Central Africa

Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda. Middle Africa (as used by the United Nations when categorizing geographic subregions) is an analogous term that includes Angola, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, and São Tomé and Príncipe.[1] All of the states in the UN subregion of Middle Africa, plus those otherwise commonly reckoned in Central Africa (11 states in total), constitute the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS).[2] Since its independence in 2011, South Sudan has also been commonly included in the region.[3][4]

LocationCentralMiddleAfrica
  Central Africa
  Middle Africa (UN subregion)
This video over Central Africa and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the International Space Station in October 2011

List of Central African countries

Region Country
Central Africa  Angola
 Cameroon
 Central African Republic
 Chad
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Equatorial Guinea
 Gabon
 Republic of the Congo
 São Tomé and Príncipe

Background

Mapa CEEAC
Membership of ECCAS

The Central African Federation (1953–1963), also called the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, was made up of what are now the nations of Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Similarly, the Anglican Church of the Province of Central Africa covers dioceses in Botswana, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, while the Church of Central Africa, Presbyterian has synods in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. These states are now typically considered part of East or Southern Africa.[5]

Geography

The basin of Lake Chad has historically been ecologically significant to the populations of Central Africa, with the Lake Chad Basin Commission serving as an important supra-regional organization in Central Africa.

History

Prehistory

Archeological finds in Central Africa have been discovered dating back over 100,000 years.[6] According to Zangato and Holl, there is evidence of iron-smelting in the Central African Republic and Cameroon that may date back to 3000 to 2500 BCE.[7] Extensive walled settlements have recently been found in Northeast Nigeria, approximately 60 km (37 mi) southwest of Lake Chad dating to the first millennium BCE.[8][9]

Trade and improved agricultural techniques supported more sophisticated societies, leading to the early civilizations of Sao, Kanem, Bornu, Shilluk, Baguirmi, and Wadai.[10]

Around 1000 BCE, Bantu migrants had reached the Great Lakes Region in Central Africa. Halfway through the first millennium BCE, the Bantu had also settled as far south as what is now Angola.

Ancient history

Sao civilization

The Sao civilization flourished from ca. the sixth century BCE to as late as the sixteenth century CE in northern Central Africa. The Sao lived by the Chari River south of Lake Chad in territory that later became part of Cameroon and Chad. They are the earliest people to have left clear traces of their presence in the territory of modern Cameroon. Today, several ethnic groups of northern Cameroon and southern Chad but particularly the Sara people claim descent from the civilization of the Sao. Sao artifacts show that they were skilled workers in bronze, copper, and iron.[11] Finds include bronze sculptures and terra cotta statues of human and animal figures, coins, funerary urns, household utensils, jewelry, highly decorated pottery, and spears.[12] The largest Sao archaeological finds have been made south of Lake Chad.

Note: BCE is the same as BC and CE is the same as AD.

Kanem Empire

Borno in 1810
The Kanem and Bornu Empires in 1810

The Kanem-Bornu Empire was centered in the Chad Basin. It was known as the Kanem Empire from the 9th century CE onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu until 1900. At its height it encompassed an area covering not only much of Chad, but also parts of modern southern Libya, eastern Niger, northeastern Nigeria, northern Cameroon, parts of South Sudan and the Central African Republic. The history of the Empire is mainly known from the Royal Chronicle or Girgam discovered in 1851 by the German traveller Heinrich Barth.[13] Kanem rose in the 8th century in the region to the north and east of Lake Chad. The Kanem empire went into decline, shrank, and in the 14th century was defeated by Bilala invaders from the Lake Fitri region.[14]

Bornu Empire

The Kanuri people led by the Sayfuwa migrated to the west and south of the lake, where they established the Bornu Empire. By the late 16th century the Bornu empire had expanded and recaptured the parts of Kanem that had been conquered by the Bulala.[15] Satellite states of Bornu included the Damagaram in the west and Baguirmi to the southeast of Lake Chad.

Shilluk Kingdom

The Shilluk Kingdom was centered in South Sudan from the 15th century from along a strip of land along the western bank of White Nile, from Lake No to about 12° north latitude. The capital and royal residence was in the town of Fashoda. The kingdom was founded during the mid-fifteenth century CE by its first ruler, Nyikang. During the nineteenth century, the Shilluk Kingdom faced decline following military assaults from the Ottoman Empire and later British and Sudanese colonization in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

Baguirmi Kingdom

The Kingdom of Baguirmi existed as an independent state during the 16th and 17th centuries southeast of Lake Chad in what is now the country of Chad. Baguirmi emerged to the southeast of the Kanem-Bornu Empire. The kingdom's first ruler was Mbang Birni Besse. Later in his reign, the Bornu Empire conquered and made the state a tributary.

Wadai Empire

La ville d'Abéché, vue du poste Français
Abéché, capital of Wadai, in 1918 after the French had taken over

The Wadai Empire was centered on Chad and the Central African Republic from the 17th century. The Tunjur people founded the Wadai Kingdom to the east of Bornu in the 16th century. In the 17th century there was a revolt of the Maba people who established a Muslim dynasty. At first Wadai paid tribute to Bornu and Durfur, but by the 18th century Wadai was fully independent and had become an aggressor against its neighbors.[10]

Lunda Empire

Lunda houses-1854
Lunda town and dwelling

Following the Bantu Migration from Western Africa, Bantu kingdomes and empires began to develop in southern Central Africa. In the 1450s, a Luba from the royal family Ilunga Tshibinda married Lunda queen Rweej and united all Lunda peoples. Their son Mulopwe Luseeng expanded the kingdom. His son Naweej expanded the empire further and is known as the first Lunda emperor, with the title Mwata Yamvo (mwaant yaav, mwant yav), the "Lord of Vipers". The Luba political system was retained, and conquered peoples were integrated into the system. The mwata yamvo assigned a cilool or kilolo (royal adviser) and tax collector to each state conquered.[16][17]

Numerous states claimed descent from the Lunda. The Imbangala of inland Angola claimed descent from a founder, Kinguri, brother of Queen Rweej, who could not tolerate the rule of mulopwe Tshibunda. Kinguri became the title of kings of states founded by Queen Rweej's brother. The Luena (Lwena) and Lozi (Luyani) in Zambia also claim descent from Kinguri. During the 17th century, a Lunda chief and warrior called Mwata Kazembe set up an Eastern Lunda kingdom in the valley of the Luapula River. The Lunda's western expansion also saw claims of descent by the Yaka and the Pende. The Lunda linked Central Africa with the western coast trade. The kingdom of Lunda came to an end in the 19th century when it was invaded by the Chokwe, who were armed with guns.[17][18]

Kongo Kingdom

KingdomKongo1711
Kongo in 1711

By the 15th century CE, the farming Bakongo people (ba being the plural prefix) were unified as the Kingdom of Kongo under a ruler called the manikongo, residing in the fertile Pool Malebo area on the lower Congo River. The capital was M'banza-Kongo. With superior organization, they were able to conquer their neighbors and extract tribute. They were experts in metalwork, pottery, and weaving raffia cloth. They stimulated interregional trade via a tribute system controlled by the manikongo. Later, maize (corn) and cassava (manioc) would be introduced to the region via trade with the Portuguese at their ports at Luanda and Benguela. The maize and cassava would result in population growth in the region and other parts of Africa, replacing millet as a main staple.

By the 16th century, the manikongo held authority from the Atlantic in the west to the Kwango River in the east. Each territory was assigned a mani-mpembe (provincial governor) by the manikongo. In 1506, Afonso I (1506–1542), a Christian, took over the throne. Slave trading increased with Afonso's wars of conquest. About 1568 to 1569, the Jaga invaded Kongo, laying waste to the kingdom and forcing the manikongo into exile. In 1574, Manikongo Álvaro I was reinstated with the help of Portuguese mercenaries. During the latter part of the 1660s, the Portuguese tried to gain control of Kongo. Manikongo António I (1661–1665), with a Kongolese army of 5,000, was destroyed by an army of Afro-Portuguese at the Battle of Mbwila. The empire dissolved into petty polities, fighting among each other for war captives to sell into slavery.[19][20][21]

Kongo gained captives from the Kingdom of Ndongo in wars of conquest. Ndongo was ruled by the ngola. Ndongo would also engage in slave trading with the Portuguese, with São Tomé being a transit point to Brazil. The kingdom was not as welcoming as Kongo; it viewed the Portuguese with great suspicion and as an enemy. The Portuguese in the latter part of the 16th century tried to gain control of Ndongo but were defeated by the Mbundu. Ndongo experienced depopulation from slave raiding. The leaders established another state at Matamba, affiliated with Queen Nzinga, who put up a strong resistance to the Portuguese until coming to terms with them. The Portuguese settled along the coast as trade dealers, not venturing on conquest of the interior. Slavery wreaked havoc in the interior, with states initiating wars of conquest for captives. The Imbangala formed the slave-raiding state of Kasanje, a major source of slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries.[22][23]

Modern history

A journey to Ashango-Land, and further penetration into equatorial Africa (1874) (14594947249)
French explorer Paul Du Chaillu confirmed the existence of Pygmy peoples of central Africa

During the Conference of Berlin in 1884-85 Africa was divided up between the European colonial powers, defining boundaries that are largely intact with today's post-colonial states.[24]On 5 August 1890 the British and French concluded an agreement to clarify the boundary between French West Africa and what would become Nigeria. A boundary was agreed along a line from Say on the Niger to Barruwa on Lake Chad, but leaving the Sokoto Caliphate in the British sphere.[25] Parfait-Louis Monteil was given charge of an expedition to discover where this line actually ran.[26] On 9 April 1892 he reached Kukawa on the shore of the lake.[27] Over the next twenty years a large part of the Chad Basin was incorporated by treaty or by force into French West Africa. On 2 June 1909, the Wadai capital of Abéché was occupied by the French.[28] The remainder of the basin was divided by the British in Nigeria who took Kano in 1903,[29] and the Germans in Cameroon. The countries of the basin regained their independence between 1956 and 1962, retaining the colonial administrative boundaries.

In 2011, South Sudan gained its independence from the Republic of Sudan after over 50 years of war. In the 21st century, many jihadist and Islamist groups began to operate in the Central African region, including the Seleka and the Ansaru.

Economy

Fishing In Maridi
Fishing in Central Africa

The main economic activities of Central Africa are farming, herding and fishing. At least 40% of the rural population of northern and eastern Central Africa lives in poverty and routinely face chronic food shortages.[30] Crop production based on rain is possible only in the southern belt. Flood recession agriculture is practiced around Lake Chad and in the riverine wetlands.[31]Nomadic herders migrate with their animals into the grasslands of the northern part of the basin for a few weeks during each short rainy season, where they intensively graze the highly nutritious grasses. When the dry season starts they move back south, either to grazing lands around the lakes and floodplains, or to the savannas further to the south.[32]

In the 2000-01 period, fisheries in the Lake Chad basin provided food and income to more than 10 million people, with a harvest of about 70,000 tons.[30] Fisheries have traditionally been managed by a system where each village has recognized rights over a defined part of the river, wetland or lake, and fishers from elsewhere must seek permission and pay a fee to use this area. The governments only enforced rules and regulations to a limited extent.[33] Local governments and traditional authorities are increasingly engaged in rent-seeking, collecting license fees with the help of the police or army.[34]

Oil is also a major export of the countries of northern and eastern Central Africa, notably making up a large proportion of the GDPs of Chad and South Sudan.

Demographics

UN Macroregion Central Africa
UN Macroregion of Central Africa

Following the Bantu Migration, Central Africa is primarily inhabited by Bantu peoples and Bantu languages predominate. These include the Mongo, Kongo and Luba peoples. Central Africa also includes many Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo Ubangian communities: in north western Central Africa the Nilo-Saharan Kanuri[35][36] predominate. Most of the Ubangian speakers in Africa (often grouped with Niger-Congo) are also found in Central Africa, such as the Gbaya,[37] Banda[37] and Zande,[3][37] in northern Central Africa.

Notable Central African supra-regional organizations include the Lake Chad Basin Commission and the Economic Community of Central African States.

The predominant religions of Central Africa and Christianity and traditional faiths. Islam is also practiced in some areas in Chad and the Central African Republic.

Name Capital Currency Official languages Area (km2) Population (2016)[38]
 Angola[39] Luanda Kwanza Portuguese 1,246,700 28,813,463
 Cameroon[40] Yaoundé Central African CFA franc French, English 475,442 23,439,189
 Central African Republic[37] Bangui Central African CFA franc Sango, French 622,984 4,594,621
 Chad[36] N'Djamena Central African CFA franc French, Arabic 1,284,000 14,452,543
 Democratic Republic of the Congo[41] Kinshasa Congolese franc French 2,344,858 78,736,153
 Republic of the Congo[42] Brazzaville Central African CFA franc French 342,000 5,125,821
 Equatorial Guinea[43] Malabo Central African CFA franc Spanish, Portuguese, French 28,051 1,221,490
 Gabon[44] Libreville Central African CFA franc French 267,668 1,979,786
 São Tomé and Príncipe[45] São Tomé São Tomé and Príncipe Dobra Portuguese 964 199,910

Culture

Tambour fom-Babanki-Cameroun
Art from Cameroon

Due to common historical processes and widespread demographic movements between the countries of Central Africa before the Bantu Migration into much of southern Central Africa, the cultures of the region evidence many similarities and interrelationships. Similar cultural practices stemming from common origins as largely Nilo-Saharan or Bantu peoples is also evident in Central Africa including in music, dance, art, body adornment, initiation and marriage rituals.

Some major ethnic groups in Central Africa are as follows:

Name Family Language Region Country Population (million) Notes
Sara Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic Sara Chad Basin Chad,[36] Cameroon,[46] Central African Republic[47] 3.5
Gbaya Niger-Congo, Ubangian Gbaya language Chad Basin Central African Republic[37] 1.5
Zande Niger–Congo, Ubangian Zande Chad Basin South Sudan,[3] Central African Republic,[37] Democratic Republic of Congo 1-4
Kanuri Nilo-Saharan, Western Saharan Kanuri Chad Basin Eastern Nigeria,[35] Niger,[48] Cameroon,[49] Chad[36] 10
Banda Niger-Congo, Ubangian Banda language Chad Basin Central African Republic[37] 1.5
Luba Niger-Congo, Bantu Luba language Sub-Equatorial Democratic Republic of Congo 10-15
Mongo Niger-Congo, Bantu Mongo language Sub-Equatorial Democratic Republic of Congo 10-15
Kongo Niger-Congo, Bantu Kongo language Sub-Equatorial Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Republic of Congo 10

See also

References

  1. ^ "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings". United Nations. 2013-10-31. Retrieved 2015-01-28.
  2. ^ "Economic Community of Central African States". Africa-Union.org. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-12-14. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
  3. ^ a b c "The World Factbook: South Sudan". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
  4. ^ http://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2013/12/24/US-Marines-poised-to-enter-South-Sudan/UPI-73481387863000/: "Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon requested the surge in U.N. peacekeepers, saying the troops would be used to help protect tens of thousands of civilians under siege in the landlocked 2-year-old Middle Africa nation."
  5. ^ "The Central African Federation". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-16.
  6. ^ Philippe Lavachery et al., Komé-Kribi: Rescue Archaeology Along the Chad-Cameroon Oil Pipeline (2012), ISBN 3937248285
  7. ^ Zangato, É.; Holl, A. F. C. (2010). "On the Iron Front: New Evidence from North-Central Africa". Journal of African Archaeology. 8 (1): 7–23. doi:10.3213/1612-1651-10153.
  8. ^ J. Cameron Monroe, Akinwumi Ogundiran, Power and Landscape in Atlantic West Africa: Archeological Perspectives, p. 316, ISBN 1107009391, citing Magnavita 2004; Magnavita et al. 2004, 2006; Magnavita and Schleifer 2004.
  9. ^ Peter Mitchell et al., The Oxford Handbook of African Archeology (2013), p. 855: "The relatively recent discovery of extensive walled settlements at the transition from the Neolithic to the Early Iron Age in the Chad Basin (Magnavita et al., 2006) indicates what enormous sites and processes may still await recognition."
  10. ^ a b Appiah & Gates 2010, p. 254.
  11. ^ Fanso 19.
  12. ^ Fanso 19; Hudgens and Trillo 1051.
  13. ^ Barth, Travels, II, 16–17.
  14. ^ Falola 2008, p. 26.
  15. ^ Falola 2008, p. 27.
  16. ^ Shillington (2005), p. 141.
  17. ^ a b Davidson (1991), p. 161.
  18. ^ Shillington (2005), p. 139, 141.
  19. ^ Collins and Burns (2007), pp. 185–188
  20. ^ Shillington (2005), p. 196–198
  21. ^ Davidson (1991), pp. 156–157
  22. ^ Shillington (2005), p. 198, 199.
  23. ^ Davidson (1991), p. 158.
  24. ^ Harlow 2003, p. 139.
  25. ^ Hirshfield 1979, p. 26.
  26. ^ Hirshfield 1979, p. 37-38.
  27. ^ Lengyel 2007, p. 170.
  28. ^ Mazenot 2005, p. 352.
  29. ^ Falola 2008, p. 105.
  30. ^ a b Kenmore 2004, p. 220.
  31. ^ Rangeley, Thiam & Anderson 1994, p. 49.
  32. ^ Kenmore 2004, p. 230.
  33. ^ Kenmore 2004, p. 215.
  34. ^ Kenmore 2004, p. 218.
  35. ^ a b "The World Factbook: Nigeria". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
  36. ^ a b c d "The World Factbook: Chad". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 2013-04-24. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g "The World Factbook: Central African Republic". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
  38. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  39. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
  40. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
  41. ^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  42. ^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  43. ^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  44. ^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  45. ^ "The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  46. ^ Stefan Goodwin, Africas Legacies Of Urbanization (2006), p. 191, https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0739133489:"...and further west the even more numerous Sara [western Central African Republic, southern Chad, and northern Cameroon."
  47. ^ Peoples of Africa: Burkina Faso-Comoros - Volume 2 (2001), p. 86, https://books.google.com/books?isbn=076147160X:"The Central African Republic is a land of many different peoples... The Sara (SAHR) live in the grain-growing lands of the north as well as across the border in Chad."
  48. ^ "The World Factbook: Niger". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.
  49. ^ "The World Factbook: Cameroon". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2013-12-31.

External links

African cuisine

Traditionally, the various cuisines of Africa use a combination of locally available fruits such as, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products, and do not usually have food imported. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features an abundance of milk, curd and whey products.Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa and West Africa each have distinctive dishes, preparation techniques, and consumption mores.

British Central Africa Protectorate

The British Central Africa Protectorate (BCA) was a protectorate proclaimed in 1889 and ratified in 1891 that occupied the same area as present-day Malawi: it was renamed Nyasaland in 1907. British interest in the area arose from visits made by David Livingstone from 1858 onward during his exploration of the Zambezi area. This encouraged missionary activity starting in the 1860s, undertaken by the Universities' Mission to Central Africa, the Church of Scotland and the Free Church of Scotland followed by a small number of settlers. The Portuguese government attempted to claim much of this area, but their claims were disputed by the British government. To forestall a Portuguese expedition claiming effective occupation, a protectorate was proclaimed, first over the south of this area, then over the whole of it in 1889. After negotiations with the Portuguese and German governments on its boundaries, the protectorate was formally ratified by the British government in May, 1891.

CECAFA

The Council for East and Central Africa Football Associations (French: Conseil des Associations de Football d'Afrique de l'Est et Centrale, Arabic: مؤتمر جمعيات شرق ووسط أفريقيا لكرة القدم‎; officially abbreviated as CECAFA) is an association of the football playing nations in East and Central Africa. An affiliate of the Confederation of African Football (CAF), it is the oldest sub-regional football organisation on the continent.

Central Africa Time

Central Africa Time, or CAT, is a time zone used in central and southern Africa. Central Africa Time is two hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+02:00), which is the same as the adjacent South Africa Standard Time and Eastern European Time.

As this time zone is in the equatorial and tropical regions, there is little change in day length throughout the year, and so daylight saving time is not observed.

Central Africa Time is observed by the following countries:

Burundi

Botswana

Democratic Republic of the Congo (eastern side only)

Malawi

Mozambique

Namibia

Rwanda

Sudan

Zambia

ZimbabweThe following countries in Africa also use an offset of UTC+02:00 all-year round:

Egypt (observes Eastern European Time)

Libya (observes Eastern European Time)

Lesotho (observes South African Standard Time)

South Africa (observes South African Standard Time)

Eswatini (observes South African Standard Time)

Central African Division I Basketball League

The Central African Division I Basketball League is the highest professional basketball league in the Central African Republic.

Central African Empire

The Central African Empire (French: Empire centrafricain) was a short-lived one-party absolute monarchy, that replaced the Central African Republic and was, in turn, replaced by the restoration of the Republic. The empire was formed by and under the command of Jean-Bédel Bokassa, military dictator and President of the Republic, who declared himself Bokassa I, Emperor of the Empire, on 4 December 1976.

Bokassa spent the equivalent of over 20 million United States dollars, a third of the country's government annual income, on his coronation ceremony. The monarchy was abolished and the name "Central African Republic" was restored on 21 September 1979, when Bokassa was ousted with French support. His palace was neglected.

Central African Republic

The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; French: République centrafricaine pronounced [ʁepyblik sɑ̃tʁafʁikɛn], or Centrafrique [sɑ̃tʁafʁik]) is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest and Cameroon to the west. The CAR covers a land area of about 620,000 square kilometres (240,000 sq mi) and had an estimated population of around 4.6 million as of 2016. Currently, the C.A.R. is the scene of a civil war, ongoing since 2012.

Most of the CAR consists of Sudano-Guinean savannas, but the country also includes a Sahelo-Sudanian zone in the north and an equatorial forest zone in the south. Two thirds of the country is within the Ubangi River basin (which flows into the Congo), while the remaining third lies in the basin of the Chari, which flows into Lake Chad.

What is today the Central African Republic has been inhabited for millennia; however, the country's current borders were established by France, which ruled the country as a colony starting in the late 19th century. After gaining independence from France in 1960, the Central African Republic was ruled by a series of autocratic leaders, including an abortive attempt at a monarchy; by the 1990s, calls for democracy led to the first multi-party democratic elections in 1993. Ange-Félix Patassé became president, but was later removed by General François Bozizé in the 2003 coup. The Central African Republic Bush War began in 2004 and, despite a peace treaty in 2007 and another in 2011, civil war resumed in 2012, still ongoing.

Despite its significant mineral deposits and other resources, such as uranium reserves, crude oil, gold, diamonds, cobalt, lumber, and hydropower, as well as significant quantities of arable land, the Central African Republic is among the ten poorest countries in the world, with the lowest GDP per capita at purchasing power parity in the world as of 2017. As of 2015, according to the Human Development Index (HDI), the country had the lowest level of human development, ranking 188th out of 188 countries. It is also estimated to be the unhealthiest country as well as the worst country in which to be young. The Central African Republic is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of Central African States, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie and the Non-Aligned Movement.

Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+01:00) during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+02:00, which makes it the same as Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.

East-Central Africa Division of Seventh-day Adventists

The East-Central Africa Division of Seventh-day Adventists is a sub-entity of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, which oversees the Church's work in portions of Africa, which includes the nations of Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Its headquarters is in Nairobi, Kenya. The Division membership as of June 30, 2018 is 3,968,772.

Economic Community of Central African States

The Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS; French: Communauté Économique des États de l'Afrique Centrale, CEEAC; Spanish: Comunidad Económica de los Estados de África Central, CEEAC; Portuguese: Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Central, CEEAC) is an Economic Community of the African Union for promotion of regional economic co-operation in Central Africa. It "aims to achieve collective autonomy, raise the standard of living of its populations and maintain economic stability through harmonious cooperation".

Equatorial Africa

Equatorial Africa is an ambiguous term that sometimes is used to refer to tropical Africa, or the equatorial region of Sub-Saharan Africa traversed by the Equator.

French Equatorial Africa

French Equatorial Africa (French: Afrique équatoriale française), or the AEF, was the federation of French colonial possessions in Equatorial Africa, extending northwards from the Congo River into the Sahel, and comprising what are today the countries of Chad, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon.

List of ethnic groups of Africa

The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, with each population generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture. The ethnolinguistic groups include various Afroasiatic, Khoisan, Niger-Congo and Nilo-Saharan populations.

The official population count of the various ethnic groups in Africa is highly uncertain, both due to limited infrastructure to perform censuses and due to the rapid population growth. There have also been accusations of deliberate misreporting in order to give selected ethnicities numerical superiority (as in the case of Nigeria's Hausa, Fulani, Yoruba and Igbo people).A 2009 genetic clustering study, which genotyped 1327 polymorphic markers in various African populations, identified six ancestral clusters. The clustering corresponded closely with ethnicity, culture and language. A 2018 whole genome sequencing study of the world's populations observed similar clusters among the populations in Africa. At K=9, distinct ancestral components defined the Afrosiatic-speaking populations inhabiting North Africa and Northeast Africa; the Nilo-Saharan-speaking populations in Northeast Africa and East Africa; the Ari populations in Northeast Africa; the Niger-Congo-speaking populations in West-Central Africa, West Africa, East Africa and Southern Africa; the Pygmy populations in Central Africa; and the Khoisan populations in Southern Africa.

List of heads of state of the Central African Republic

The following is a complete list of heads of state of the Central African Republic and the Central African Empire. There have been seven heads of state in the history of the Central African Republic and the Central African Empire since independence was obtained from the French on 13 August 1960. This list includes not only those persons who were sworn into office as President of the Central African Republic but also those who served as de facto heads of state.

Jean-Bédel Bokassa served as a de facto head of state (and also reigned as Emperor from 1976–1979), while David Dacko (who served as de facto head of state from 1979–1981), André Kolingba, Ange-Félix Patassé, and François Bozizé were elected into office at some point during their tenure. To date, Kolingba is the only former head of state of the Central African Republic to voluntarily step down from the office through a democratic process, following the 1993 general election.

The current President of the Central African Republic is Faustin-Archange Touadéra, since 30 March 2016.

List of regions of Africa

The continent of Africa is commonly divided into five regions or subregions, four of which are in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Michel Louette

Michel Louette is a Belgian ornithologist and author. He is the head of the Department of Ornithology at the Royal Museum for Central Africa, in Tervuren, Belgium. He has described five bird species new to science: three from the Democratic Republic of Congo, one from Liberia and one from the Comoros archipelago. Louette has written several books on ornithology including The Birds of Katanga published in 2010 by the Royal Museum for Central Africa.

Northern Rhodesia

Northern Rhodesia was a protectorate in south central Africa, formed in 1911 by amalgamating the two earlier protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia. It was initially administered, as were the two earlier protectorates, by the British South Africa Company (BSAC), a chartered company on behalf of the British Government. From 1924 it was administered by the British Government as a protectorate under similar conditions to other British-administered protectorates, and the special provisions required when it was administered by BSAC were terminated.

Although under the BSAC charter it had features of a charter colony, the BSAC's treaties with local rulers and British legislation gave it the status of a protectorate. The territory attracted a relatively small number of European settlers, but from the time these first secured political representation, they agitated for white minority rule, either as a separate entity or associated with Southern Rhodesia and possibly Nyasaland. The mineral wealth of Northern Rhodesia made full amalgamation attractive to Southern Rhodesian politicians, but the British Government preferred a looser association to include Nyasaland. This was intended to protect Africans in Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland from discriminatory Southern Rhodesian laws. The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland formed in 1953 was intensely unpopular among the vast African majority and its formation hastened calls for majority rule. As a result of this pressure, the country became independent in 1964 as Zambia.The geographical, as opposed to political, term "Rhodesia" referred to a region generally comprising the areas that are today Zambia and Zimbabwe. From 1964, it only referred to the former Southern Rhodesia.

West-Central Africa Division of Seventh-day Adventists

The West-Central Africa Division of Seventh-day Adventists is a sub-entity of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, which coordinates the Church's operations in 22 African countries, which include Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. Its headquarters is in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

This division was established in 2003. According to the 2018 Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook, the division includes 4,444 churches with a membership of 804,547 at the end of June.

West Africa Time

West Africa Time, or WAT, is a time zone used in west-central Africa; with countries west of Benin instead using Greenwich Mean Time (GMT; equivalent to UTC with no offset). West Africa Time is one hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+01), which makes it the same as Central European Time (CET) during winter, or Western European Summer Time (WEST) and British Summer Time (BST) during the summer.

As most of this time zone is in the tropical region, there is little change in day length throughout the year, so daylight saving time is not observed.

West Africa Time is used by the following countries:

Algeria (as Central European Time)

Angola

Benin

Chad

Cameroon

Central African Republic

Democratic Republic of the Congo (western side only)

Equatorial Guinea

Gabon

Morocco (as Central European Time)

Niger

Nigeria

Republic of the Congo

Tunisia (as Central European Time)

Western Sahara (as Central European Time)

Earth's primary regions

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