The Central Council of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Українська Центральна Рада, Ukrayins'ka Tsentral'na rada) (also called the Tsentralna Rada or the Central Rada) was the All-Ukrainian council that united the political, public, cultural and professional organizations of the Ukrainian People's Republic. After the All-Ukrainian National Congress (19–21 April 1917), the Council became the revolutionary parliament in the interbellum lasting until the Ukrainian-Soviet War.
Central Council of Ukraine
Українська Центральна Рада
|Ukrainian People's Republic|
|Founded||March 4, 1917|
|Disbanded||April 28, 1918|
|Succeeded by||Constituent Assembly (proposed)|
Labour Congress (de facto)
|Seats||822 (July 1917)|
|Ukrainian Club Building, Kiev|
From its beginning the council directed the Ukrainian national movement and with its four Universals led the country from autonomy to full sovereignty. During its brief existence from 1917 to 1918, the Central Rada, which was headed by the Ukrainian historian and ethnologist Mykhailo Hrushevsky, evolved into the fundamental governing institution of the Ukrainian People's Republic and set precedents in parliamentary democracy and national independence that formed the basis of an independent Ukrainian identity after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Central Council was founded in Kiev on 17 March [O.S. 4 March] 1917 at the initiative of the Society of Ukrainian Progressionists and with the participation of various Ukrainian political parties, Ukrainian military activists, workers, religious activists, students, entrepreneurs, public and cultural organizations such as the Ukrainian Science Society, the Ukrainian Pedagogic Society, the Society of Ukrainian Technicians and Agriculturists, etc.
Mykhailo Hrushevsky was elected as the Head of the Rada while Volodymyr Naumenko, Dmytro Doroshenko, and Dmytro Antonovych were appointed as his deputies. On March 22, 1917 the Rada published its first declaration - To the Ukrainian people - in support of the Russian Provisional Government. When Mykhailo Hrushevsky assumed his duties on March 27, 1917, the Rada became an acting center of the Ukrainian national movement. But straight after the convocation of the All-Ukrainian National Congress, the Rada transformed into a provisional parliament that consisted of 150 members elected from the Ukrainian political parties, professional and cultural organizations and delegates from the guberniyas. During the National Congress Hrushevsky was reelected as the chairman of the Rada, while the leaders of the most popular political parties Serhiy Yefremov and Volodymyr Vynnychenko were appointed as his deputies.
During the lifetime of the Central Rada nine plenary sessions took place - eight in 1917, one in 1918 - and one extended session of the Mala Rada. Prior to the First Ukrainian Universal the Central Rada was increased by 130 representatives that were delegated by the II Military Congress (June 23, 1917) and 133 members of the Peasants' Deputies Council who were elected at the I All-Ukrainian Peasants' Congress (June 15, 1917).
The Mala Rada (also called the Small, Little or Minor Council) was the Central Executive Committee of the Central Rada. It was created in June 1917 and consisted of 30 members; the members of the Council's presidium, secretaries of the Rada, and two representatives from each political block. The elected Chairman of the Small Council was Hrushevsky who also held the position in addition to his role as Chairman of the Central Rada. His deputies were Vynnychenko and Yefremov. All important matters were addressed at meetings of the Mala Rada in the first instance and later the designed projects were ratified at the plenum of the Central Rada.
After the declaration of autonomy (First Ukrainian Universal, 10 June 1917) the Central Rada elected the General Secretariat, an autonomous government of Ukraine consisting of eight secretariats. The Soviet Encyclopedia pointed to the fact that autonomy was declared in spite of the Provisional Government and then the Central Rada compromised and postponed the declaration until the convention of a Constituent Assembly. The Encyclopedia did not discuss the details and the factors upon which the Rada based its decision and described it as deceptive. While in fact the Russian Provisional Government and Alexander Kerensky, in particular issued the Instruktsiya on 16 July 1917 in which it recognized regional autonomy and the General Secretariat, although it declared substantial changes to the Rada's proposition and decided to "appoint as the supreme body of government of regional affairs in Ukraine a separate body, the General Secretariat, the composition of which will be determined in agreement with the Central Rada". According to the instruction the Secretariat was to be the representative body of the Provisional Government. Such a response disappointed Vynnychenko who protested it and dissolved his cabinet. After acknowledgment by the Central Rada of the Provisional Government Instruktsiya, it issued its Second Universal confirming the agreement between both governments. The composition of the Rada also was increased by 100 representatives elected at the I All-Ukrainian Workers' Congress (July 24–27, 1917) and other representatives of minorities.
The Soviet Encyclopedia also claims that the Rada took an aggressive opposition against the October Revolution as well as the Kiev Bolshevik Uprising. Then the Rada, by pulling towards Kiev the nationalist military units, overtook the government and on November 13 occupied the city. A week later it declared itself the supreme government of the UNR (the Soviet Encyclopedia here used the words so called) and established a strict terrorist regime. On 25 December 1917 the All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviet Ukraine declared the Rada illegitimate while its participants organized an parallel government to oppose it.
The Soviet Encyclopedia did not provide information that the Kiev Uprising took place with the collaboration of the Bolsheviks and other parties that were all part of the Rada, nor an unabridged account of events on November 13 and November 16.
By the end of July 1917 the Central Rada formally had 822 deputies (according to Pavlo Khrystiuk). Its members belonged to the following parties:
The Mala Rada was elected out of these 822 deputies with 58 members including 18 members of various national minorities. From the initiative of the Central Rada a congress of Russian nationalities took place in Kiev on 21–28 September 1917.
All members of the council were proclaimed outlaws by the Soviet government of Ukraine in December 1917 as part of a national-bourgeois government. On 29 January 1918 Bolshevist troops entered Kiev and declared a Soviet Coup d'etat. The Kiev garrison joined with the Soviets and deposed the Rada. Alexander Odoevsky attempted to form a new government but was arrested. The Bolsheviks established Kharkiv as the capital of the Soviets of the Ukraine.
Aleksandr Zolotarev was a Ukrainian politician, statesman and journalist.
Zolotaryov was born into a poor Jewish family. He graduated from the Law faculty of the Moscow State University. In 1898 for his revolutionary activity Zolotaryov was exiled to Kherson Governorate and later Poltava Governorate. In 1904 he emigrated to Austria-Hungary and returned in 1907. In 1915-17 Zolotarev worked in Moscow. In 1917 he returned to Kiev and became a member of the Central Council of Ukraine from Jewish Bund. Along with it Zolotarev was a member of the Kiev city Duma, All-Ukrainian council of workers' deputies and state controller for the General Secretariat of Ukraine.In November 1917 Zolotarev was appointed an emissary to Odessa. At the end of 1918 he joined Bolsheviks and became a member of the Council of People's Commissars of Ukraine.
Zolotarev fell victim of the Great Purge. On 25 October 1937 he was arrested and executed on 20 January 1938.All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets
The All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets (Ukrainian: Всеукраїнський з'їзд Рад, Russian: Всеукраинский съезд Советов) was the supreme governing body of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1917–22. From 1922 to 1938 the Constitution of the Ukrainian SSR designated after the 1918 Russian Constitution mandated that Congress to be convened at least twice a year. The 1926 Constitution (in correspondence to all Soviet constitutions) lowered the minimum to once a year.
In total there were 14 Congresses of Soviets that for the most of the time took place in Kharkiv. Importance in conducting the congress of Soviets advised the People's Commissar in Affairs of Nationalities of the Russian Sovnarkom Joseph Stalin in his recommendations to a representative of Central Committee of Ukrainian Social Democratic Labour Party Mykola Porsh and a member of the Kiev regional committee of RSDLP(b) Sergei Bakinsky on November 30, 1917. The congress was intended to replace the Central Council of Ukraine.Battle of Kiev (1918)
Battle of Kiev (1918) (Ukrainian: Штурм Києва (1918)) was a Bolshevik military operation of Petrograd and Moscow Red Guards formations directed to sack the capital of Ukraine. The operation led by Red Guards commander Mikhail Artemyevich Muravyov as part of the Soviet expeditionary force against Kaledin and the Central Council of Ukraine. The storming of Kiev took place during the ongoing peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk) on February 5–8, 1918 (January 23–26, old style). The operation resulted in occupation of the city by Bolsheviks troops and evacuation of the Ukrainian government to Zhytomyr.Borys Martos
Borys Mykolayovych Martos (May 20, 1879 – September 19, 1977) — Ukrainian politician, pedagogue, economist.Dmytro Antonovych
Dmytro Antonovych (14 November 1877, in Kiev – 12 October 1945, in Prague) was a Ukrainian politician and art historian.Dmytro Doroshenko
Dmytro Doroshenko (Ukrainian: Дмитро Іванович Дорошенко, Dmytro Ivanovych Doroshenko, Russian: Дми́трий Ива́нович Дороше́нко; 8 April 1882 – 19 March 1951) was a prominent Ukrainian political figure during the revolution of 1917–1918 and a leading Ukrainian emigre historian during the inter-war period. Doroshenko was a supporter of federal ties with the Russian Republic and a member of the Ukrainian Party of Socialist Federalists.General Secretariat of Ukraine
The General Secretariat of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Генеральний секретаріат УЦР—УНР) was the autonomous Ukrainian executive government of the Russian Republic from June 28, 1917 to January 22, 1918. For most of its existence it was headed by Volodymyr Vynnychenko.
The secretariat was created after the Central Council of Ukraine accepted a proposal of the Ukrainian Party of Socialist Revolutionaries. According to the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, the event took place five days after the proclamation of the 1st Universal of the Central Council of Ukraine, however many contemporary historians have other opinions in that regard. The initial composition of the secretariat included eight General Secretaries (ministers) and one General Scribe (secretary).Mieczysław Mickiewicz
Mieczysław Mickiewicz (1879 – before 1939) was a Ukrainian politician and lawyer of Polish descent, later a statesman of the Second Polish Republic.
Mieczysław Mickiewicz (Polish Democratic Central) served as the Deputy-Secretary of Polish Affairs in several cabinets of the Ukrainian People's Republic, also translated as the Ukrainian National Republic (UNR), headed by Volodymyr Vynnychenko (1917/1918).
Then he served as voivode of Volhynian Voivodeship, Poland, from February 22, 1922 until February 1, 1923.Mikhail Tugan-Baranovsky
Mikhail Ivanovich Tugan-Baranovsky (Ukrainian: Михайло Туган-Барановський, Mykhailo Ivanovych Tuhan-Baranovskyi) was a Ukrainian economist, politician, statesman. He is remembered as one of the founders of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and one of the earliest Ukrainian ministers of finances in the Vynnychenko's General Secretariat of the Central Council of Ukraine. In professional circles he is remembered as a leading exponent of Legal Marxism in the Tsarist Russian Empire and was the author of numerous works dealing with the theory of value, the distribution of a social revenue, history of managerial development, and fundamentals of cooperative managerial activities.Moisei Rafes
Moisei (Moishe) Grigorevich Rafes (Ukrainian: Моше Рафес, Russian: Моше Рафес, 1883–1942) was a prominent Jewish politician of the Ukrainian People's Republic as the Bundist representative. After 1919 he was an official of the Bolshevik Party until the victory of Joseph Stalin, when he was imprisoned.Rafes was a member of the 1917 Russian Constituent Assembly and also of the Central Council of Ukraine, the Petrograd Soviet, headed Jewish Bund in Kiev. In Kiev Rafes became a member of the Regional Committee in Protection of Revolution in Ukraine and served as the General Controller of the General Secretariat of Ukraine. He was succeeded at this post by another Bundist, Aleksandr Zolotarev.
When tensions within the Bund heightened, due to the pro-Bolshevik leaning of a part of the leadership, Moisei Rafes was the leader of the centrist wing of the Bund, while Mikhail Liber and Benjamin Kheifetz led the rightists.However, Rafes led the scissionist Kombund group in Kiev in February 1919, later joined by similar groups in Yekaterinoslav, Kharkov and Poltava, but the Kombund lasted only till May 1919, when it merged into the Ukrainian Communist Union, 'Komfarband'. These moves were apparently motivated by the large-scale pogroms committed by all the armies present in Ukraine at the time, except the Red Army. After the refusal of the Soviet authorities to authorize the formation of a distinct Jewish Communist Party, Rafes, like other former Bundists Esther Frumkin, Alexander Chemerinsky and Rakhmiel Veinshtain, finally joined the upper echelons of the Yevsektsiya, the Jewish section of the Soviet Communist party (CPSU).Moisei Rafes was at the head of the artistic section of Sovkino and a member of the Sovkino board in the late 1920s and through 1930.Mykhailo Hrushevsky
Mykhailo Serhiyovych Hrushevsky (Ukrainian: Михайло Сергійович Грушевський, Chełm, 29 September [O.S. 17 September] 1866 – Kislovodsk, 24 November 1934) was a Ukrainian academician, politician, historian, and statesman, one of the most important figures of the Ukrainian national revival of the early 20th century. He was the country's greatest modern historian, foremost organizer of scholarship, leader of the pre-revolution Ukrainian national movement, head of the Central Rada (Ukraine's 1917–1918 revolutionary parliament), and a leading cultural figure in Ukrainian SSR in the 1920s.Mykola Porsh
Mykola Volodymyrovych Porsh (Ukrainian: Микола Володимирович Порш) was a political and civil activist of Ukraine, economist, member of the Russian Constituent Assembly.
He was a prominent activist of the Revolutionary Ukrainian Party (de facto since 1903) and the Ukrainian Social Democratic Labor Party (since 1905). Porsh was an active member of the Central Council of Ukraine and a General Secretary (minister) of Labor and Military Affairs. Later he served as an ambassador to Germany.Mykola Vasylenko
Mykola Prokopovych Vasylenko (14 February 1866 – 3 October 1935) was a Ukrainian academician historian and law professor, important public and political figure. He was a temporary Otaman of Council of Ministers (Prime Minister of Ukraine), minister of Education, and director of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine).Teacher's House
The Kiev City Teacher's House (Ukrainian: Київський міський будинок учителя) is a historical building located at 57 Volodymyrska Street, in Kiev, Ukraine. The building is located next to the "Yellow Building"
of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv and the Presidium Building of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Currently it is mainly occupied by the Ukrainian Trade Union of workers of Education and Science in Kiev. It also houses the Pedagogical museum, the museum of Ukrainian Revolution (1917-1920), the State Pedagogical and Science Library of Sukhomlynsky, and the Cultural Center "Kyianochka". Both museums are located on the second floor.
The building was constructed during the Imperial era in 1909-1911 by Pavlo Alyoshyn.Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets
The Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets (1917–1918) was a short-lived Soviet republic of the Russian SFSR that was created by the declaration of the Kharkiv All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets "About the self-determination of Ukraine" on 25 December [O.S. 12 December] 1917 in the Noble Assembly building in Kharkiv. The republic was later united into the Ukrainian Soviet Republic and, eventually, liquidated, because of a cessation of support from the government of the Russian SFSR when the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed.Universals (Central Council of Ukraine)
Universals of the Central Council of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Універсали Української Центральної Ради) are legal acts-declarations issued by the Central Council of Ukraine in 1917-18. These documents marked the main stages of the development of the nascent Ukrainian state, from the proclamation of its autonomy to the declaration of full independence.Volodymyr Vynnychenko
Volodymyr Kyrylovych Vynnychenko (Ukrainian: Володимир Кирилович Винниченко, July 28 [O.S. July 16] 1880 – March 6, 1951) was a Ukrainian statesman, political activist, writer, playwright, artist, who served as 1st Prime Minister of Ukraine.As a writer, Vynnychenko is recognized in Ukrainian literature as a leading modernist writer in prerevolutionary Ukraine, who wrote short stories, novels, and plays, but in Soviet Ukraine his works were forbidden, like that of many other Ukrainian writers, from the 1930s until the mid-1980s. Prior to his entry onto the stage of Ukrainian politics, he was a long-time political activist, who lived abroad in Western Europe from 1906-1914. His works reflect his immersion in the Ukrainian revolutionary milieu, among impoverished and working-class people, and among emigres from the Russian Empire living in Western Europe.Vsevolod Holubovych
Vsevolod Oleksandrovych Holubovych (Ukrainian: Все́волод Олекса́ндрович Голубо́вич; Russian: Все́волод Алекса́ндрович Голубо́вич; February 1885 – 16 May 1939) was the Prime Minister of the Ukrainian People's Republic from January to March 1918.Yevhen Neronovych
Yevhen Neronovych (Ukrainian: Євген Васильович Неронович) (1888—25 March, 1918) was Ukrainian politician, Bolshevik activist, member of the Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviet government.
Modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution (1917–1920)
|Ukrainian national states|
|Crimean national states|