Central Catalan

Central Catalan (Catalan: català central; pronounced [kətəˈla sənˈtɾal]) is the Eastern Catalan dialect with the highest number of speakers, since it is commonly spoken in densely populated areas such as the whole Barcelona province, the eastern half of Tarragona province and most of the Girona province, except for it is northern part, where a transition to Northern Catalan begins.

This variety (when free of localisms from Barcelona, Tarragona or Girona) is perceived by most Catalans as the standard form in Catalonia. As such, it is the variety used in most written and audiovisual media, as well as in learning materials.

Empordanese Catalan

In Empordà region of Catalonia we could also distinguish an Empordanese subdialect. As evidenced in writings from the turn of the 19th century, by authors such as Joaquim Ruyra, differences with Barcelonese dialect were higher formerly than nowadays, for instance, regarding the usage of salat article. In the books of Ruyra there are signs of a clear state of diglossia: the more cultured figures, including the narrator, use the standard Barcelona dialect, whilst the local fishermen employ their own dialect.

Some of the differences are:

Hai, Fai, Vai etc. for Haig, Faig, Vaig (I have, I make, I go)

Mon, ton, son etc. for el meu, el teu, el seu (etc. (mine, yours, his) - these variations are not only restricted to the Empordanese Catalan, but are also in use, albeit not often, in Central Catalan; and are generally understood by all Central Catalan speakers.

Con and contes etc. for quan, quant and quantes. (when, which (m.sing, f.plur)

An inversion of the personal pronouns: me, te, se instead of em, et, es (me, you, him).

The use of a 3rd person subjunctive ending in u instead of i: llamp me matu for llamp em mati (strike me down, lit. lightning kill me).

Sebre for saber (to know) with irregular past participle (sapigut for sabut, known).

The Christian colonization of the Balearics was primarily done with settlers from this region and so both dialects share several similarities, most obviously the now practically extinct use of the salat article.

In addition, some synonyms are used more predominantly, for example capir, capieixo, for entendre, entenc (to understand, I understand) and testa for cap (head) which share a closer similarity to modern Italian (capire, capisco / testa) than Standard Catalan.

Text example

Excerpt from the Parable of the Prodigal Son extracted from the works of 19th-century linguist Manuel Milà i Fontanals, who wrote extensively about Catalan dialectal differences:

Central Catalan English
Un home només tenia dos fills. El més jove va dir al seu pare: «Ja és hora que sigui el meu propi amo i que tingui cèntims; me n'he [me n'haig] d'anar a veure món. Partiu la vostra herència i doneu-me el que em toqui».

«Ai, fill meu», va dir el pare, «com vulguis; ets un dolent i Déu et castigarà». I després va obrir un calaix, va partir la seva herència i va fer-ne [en va fer] dues parts.
Al cap d'uns quants dies, el dolent se'n va anar del poble molt tibat i sense dir adéu a ningú. Va travessar molta terra ferma, molts boscs i molts rius, i va arribar a una gran ciutat on [a on] va gastar tots els cèntims.

There once was a man with two sons. The younger said to his father: "Now it's time that I follow my own master and that I have money: I have to go out and see the world. Divide your goods and give me that which is my share."

"Oh, my son," said his father, "as you wish, you are a bad man and God will punish you." And afterwards he opened a small box, and divided everything he had into two parts.
Some days later, the bad young man went away from the village very proudly and without saying goodbye to anyone. He travelled through many desolate lands, many woods and many rivers, and he arrived at a big city where he spent all his money.

References

See also

Algherese dialect

Algherese (Standard Catalan: Alguerès, pronounced [əlɣəˈɾɛs]; Algherese: Alguerés [alɣaˈɾes]) is the variant of the Catalan language spoken in the city of Alghero (L'Alguer in Catalan), in the northwest of Sardinia, Italy. Catalan-speaking colonists repopulated the town and expelled the native population in 1372, after several revolts.Catalan was replaced as the official language by Spanish, then by Italian in the mid 18th century, but its use remained widespread until at least the 1970s. Today it has semi-official status alongside Italian.Based on additional linguistic studies, there are approximately 20,000 to 30,000 native speakers of the language worldwide. In communities where Algherese is spoken, Italian and Logudorese Sardinian are often used as well.

Alòs de Balaguer

Alòs de Balaguer is a municipality in the comarca of Noguera, in the province of Lleida, Catalonia, Spain.

Alòs de Balaguer has a very scant population. With such a small population, there is an average of 2.2 people per km2 and only 5.8 people per square mile. With only one vineyard, one restaurant and the Rio Segre river nearby. The Rio Segre is up to 50+ feet deep in some spots in the middle of the river.

In Alos de Balaguer, in the Segre sector, the watercourse leaves the normal North-South direction from the South Pyrenean river and heads towards the towns and bridges of Camarasa.

The river runs through, firstly, a sector composed of tertiary sediments. This comprises the northern margin of the Central Catalan Depression to be introduced later in the Pyrenees mountains. Outside through the narrow and deep gorge (Gorge wall) on the basis of Alos de Balaguer, it then goes back to the depression of the Ebro. From Ebro, it then stretches to Camarasa-Balaguer.

Balearic dialect

Balearic (Catalan: balear, IPA: [bələˈa]) is the collective name for the dialects of Catalan spoken in the Balearic Islands: mallorquí in Majorca, eivissenc in Ibiza, and menorquí in Menorca.

At the last census, 746,792 people in the Balearic Islands claimed to be able to speak Catalan, though some of these people may be speakers of mainland variants.

Catalan dialects

The dialects of the Catalan language feature a relative uniformity, especially when compared to other Romance languages; both in terms of vocabulary, semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology. Mutual intelligibility between its dialects is very high, estimates ranging from 90% to 95%. The only exception is the isolated idiosyncratic Alguerese dialect.

Catalan language

Catalan (; autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain. It is the only official language of Andorra, and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia (where the language is known as Valencian). It also has semi-official status in the Italian commune of Alghero. It is also spoken in the eastern strip of Aragon, in some villages of Region of Murcia called Carche and in the Pyrénées-Orientales department of France. These territories are often called Països Catalans or "Catalan Countries".

Catalan evolved from Vulgar Latin in the Middle Ages around the eastern Pyrenees. 19th-century Spain saw a Catalan literary revival, culminating in the early 1900s.

Catalan orthography

Catalan orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the Catalan language.

Catalan phonology

The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation. Although there are two standard dialects, one based on Eastern Catalan and one based on Valencian, this article deals with features of all or most dialects, as well as regional pronunciation differences. Various studies have focused on different Catalan varieties; for example, Wheeler (1979) and Mascaró (1976) analyze Central Eastern varieties, the former focusing on the educated speech of Barcelona and the latter focusing more on the vernacular of Barcelona, and Recasens (1986) does a careful phonetic study of Central Eastern Catalan.Catalan is characterized by final-obstruent devoicing, lenition, and voicing assimilation; a set of 7 or 8 phonemic vowels, vowel assimilations (including vowel harmony), many phonetic diphthongs, and vowel reduction, whose precise details differ between dialects. Several dialects have a dark l, and all dialects have palatal l (/ʎ/) and n (/ɲ/).

Catalan verbs

This article discusses the conjugation of verbs in a number of varieties of Catalan, including Old Catalan. Each verbal form is accompanied by its phonetic transcription. Widely used dialectal forms are included, even if they are not considered standard in either of the written norms: those of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans (based on central Catalan) and the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (based on common Valencian). Other dialectal forms exist, including those characteristic of minor dialects such as Ribagorçan and Algherese and transitional forms of major dialects (such as those spoken in the lower Ebro basin area around Tortosa and in the Empordà).

Catalans

The Catalans (Catalan, French and Occitan: catalans; Spanish: catalanes, Italian: catalani) are the citizens of Catalonia, an autonomous community in Spain and the inhabitants of the Roussillon historical region in southeast France, today the Pyrénées Orientales departments, also called Catalonia Nord and Pays Catalan in French.Some authors also extend the word "Catalans" to encompass the inhabitants of all the regions where Catalan language is spoken, namely those from Andorra, Valencia, the Balearic islands, eastern Aragon, Roussillon, and the city of Alghero in Sardinia. These territories are also known as the Països Catalans or "Catalan Countries".

Catalonia

Catalonia (; Catalan: Catalunya [kətəˈluɲə]; Aranese: Catalonha [kataˈluɲɔ]; Spanish: Cataluña [kataˈluɲa];) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia (with the remainder Roussillon now part of France's Pyrénées-Orientales, Occitanie). It is bordered by France (Occitanie) and Andorra (Andorra la Vella, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana and Sant Julià de Lòria) to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions. The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, and were later called Catalonia. In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, the lineages of the rulers of Catalonia and rulers of the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon, when the King of Aragon married his daughter to the Count of Barcelona. The de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese rulers in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts (parliament), and constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power, trade and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the later Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their kingdoms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation.

During the Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659), Catalonia revolted (1640–1652) against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being briefly proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army. Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia, mostly the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; following Catalan defeat on 11 September 1714, Philip V, inspired by the model of France imposed a unifying administration across Spain, enacting the Nueva Planta decrees, suppressing the main Catalan institutions and rights like in the other realms of the Crown of Aragon. This led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of government and literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended.

In the 19th century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second half of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, and with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government. After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational, environmental, and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence.

On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum. The Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others, including President Carles Puigdemont, fled to other European countries.

Iberian Romance languages

The Iberian Romance, Ibero-Romance or simply Iberian languages is an areal grouping of Romance languages that developed on the Iberian Peninsula, an area consisting primarily of Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra, and in southern France which are today more commonly separated into West Iberian and Occitano-Romance language groups.

Originating in Iberia, the most widely spoken Iberian Romance languages are Castilian (Spanish), Portuguese, Catalan and Galician. These languages also have their own regional and local dialects. Based on mutual intelligibility, Dalby counts seven "outer" languages, or language groups: Galician-Portuguese, Spanish, Astur-Leonese, "Wider"-Aragonese, "Wider"-Catalan, Provençal+Lengadocian, and "Wider"-Gascon.In addition to those languages, there are a number of Portuguese-based creole languages and Spanish-based creole languages, for instance Papiamento.

Igualada (Llobregat–Anoia Line)

Igualada is a railway station on the Llobregat–Anoia Line serving the city of the same name, in Catalonia, Spain. It is located adjacent to the bus station, in the southeastern part of town. The railway station is the northern terminus of the Igualada line branch and is served by commuter rail lines R6 and R60.

Although the current station opened in 1978, a narrow gauge railway line from Martorell, predecessor of the current line, had already been serving the city since 1893. In 2015, it was announced that the current at-grade station is to be put underground together with a 300-metre-long (980 ft) line portion, removing the only level crossing in town.

Languages of Iberia

Iberian languages is a generic term for the languages currently or formerly spoken in the Iberian Peninsula.

Les Borges Blanques

Les Borges Blanques (Catalan pronunciation: [ləz ˈβɔɾʒəz ˈβlaŋkəs]) is the capital of the comarca of Les Garrigues, in the province of Lleida, Catalonia, Spain. According to the 2014 census, the municipality has a population of 6,088 inhabitants.

Northern Catalan

Northern Catalan (Catalan: català septentrional, pronounced [kətəˈla səptəntɾiuˈnal], also known as rossellonès) is a Catalan dialect mostly spoken in Northern Catalonia, but also extending in the northeast part of Southern Catalonia in a transition zone with Central Catalan.

Like other Eastern Catalan dialects, unstressed /a/ and /e/ are realized as schwa [ə], and [u] substitutes unstressed /o/. It is has only five stressed vowel, the smallest number of any Catalan dialect: /i e a o u/.

There are some instances of historic stressed /o/ that has changed to /u/: canigó > canigú.

As in Balearic dialect, final a is not pronounced in words ending with ia if the stress is before the penultimate syllable.

Some subdialects keep the singular masculine definite article lo, as in North-Western Catalan and many varieties of Occitan.

Northern Catalan has a large body of words imported from French and Occitan. It also features some grammatical forms and structures that are typical of Occitan, such as the use of a lone post-verbal pas, rather than a lone preverbal no to express basic negation (Northern Catalan canti pas vs. Central Catalan no canto, 'I don't sing' or 'I'm not singing'); pas is also used in some other Catalan dialects for emphasis but always with no before the verb (Central Catalan no canto pas, 'I do not sing' or 'I am not singing').

Romance languages

The Romance languages (nowadays rarely Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries and that form a subgroup of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

Today, around 800 million people are native speakers worldwide, mainly in Europe, Africa, and the Americas, but also elsewhere. Additionally, the major Romance languages have many non-native speakers and are in widespread use as lingua francas. This is especially the case for French, which is in widespread use throughout Central and West Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, and the Maghreb.

The five most widely spoken Romance languages by number of native speakers are Spanish (470 million), Portuguese (250 million), French (150 million), Italian (90 million), and Romanian (25 million).Because of the difficulty of imposing boundaries on a continuum, various counts of the modern Romance languages are given; for example, Dalby lists 23 based on mutual intelligibility. The following, more extensive list, includes 35 current, living languages, and one recently extinct language, Dalmatian:

Ibero-Romance: Portuguese, Galician, Mirandese, Asturian, Leonese, Spanish (Castilian), Aragonese, Ladino (Judaeo-Spanish);

Occitano-Romance: Catalan/Valencian, Occitan (langue d'oc), Gascon;

Gallo-Romance: French/Oïl languages, Franco-Provençal (Arpitan);

Rhaeto-Romance: Romansh, Ladin, Friulian;

Gallo-Italic: Piedmontese, Ligurian, Lombard, Emilian-Romagnol;

Italo-Dalmatian: Italian, Tuscan and Corsican, Sassarese, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Dalmatian (extinct in 1898), Venetian, Istriot;

Sardinian;

Eastern Romance: Daco-Romanian, Istro-Romanian, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian.

Valencian

Valencian or Valencian language ( or ; endonym valencià, llengua valenciana or idioma valencià (Valencian pronunciation: [valensiˈa] or Valencian pronunciation: [vələnsiˈa])) is the historical, traditional and official name used in the Valencian Community (Spain), and extra-officially in the El Carche comarca in Murcia (Spain), for referring to the Romance language elsewhere called Catalan. It is considered the Valencian Community's own language according to the region's 1982 Statute of Autonomy and the Spanish Constitution.As a glottonym, it is used for referring either to the language as a whole or to the Valencian specific linguistic forms.. According to philological studies, the varieties of this language spoken in the Valencian Community and El Carche cannot be considered a dialect restricted to these borders: the several dialects of Valencian (Alicante's Valencian, Southern Valencian, Central Valencian or Apitxat, Castellón's Valencian and transitional Valencian) belong to the Western group of Catalan dialects. Valencian displays transitional features between Ibero-Romance languages and Gallo-Romance languages. Its similarity with Occitan has led many authors to group it under the Occitano-Romance languages.

There is a controversy within the Valencian Community regarding its status as a glottonym or as a language on its own since it's considered as well different and a separate language from Catalan by a majority of the people of the Valencian Community. According to the 2006 Statute of Autonomy Valencian is regulated by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, by means of the Normes de Castelló. Due to not having been officially recognized for a long time, the number of speakers has severely decreased, and the influence of Spanish has led to the adoption of a huge amount of loanwords. Some of the most important works of Valencian literature experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, and Ausiàs March's poetry. The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor (1475).

Vowel reduction

In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for the Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening". It most often makes the vowels shorter as well.

Such a vowel may be called reduced or weak. In contrast, an unreduced vowel may be described as full or strong.

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