms, would consist of exactly the area between meridians 7°30′ E and 22°30′ E. As a result, there are European locales that despite lying in an area with a "physical" UTC+01:00 time, actually use another time zone (UTC+02:00 in particular – there are no "physical" UTC+01:00 areas that employ UTC+00:00). Conversely, there are European areas that have gone for UTC+01:00, even though their "physical" time zone is UTC (typically), UTC−01:00 (westernmost Spain), or UTC+02:00 (e.g. the very easternmost parts of Norway, Sweden, Poland and Serbia). On the other hand, the people in Spain still have all work and meal hours one hour later than France and Germany even if they have the same time zone.[28] Following is a list of such "incongruences":

Historically Gibraltar maintained UTC+01:00 all year until the opening of the land frontier with Spain in 1982 when it followed its neighbour and introduced CEST.

Areas located within UTC+01:00 longitudes using other time zones

These areas are located between 7°30′ E and 22°30′ E ("physical" UTC+1)[29][30]

Areas using UTC+02:00

Areas located outside UTC+01:00 longitudes using UTC+01:00 time

These areas are located west of 7°30′ E or east of 22°30′ E (outside "physical" UTC+01:00)[29][30]

Areas between 22°30′ W and 7°30′ W ("physical" UTC−01:00)

  • The westernmost part of mainland Spain (Galicia, e.g. the city of A Coruña); Cape Finisterre and nearby points in Galicia, at 9°18′ W, are the westernmost places where CET is applied.
  • The Norwegian island of Jan Mayen lies entirely within this area and extends nearly as far west as Cape Finisterre, with its western tip at 9°5′ W and its eastern tip at 7°56′ W.

Areas between 7°30′ W and 7°30′ E ("physical" UTC+00:00)

Areas between 22°30′ E and 37°30′ E ("physical" UTC+02:00)

Petsamo
Map of Petsamo area in northern Finland/Soviet Union/Russia. The green area is the Finnish part of the Rybachi peninsula (Kalastajasaarento) which was ceded to the Soviet Union after the Winter War. The Red area is the Jäniskoski-Niskakoski area ceded to the USSR in 1947.

See also

References

  1. ^ Romance Standard Time
  2. ^ "Europe Starts Daylight Saving on March 27, 2011". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  3. ^ "WAT – West Africa Time (Time Zone Abbreviation)". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  4. ^ a b c "Central European Time Zone - CET". WorldTimeServer.com. 2015-11-19. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  5. ^ CET – Central European Time / European Central Time (Standard Time)
  6. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Belgrade, Serbia". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  7. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Budapest, Hungary". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  8. ^ "Daylight Saving Time Changes 1891 in Prague, Czech Republic". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  9. ^ Bartky, Ian R. (2007). One Time Fits All: The Campaigns for Global Uniformity. Stanford University Press. pp. 126–7. ISBN 0804756422. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  10. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Rome, Italy". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  11. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Valletta, Malta". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  12. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Vienna, Vienna, Austria". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  13. ^ Messerli, Jakob. "Zeitsysteme". HLS-DHS-DSS.CH (in German). Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  14. ^ "dullophob". www.dullophob.com. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  15. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Copenhagen, Denmark". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  16. ^ "Daylight Saving Time Changes 1895 in Oslo, Norway". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  17. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Stockholm, Sweden". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-19.
  18. ^ "Daylight Saving Time Changes 1904 in Luxembourg, Luxembourg". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  19. ^ "Daylight Saving Time Changes 1918 in Luxembourg, Luxembourg". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  20. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Tirana, Albania". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  21. ^ a b c d "CET - Central European Time". www.thetimenow.com. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  22. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Vilnius, Lithuania". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  23. ^ "Time Changes in Poland 2017". www.vercalendario.info. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  24. ^ Bartky, Ian R. (2007). One Time Fits All: The Campaigns for Global Uniformity. Stanford University Press. pp. 130, 134. ISBN 0804756422. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  25. ^ "Summer Time all the time". Birmingham Daily Post. England. 13 February 1968. Retrieved 16 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  26. ^ "Clocks to be turned back". Birmingham Daily Post. England. 2 October 1971. Retrieved 16 July 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  27. ^ "Daylight Saving Time Changes 2005 in Tunis, Tunisia". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  28. ^ Purdy, Chase. "Spain spent the last 76 years in the wrong time zone—and it's not healthy for workers". Quartz. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  29. ^ a b "Greece Time Zone". www.timetemperature.com. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
  30. ^ a b "Europe Time Zones Map With Zone - madriver.me". madriver.me. Retrieved 2018-07-20.

External links

15th meridian east

The meridian 15° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 15th meridian east forms a great circle with the 165th meridian west.

The meridian is the central axis of Central European Time.

CEST

CEST or cest may refer to:

Central European Summer Time (UTC+2), daylight saving time observed in the central European time zone

Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory

Cest, a female girdle

Cest or Cesti, informal or plural for Cestus, an ancient battle glove

-cest, a portmanteau or libfix appended to sexual concepts

Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+01:00) during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+02:00, which makes it the same as Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.

Eastern European Time

Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. The zone uses daylight saving time, so that it uses UTC+03:00 during the summer.

A number of African countries use UTC+02:00 all year long, where it is called Central Africa Time (CAT), although Egypt and Libya also use the term Eastern European Time.

Greenwich Mean Time

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, reckoned from midnight. At different times in the past, it has been calculated in different ways, including being calculated from noon; as a consequence, it cannot be used to specify a precise time unless a context is given.

English speakers often use GMT as a synonym for Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). For navigation, it is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); but this meaning can differ from UTC by up to 0.9 s. The term GMT should not thus be used for technical purposes.Because of Earth's uneven speed in its elliptical orbit and its axial tilt, noon (12:00:00) GMT is rarely the exact moment the sun crosses the Greenwich meridian and reaches its highest point in the sky there. This event may occur up to 16 minutes before or after noon GMT, a discrepancy calculated by the equation of time. Noon GMT is the annual average (i.e. "mean") moment of this event, which accounts for the word "mean" in "Greenwich Mean Time".

Originally, astronomers considered a GMT day to start at noon, while for almost everyone else it started at midnight. To avoid confusion, the name Universal Time was introduced to denote GMT as counted from midnight. Astronomers preferred the old convention to simplify their observational data, so that each night was logged under a single calendar date. Today Universal Time usually refers to UTC or UT1.The term "GMT" is especially used by bodies connected with the United Kingdom, such as the BBC World Service, the Royal Navy, the Met Office and others particularly in Arab countries, such as the Middle East Broadcasting Centre and OSN. It is a term commonly used in the United Kingdom and countries of the Commonwealth, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Malaysia; and in many other countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

Intelligence (Canadian TV series)

Intelligence is a Vancouver-based crime drama television series created and written by Chris Haddock starring Ian Tracey and Klea Scott that aired on the CBC. With its pilot first airing on November 28, 2005, the series began regular broadcasting on October 10, 2006. CBC reaired the pilot on June 7, 2007 and began broadcasting reruns of season one on Fridays starting on June 8, 2007. A second season then aired from October 2007, concluding in December that same year. The series was produced by Haddock Entertainment, which also produced Da Vinci's Inquest and Da Vinci's City Hall.

Intelligence centres on Jimmy Reardon (Tracey), one of Vancouver's top organized crime bosses, and Mary Spalding (Scott), the director of the Vancouver Organized Crime Unit (OCU), who has offered Reardon immunity from prosecution in exchange for his role as a police informant. The show also stars Matt Frewer as Ted Altman, the scheming assistant director of the OCU who seeks to replace Spalding, and John Cassini as Ronnie Delmonico, Reardon's business partner and confidant.

The show's cast also includes Tom McBeath, John Mann, and David Green as CSIS directors; Eugene Lipinski and Andrew Airlie as colleagues of Spalding; and Bernie Coulson and Camille Sullivan as Reardon's brother and ex-wife.

The show was cancelled in 2008. The cancellation led to allegations that fear of the Harper government played a role in the decision.

Swatch Internet Time

Swatch Internet Time (or .beat time) is a decimal time concept introduced in 1998 by the Swatch corporation as part of their marketing campaign for their line of "Beat" watches.

Instead of hours and minutes, the mean solar day is divided into 1000 parts called ".beats". Each .beat is equal to one decimal minute in the French Revolutionary decimal time system and lasts 1 minute and 26.4 seconds (86.4 seconds) in standard time. Times are notated as a 3-digit number out of 1000 after midnight. So, @248 would indicate a time 248 .beats after midnight representing 248/1000 of a day, just over 5 hours and 57 minutes.

There are no time zones in Swatch Internet Time; instead, the new time scale of Biel Meantime (BMT) is used, based on Swatch's headquarters in Biel, Switzerland and equivalent to Central European Time, West Africa Time, and UTC+01. Unlike civil time in Switzerland and many other countries, Swatch Internet Time does not observe daylight saving time.

Time in Spain

Spain has two time zones and observes daylight saving time. Spain mainly uses Central European Time (GMT+01:00) and Central European Summer Time (GMT+02:00) in Peninsular Spain, the Balearic Islands, Ceuta, Melilla and plazas de soberanía. In the Canary Islands, the time zone is Western European Time (GMT±00:00) and Western European Summer Time (GMT+01:00). Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March (01:00 GMT) to the last Sunday in October (01:00 GMT) throughout Spain.

Spain used Greenwich Mean Time (UTC±00:00) before the Second World War (except for the Canary Islands which used GMT−01:00 before this date). However, the time zone was changed to Central European Time in 1940 and has remained so since then, meaning that Spain does not use its "natural" time zone under the coordinated time zone system. Some observers believe that this time zone shift plays a role in the country's relatively unusual daily schedule (late meals and sleep times).

Time in the Czech Republic

Time in the Czech Republic is Central European Time (Středoevropský čas, SEČ: UTC+01:00) and Central European Summer Time (Středoevropský letní čas, SELČ: UTC+02:00). Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March (2:00 CET) to the last Sunday in October (3:00 CEST). The Czech Republic has observed Central European Time since 1979. Until 1993 when Czechoslovakia was separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, they also had Central European Time and Central European Summer Time. After the summer months, time in the Czech Republic is shifted back by one hour to Central European Time. Like most states in Europe, Summer time (daylight saving time) is observed in the Czech Republic, when time is shifted forward by one hour, two hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time.

Time in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom uses Greenwich Mean Time or Western European Time (UTC) and British Summer Time or Western European Summer Time (UTC+01:00).

West Africa Time

West Africa Time, or WAT, is a time zone used in west-central Africa; with countries west of Benin instead using Greenwich Mean Time (GMT; equivalent to UTC with no offset). West Africa Time is one hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+01), which makes it the same as Central European Time (CET) during winter, or Western European Summer Time (WEST) and British Summer Time (BST) during the summer.

As most of this time zone is in the tropical region, there is little change in day length throughout the year, so daylight saving time is not observed.

West Africa Time is used by the following countries:

Algeria (as Central European Time)

Angola

Benin

Chad

Cameroon

Central African Republic

Democratic Republic of the Congo (western side only)

Equatorial Guinea

Gabon

Morocco (as Greenwich Mean Time + 1 hour)

Niger

Nigeria

Republic of the Congo

Tunisia (as Central European Time)

Western European Time

Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe. The following countries and regions use WET in winter months:

Canary Islands, since 1946 (rest of Spain is CET, UTC+01:00)

Faroe Islands, since 1908

North Eastern Greenland (Danmarkshavn and surrounding area)

Iceland, since 1968, without summer time changes

Portugal, since 1912 with pauses (except Azores, UTC−01:00)

Madeira islands, since 1912 with pauses

Ireland (legally known as Greenwich Mean Time), since 1916, except between 1968 and 1971

United Kingdom and Crown dependencies (legally known as Greenwich Mean Time), since 1847 in England, Scotland, Wales, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man, and since 1916 in Northern Ireland, with pausesAll the above countries except Iceland implement daylight saving time in summer (from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October each year), switching to Western European Summer Time (WEST, UTC+01:00), which is one hour ahead of WET. WEST is called British Summer Time in the UK and is officially known as Irish Standard Time in Ireland.

The nominal span of the time zone is 7.5°E to 7.5°W (0° ± 7.5°), but the WET zone does not include the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Gibraltar or Spain which use Central European Time (CET), although these are mostly (France) or completely (the rest) west of 7.5°E. Conversely, Iceland and eastern Greenland are included although both are west of 7.5°W. In September 2013, a Spanish parliamentary committee recommended switching to WET.

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