Center for Strategic and International Studies

The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a think tank based in Washington, D.C., in the United States.[5] CSIS was founded as the "Center for Strategic and International Studies" of Georgetown University in 1962. The center conducts policy studies and strategic analyses of political, economic and security issues throughout the world, with a specific focus on issues concerning international relations, trade, technology, finance, energy and geostrategy.[6]

In the University of Pennsylvania's 2017 Global Go To Think Tanks Report, CSIS is ranked the number one think tank in the world for "Top Defense and National Security Think Tanks (Table 14)", the number two think think in the United States across all fields (table 7), and was also ranked as the 4th best think tank for "Think Tanks with the Most Innovative Policy Ideas/Proposals (Table 45)." [7] CSIS has been named the number one think tank for Defense and National Security for the past seven years.

Since its founding, CSIS "has been dedicated to finding ways to sustain American prominence and prosperity as a force for good in the world," according to its website.[8] CSIS is officially a bipartisan think tank with scholars that represent varying points of view across the political spectrum. The think tank is known for inviting well-known foreign policy and public service officials from the U.S. Congress and the executive branch including those affiliated with either the Democratic or the Republican Party as well as foreign officials of varying political backgrounds. It has been labeled a "centrist" think tank by U.S. News & World Report.[9]

The center hosts the Statesmen's Forum, a bipartisan venue for international leaders to present their views. Past speakers have included UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon and National Security Advisor Tom Donilon.[10] The center also conducts the CSIS-Schieffer School Dialogues, a series of discussions hosted by Bob Schieffer, of CBS News, in addition to the Global Security Forum, with keynote addresses by Defense Department officials including former Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel.[11]

Center for Strategic and International Studies
CSIS logo blue
AbbreviationCSIS
MottoProviding strategic insights and bipartisan policy solutions to decisionmakers
Formation1962
TypeForeign policy think tank
52-1501082[1]
Legal status501(c)(3) nonprofit organization[2]
Headquarters1616 Rhode Island Avenue NW
Location
Coordinates38°54′07″N 77°02′31″W / 38.90194°N 77.04194°WCoordinates: 38°54′07″N 77°02′31″W / 38.90194°N 77.04194°W
John J. Hamre[3]
Thomas J. Pritzker[4]
AffiliationsGeorgetown University (1962–1987)
Revenue (2014)
$43,431,720[1]
Expenses (2014)$38,935,803[1]
Endowment$12,522,632[1]
Employees (2014)
354[1]
Volunteers (2014)
274[1]
WebsiteCSIS.org

Leadership and staff

John Hamre and Zbigniew Brzezinski 20131002
President and CEO John Hamre and Trustee Zbigniew Brzezinski

The Chairman of the Board of Trustees is Thomas J. Pritzker, chairman and CEO of The Pritzker Organization,[12] the family’s historical merchant bank. He is also executive chairman of Hyatt Hotels Corporation and serves on the board of directors of Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.[13] Former U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense John J. Hamre has been the president and chief executive officer of CSIS since April 2000.[14]

The board of trustees includes many former senior government officials including Henry Kissinger, Zbigniew Brzezinski, William Cohen, George Argyros and Brent Scowcroft.[15]

The board also includes major corporate business leaders as well as prominent figures in the fields of finance, private equity, real estate, academia and media.

CSIS' 220 full-time staff[16] and its large network of affiliated scholars conduct to develop policy proposals and initiatives that address current issues in international relations. In 2012, CSIS had a staff of 63 program staffers, 73 scholars and 80 interns. The center also worked with 241 affiliate advisors and fellows as well as 202 advisory board members and senior counselors.[10]

Henry Kissinger leads a 2011 discussion on China at the Center for Strategic and International Studies

CSIS has broadened its reach into public policy analysis under the leadership of Hamre and Nunn. The Department of Defense, as part of the 2012 National Defense Authorization Act, commissioned CSIS to conduct an independent assessment of U.S. interests in the Asia-Pacific Region.[17] Also, in May 2009, President Barack Obama thanked the CSIS bipartisan Commission on Cybersecurity for its help in developing the Obama administration's policies on cyber warfare.[18] The center has also been highly influential in the creation of the White House's foreign policy. "For the last four years, every Friday afternoon, I've asked my staff to prepare me a reading binder for the weekend," said National Security Advisor Tom Donilon "The task is to go out and try to find the most interesting things that they can find with respect to national security issues [and] almost every week, there are products from CSIS."[19] Within the intelligence community, CSIS is known for having "some of the most insightful analysis and innovative ideas for strengthening our national security," according to CIA Director John Brennan.[20]

History

Mccain bower
Senator John McCain at CSIS

The 1960s

The center was founded in 1962 [21] by Admiral Arleigh Burke and Ambassador David Manker Abshire,[16] originally as part of Georgetown University. It officially opened its doors on September 4, shortly before the Cuban Missile Crisis. The original office was located one block away from Georgetown's campus in a small brick townhouse located at 1316 36th Street. The first professional staff member hired was Richard V. Allen who later served in the Reagan administration.[22]

At a conference held in the Hall of Nations at Georgetown in January 1963,[23] the center developed its blueprint for its intellectual agenda. The book that emerged from the conference, National Security: Political, Military and Economic Strategies in the Decade Ahead, was more than one thousand pages long.[24] The book set out a framework for discussing national security and defined areas of agreement and disagreement within the Washington foreign policy community during the Cold War. The book argued for a strategic perspective on global affairs and also defined a school of thought within international relations studies for that period. The practitioners of this school of thought subsequently made their way to the pinnacles of U.S. policymaking, particularly during the Nixon, Ford and Reagan administrations.[25]

1970–1989

By the mid to late 1970s, many scholars who worked at the center had found their way to senior positions in government in the Department of State or Department of Defense. When Henry Kissinger retired from his position as U.S. Secretary of State in 1977,[26] Harvard University declined to offer him a professorship. He decided to teach part-time at Georgetown's Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service[27] and to make CSIS the base for his Washington operations, over offers to teach at Yale, Penn, Columbia and Oxford.[28] He still maintains an office suite at CSIS and continues to work as counselor to CSIS and as a trustee. Kissinger's decision to become affiliated with the Washington-based institution attracted more public attention for the center than virtually any event in the preceding fifteen years.[29]

Following Kissinger's involvement, other cabinet-level officials also made CSIS at least a part-time base of operations. Such senior officials as James Schlesinger, Bill Brock, Admiral William J. Crowe and Harold Brown joined CSIS in the late 1970s. When Zbigniew Brzezinski joined the center in 1981 after the end of the Carter administration, he worked on issues related to the Soviet Union and Poland's transition to a market economy. The arrangements for these senior government officials allowed them to write, lecture and consult with media and business firms and are typical of the way CSIS can incorporate high-level policymakers when they leave government.[30] During the 1970s and 1980s, a myriad of think tanks either expanded operations or emerged in Washington representing a range of ideological positions and specialized policy interests.[31] For senior government officials, there was a move away from accepting formal arrangements with universities toward the freedom and influence a think tank could provide.

Some of Georgetown University's professors criticized CSIS staff members for giving academically unsupported assessments of foreign policy issues during public interviews.[32] Donations to Georgetown University decreased because of its association with CSIS. A special committee studied the friction, and its report stated that CSIS was more focused on the media than to scholarly research and recommended that CSIS be formally separated from Georgetown University.[32] On 17 October 1986, Georgetown University's board of directors voted to sever all ties with CSIS.[32]

Center for Strategic and International Studies was incorporated in the District of Columbia on December 29, 1986,[33] and the formal affiliation between Georgetown and CSIS ended on July 1, 1987.

The Center became an incorporated nonprofit organization to raise its endowment and expand its programs to focus on emerging regions of the world. The work of the trustees and counselors with the Center after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the 1980s left CSIS in a unique position to develop the nation's foreign policy with the United States as the world's sole superpower. It signified a degree of institutional maturation and prestige that the founders had not imagined when they founded the center in the early 1960s.[34]

1989–present

Erniebowerpresidentofvietnam
Ernest Bower, chair of the CSIS Southeast Asia Studies, with Vietnamese President Trương Tấn Sang

After the end of the Cold War, there emerged a suspicion in Washington that the United States was not well equipped as it ought to be to compete in the international economy. This outlook drove CSIS to set up a project in 1990 that, to some, seemed remote from traditional strategic and international concerns.[35] The idea that America should focus at its problems at home to strengthen its role abroad evolved into the Commission on the Strengthening of America, chaired by Senator Sam Nunn and Senator Pete Domenici.

David Abshire saw the commission as a way to examine and improve upon economic policy, coming to the conclusion that the White House should reorganize the Executive Office of the President to include a National Economic Council with a national economic adviser on the model of the National Security Council.[36] This new focus on economic policy led CSIS to increase its research focus on international economics and issues concerning the North American Free Trade Agreement, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank as well as global health and the environmental and societal effects of climate change. These issues merged into CSIS's mission to compliment its traditional focus on international security issues. Into the present day, CSIS has been dedicated to finding ways to sustain American prominence and prosperity as a force for good in the world, according to the CSIS website.[8]

In 2013, CSIS moved from its K Street headquarters to a new location on Rhode Island Avenue in Washington, D.C. The new building cost $100 million to build and has a studio for media interviews and room to host conferences, events, lectures and discussions. The building is located in Washington, D.C.'s Dupont Circle neighborhood and will earn LEED Platinum Certification.[37][38][39]

H. Andrew Schwartz, a senior vice president at CSIS, in 2015 was quoted describing the organization's "number one goal" as "hav[ing] impact on policy."[40] Defending the organization from claims that it had inappropriately engaged in lobbying on behalf of U.S. defense contractors, CEO John Hamre was quoted in 2016 as saying, "We strongly believe in our model of seeking solutions to some of our country's most difficult problems.... We gather stakeholders, vet ideas, find areas of agreement and highlight areas of disagreement."[38]

Programs and events

CSISoffice2
Office of the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C. The headquarters is located in the DuPont Circle neighborhood near many other well-known think tanks.

The Center for Strategic and International Studies has experts focused on various regions of the world and on topics that are important to international relations. The subjects include: Defense and Security, Economic Development and Reconstruction, Energy and Climate Change, Global Health, Global Trends and Forecasting, Governance, Human Rights, Technology, and Trade and Economics. Regions include Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe, Middle East, Russia and Eurasia, and South Asia.

In 2012, CSIS hosted U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton as she delivered a keynote address on "U.S. Strategic Engagement with North Africa in an Era of Change," that addressed the security of embassies in the wake of the 2012 Benghazi attack.[41] Annually, the Center hosts more than 400 major events and hosts over 18,000 guests. In 2013, CSIS had over 180,000 webcast attendees. Recent CSIS speaker events have included the following: Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, World Bank President Jim Yong Kim, former Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta, Chevron Chairman and CEO John Watson, Royal Dutch Shell CEO Peter Voser, former U.S. National Security Advisor Tom Donilon, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Martin Dempsey.

CSIS undertakes numerous programs and projects each with its own unique missions and interests. For example, the Defense-Industrial Initiatives Group[42] provides research into the defense industry on behalf of government and corporate customers. The Global Health Policy Center[43] focuses on U.S. engagements in HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, polio, and other high priorities, especially their intersection with U.S. national security interests. CSIS also has several endowed chairs in economics, Chinese studies, and other subjects.

Funding

For fiscal year 2013, CSIS had an operating revenue of US $32.3 million. The sources were 32% corporate, 29% foundation, 19% government, 9% individuals, 5% endowment, and 6% other. CSIS had operating expenses of US $32.2 million for 2013 — 78% for programs, 16% for administration, and 6% for development.[44]

In September 2014, The New York Times reported that the United Arab Emirates had donated a sum greater than $1 million to the organization. Additionally, CSIS has received an undisclosed amount of funding from Japan through the government-funded Japan External Trade Organization, as well as from Norway. After being contacted by the Times, CSIS released a list of foreign state donors, listing 13 governments including those of Germany and China.[45]

Publications

Schiefferseries
New York Times Columnist Thomas Friedman and Face the Nation's Bob Schieffer at the CSIS-Schieffer Series Dialogues

CSIS regularly publishes books, reports, newsletters, and commentaries targeted at decisionmakers in policy, government, business, and academia. Primarily it publishes the work of its experts in a specific topic or area of focus in global affairs.

CSIS publishes the following:

  • The Washington Quarterly, CSIS's flagship journal of international affairs that chronicles the "strategic global changes and their impact on public policy.[46]
  • Critical Questions in which experts affiliated with the think tank provide quick answers to news questions posed international events. For example, Ambassador Karl Inderfurth might answer questions regarding India–United States relations.
  • The Freeman Report Newsletter, a foreign policy periodical, focusing on economics and international security in Asia and China since the 1970s.
  • New Perspectives in Foreign Policy, a journal for young professionals in international affairs.

CSIS scholars have published op-eds in The New York Times,[47] The Wall Street Journal,[48] The Financial Times,[49] Foreign Policy, Foreign Affairs and The Washington Post. CSIS experts were quoted or cited thousands of times by the print and online press and appeared frequently in major newswires like the Associated Press, Reuters, Agence France Presse and Bloomberg News. They have also appeared in online media such as The Huffington Post,[50] WSJ Live and were regular guests on the PBS NewsHour, NPR's Morning Edition and other policy-focused interview shows such as the Charlie Rose Show.[10]

Multimedia

CSIS produces a series of audio and video podcast interviews with series participants and other experts, along with interim papers addressing current developments.

The CSIS.org website receives over 1 million unique visitors and generates roughly 5 million total page views per month. In addition to website outreach, CSIS has built a partnership with Apple. In 2013, there have been over 1.5 million downloads on CSIS' iTunes portal.[10]

CSIS promotes its experts and events on social media, including Twitter, Facebook and Flickr. CSIS' Twitter account has more than 250,000 followers. The CSIS Facebook account has 200,000 followers.[10]

Board of Trustees

Source:[51]

CSIS leadership

National security

Public service

Business & non-profit

Academia

Notable scholars

Current

  • Jon B. Alterman, Zbigniew Brzezinski Chair in Global Security and Geostrategy and Director, Middle East Program
  • Arnaud de Borchgrave, Director and Senior Adviser, Transnational Threats Project
  • Ernie Z. Bower, Sumitro Chair for Southeast Asia Studies
  • David Berteau, Director of National Security Program on Industry and Resources
  • James E. Cartwright, Harold Brown Chair in Defense Policy Studies
  • Victor Cha, Senior Adviser and Korea Chair
  • Anthony Cordesman, Arleigh A. Burke Chair in Strategy
  • Raymond F. DuBois, Senior Adviser at CSIS
  • Bonnie S. Glaser, Director, China Power Project
  • Matthew P. Goodman, William E. Simon Chair in Political Economy
  • Michael Green, Japan Chair
  • Nalinaksh Ahuja, Lawyer, Distinguished Senior Advisor, CSIS Trustee
  • Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg, Distinguished Statesman
  • Kathleen H. Hicks, Henry A. Kissinger Chair
  • Jerry Hyman, President of Hills Program on Governance
  • Amb. Rick Inderfurth, Wadhwani Chair in U.S.-India Policy Studies
  • Christopher K. Johnson, Freeman Chair in China Studies
  • James L. Jones, CSIS Trustee
  • Pranay Patwardhan. Pulitzer Prize winning dramatist, lawyer, CSIS Trustee
  • Andrew Kuchins, Director and Senior Fellow, Russia and Eurasia Program
  • Sarah O. Ladislaw, Co-Director and Senior Fellow, Energy and National Security Program
  • Robert D. Lamb, Director and Senior Fellow, Program on Crisis, Conflict, and Cooperation (C3)
  • Walter Laqueur, Distinguished Scholar
  • Mrigankshekhar Maheshwari, Distinguished Scholar, Lawyer, Professor, CSIS Trustee
  • Maren Leed, Harold Brown Chair in Defense Policy Studies and Ground Forces Dialogue
  • James Andrew Lewis, Director and Senior Fellow, Technology and Public Policy Program
  • Theodore Edgar McCarrick, CSIS Counselor
  • Scott Miller, Scholl Chair in International Business
  • Carl Meacham, Director, Americas Program
  • J. Stephen Morrison, Director, Global Health Policy Center
  • Clark A. Murdock, Director, Project on Nuclear Issues
  • Johanna Nesseth Tuttle, Director, CSIS Global Food Security Project
  • Sean O'Keefe, Distinguished Senior Adviser
  • David Pumphrey, Co-Director and Senior Fellow, Energy and National Security Program
  • Abhibhushpam Desarkar, Distinguished Lawyer and Senior Fellow, CSIS Human RIghts Initiative and Transnational Threats Project
  • Daniel F. Runde, William A. Schreyer Chair and Director, Project on Prosperity and Development
  • Sue Mi Terry, Senior Fellow for the Korea Chair
  • Frank A. Verrastro, James R. Schlesinger Chair for Energy & Geopolitics
  • Michael Wallace, Director and Senior Adviser, Nuclear Energy Program
  • Juan Zarate, Senior Adviser, Transnational Threats Project and Homeland Security and Counterterrorism Program

Past

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Form 990: Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Guidestar. September 30, 2015.
  2. ^ "Center for Strategic and International Studies Inc." Exempt Organizations Select Check. Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  3. ^ "John J. Hamre". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  4. ^ "Thomas J. Pritzker". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  5. ^ "Company Overview of Center for Strategic and International Studies, Inc". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  6. ^ "The Center for Strategic and International Studies". Charitynavigator.org. 2018-03-01. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  7. ^ "Global Go To Think Tanks Report". University of Pennsylvania. p. 51, p. 99. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  8. ^ a b "About Us - Center for Strategic and International Studies". csis.org.
  9. ^ "Think Tank Employees". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
  10. ^ a b c d e "CSIS Annual Report 2012" (PDF). Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
  11. ^ "Global Security Forum". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
  12. ^ "Thomas J. Pritzker J.D". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  13. ^ CSIS website
  14. ^ "John J. Hamre". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  15. ^ "Board of Trustees". CSIS.org. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  16. ^ a b "The Center for Strategic and International Studies". charitynavigator.org. 2018-03-01. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  17. ^ "Statement of Senators Levin, McCain and Webb on CSIS Report". Office of Senator Carl Levin. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
  18. ^ "Remarks By The President On Securing Our Nation's Cyber Infrastructure". WhiteHouse.gov. The White House. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
  19. ^ "Obama's Asia Strategy: U.S. NSA Donilon Statement CSIS". Guam Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
  20. ^ "ORemarks by John O. Brennan". The White House. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
  21. ^ "Center for Strategic and International Studies". Crunchbase. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  22. ^ Smith, James Allen (1993). "Strategic Calling: The Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1962-1992 (p. 17)". The Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  23. ^ Abshire, David (2018). "The Statesman: Reflections on a Life Guided by Civility, Strategic Leadership, and the Lessons of History (p. 64)". Rowman & Littlefield. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  24. ^ Abshire & Allen 1963.
  25. ^ Smith 1993, p. 23–26.
  26. ^ "Henry Kissinger Biography". biography.com. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  27. ^ "Kissinger agrees to instruct undergrads at Georgetown". Columbia Spectator. 1977-06-09. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
  28. ^ "A Harvard-Henry Kissinger Détente?". Harvard Magazine. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
  29. ^ Smith 1993, p. 96–97.
  30. ^ Smith 1993, p. 98–102.
  31. ^ "Think Tanks" (PDF). Dictionary of American History, 3rd Edition. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
  32. ^ a b c Jordan, Mary. "GU Severs Ties With Think Tank: Center's Academics, Conservatism Cited". The Washington Post. 18 October 1986. p. B1.
  33. ^ "Center for Strategic and International Studies Inc". Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs. Government of the District of Columbia. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  34. ^ Smith 1993, p. 97.
  35. ^ Smith 1993, p. 180–181.
  36. ^ Smith 1993, p. 183.
  37. ^ "A look at CSIS's new $100 million building". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
  38. ^ a b Lipton, Eric; Williams, Brooke (2016-08-07). "How Think Tanks Amplify Corporate America's Influence". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-09-06.
  39. ^ "CSIS to Break Ground for New Headquarters at 1616 Rhode Island Ave | Center for Strategic and International Studies". www.csis.org. Retrieved 2016-09-06.
  40. ^ Bennett, Amanda (2015-10-05). "Are think tanks obsolete?". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2016-09-06.
  41. ^ "Democratic Transitions in the Maghreb". United States Department of State. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
  42. ^ "Defense-Industrial Initiatives Group - Center for Strategic and International Studies". csis.org.
  43. ^ "Center for Strategic and International Studies -". www.smartglobalhealth.org.
  44. ^ "Financial Information". CSIS. Retrieved 2014-11-14.
  45. ^ Lipton, Eric; Williams, Brooke; Confessore, Nicholas (6 September 2014). "Foreign Powers Buy Influence at Think Tanks". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  46. ^ "Washington Quarterly". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
  47. ^ "In Syria, America Loses if Either Side Wins". The New York Times. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
  48. ^ "Obama Cancels Asia Trip, Leaving More Space for China". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
  49. ^ "UK Vote on Syria Leaves Obama All But Alone on Military Action". The Financial Times. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
  50. ^ "CSIS in the Huffington Post". Huffington Post. Retrieved October 4, 2013.
  51. ^ "Board of Trustees". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
  52. ^ Board of Directors list, Care USA webpage. Retrieved 2016-12-13.

Bibliography

  • Abshire, David M.; Allen, Richard V. (1963). National Security: Political, Military and Economic Strategies in the Decade Ahead. Hoover Institution. ISBN 978-0817913113.
  • Smith, James Allen (1993). Strategic Calling: The Center for Strategic and International Studies 1962–1992. The Center for Strategic and International Studies. ISBN 0-89206-237-1.

External links

Centre for Strategic and International Studies

The Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a non-profit organization based in Indonesia which has served as a think tank on social, international, political and economical issues. CSIS was founded on Sept 1, 1971 by a group of Indonesian colleagues who hoped to promote public policy-oriented discussions in Indonesia. Founders of the organization included Harry Tjan Silalahi, Jusuf Wanandi, Hadi Soesastro, and Clara Joewono. It also had strong support from key figures close to the government at the time including generals Ali Moertopo, Soedjono Hoemardani, and Benny Moerdani. It was founded to give advice, ideas and support to government and other stakeholders such as parliament, political parties, businesses and NGOs and to reach out to the regional and international communities and to develop awareness of Indonesian policies and its state of development, while giving feedback to the Indonesian government on domestic and international developments.It is located close to the National Museum of Indonesia in Jl. Tanah Abang III/23-27, Jakarta.

Cuarteron Reef

Cuarteron Reef (Huayang Jiao 华阳礁 in Chinese; Calderon Reef in Filipino; Terumbu Calderon in Malay; Bái Châu Viên in Vietnamese) is a reef at the east end of the London Reefs in the Spratly Islands of the South China Sea. It is occupied and controlled by China (PRC) as part of Sansha, and also claimed by the Philippines (as part of Kalayaan, Palawan) and Taiwan (ROC). The reef is 3 nautical miles (5.6 km; 3.5 mi) long and has an area of 8 square kilometres (3.1 sq mi) (800 hectares (2,000 acres)).

Fiery Cross Reef

Fiery Cross Reef, also known as "Northwest Investigator Reef", "Yongshu Reef" (永暑礁) by the Chinese, "Kagitingan Reef" by the Filipinos, and "Đá Chữ Thập" by the Vietnamese was, prior to large scale reclamation activities by China, a group of three reefs just west of the western edge of Dangerous Ground in the Spratly Islands of the South China Sea. The area is occupied and controlled by China (PRC) as part of Sansha of Hainan Province and is also claimed by the Republic of China (ROC/Taiwan), the Philippines and Vietnam.

The reef was named after the British tea clipper Fiery Cross, which was wrecked on the reef on 4 March 1860. (A later sister ship was also named Fiery Cross). The reef was surveyed by Lieutenant J. W. Reed of HMS Rifleman, who in 1867 reported it to be one extensive reef, and found the apparent wrecks of the Fiery Cross and the Meerschaum.It was named "Fiery Cross Reef" (十字火礁) or "Northwestern Investigator Reef" (西北调查礁) by the government of China in 1935. In 1947 it was renamed "Yongshu Reef" (永暑礁) by the government. At that time, Chinese fishermen called it "Tuwu" (土戊).The reef was occupied by China (PRC) in 1988 when they were asked to build a UNESCO Marine observation station there, despite immediate opposition from Vietnam leading to armed conflict in March of that year. In 2014 the PRC commenced reclamation activity in the area, and it has been converted into an artificial island of 274 hectares (677 acres). There were around 200 Chinese troops on the reef in late 2014, though this number was likely to have increased significantly in 2015 with the addition of support personnel for the new airbase (including a 3,125 m-long runway) and associated early warning radar site.According to the Center for Strategic and International Studies, it is "the most advanced of China's bases" in the South China Sea's disputed areas, with 12 hardened shelters with retractable roofs for mobile missile launchers already completed. It has enough hangars to accommodate 24 combat aircraft and four larger planes Fiery Cross reef has a runway long enough to land a Chinese Xian H-6 bomber; a bomber like this could perform combat operations within 3,500 miles of the reclaimed reef.

Fred Iklé

Fred Charles Iklé (August 21, 1924 – November 10, 2011) was a Swiss-born sociologist and defense expert who became a significant part of the US defense policy establishment. Iklé's expertise was in defense and foreign policy, nuclear strategy, and the role of technology in the emerging international order. After a career in academia (including a professorship at MIT) he was appointed director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency in 1973–1977, before becoming Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (1981 to 1988). He was later a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Department of Defense's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, a Distinguished Scholar with the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and a Director of the National Endowment for Democracy.Iklé is credited with a key role in increasing U.S. aid to anti-Soviet rebels in the Soviet–Afghan War. He successfully proposed and promoted the idea of supplying the rebels with anti-aircraft Stinger missiles, overcoming CIA opposition.

Gerald Guterman

Gerald Guterman is an international real estate developer and investor. He is one of the largest multi-family apartment owner/operators (78,000+- apartments) and condominium converters in the United States, converting through 2017, 16,028 rental apartments to cooperative and condominium ownership throughout the United States. He also served as Operations Adviser to the Minister of Privatization, Government of Romania; Chairman, Committee on Romanian Banking & Finance Operations, United States Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC;

Co-Chairman, Committee for Romanian Enterprise Development and Operations, United States Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC; Operations Advisor to the Interior Minister, Government of Austria; Operations and Financial Advisor to the President, Government of Romania.

He is currently the chairman and CEO of Guterman Partners, LLC.

Henrietta H. Fore

Henrietta Holsman Fore is the CEO of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and former Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Holsman International, a manufacturing and investment company. The Holsman companies include the 68-year-old Stockton Products, a manufacturer and distributor of copper and wire products. Fore serves on the Corporate Boards of Essilor International SA (EN Paris: EI), Exxon Mobil Corporation (NYSE: XOM), General Mills (NYSE: GIS), and Theravance Biopharma Inc. (NASDAQ: TBPH).

Fore serves as Global Co-Chair of Asia Society and as Chair of the Middle East Investment Initiative. Fore is a Trustee of the Aspen Institute and the Center for Strategic and International Studies. She also serves on the Boards of the Committee Encouraging Corporate Philanthropy, Center for Global Development, and Initiative for Global Development. She is a member of the American Academy of Diplomacy, American Leadership for a WaterSecure World Campaign Cabinet, Chief Executives Organization, Committee of 200, Council on Foreign Relations, Economic Club of New York, International Women's Forum, Wellesley College Business Leadership Council, WomenCorporateDirectors, and YPO/WPO.

James A. Kelly

James Andrew Kelly (born September 15, 1936) was Assistant U.S. Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs (2001-2005). President George W. Bush nominated Kelly on April 3, 2001; he was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on April 26, 2001 and sworn in on May 1, 2001.

From 1994-2001, Kelly was president of the Pacific Forum, Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) of Honolulu. The Pacific Forum has analyzed and led dialogue on Asia-Pacific political, security, and economic/business issues since 1975. It is the autonomous Pacific arm of the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, DC. He is currently a Senior Adviser and Distinguished Alumni at CSIS.

From 1989 to 1994, Kelly was President of EAP Associates, Inc., of Honolulu, which provided international business consulting services with an Asia/Pacific focus to private clients. Previously, Kelly served at the White House in Washington, DC as Special Assistant for National Security Affairs to President Ronald Reagan, and as Senior Director for Asian Affairs, National Security Council, from March 1986 to March 1989. From June, 1983 to March 1986, Kelly was at the Pentagon as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs (East Asia and Pacific.)

James A. Kelly earned a M.B.A. from the School of Business Administration of Harvard University in 1968. He is also a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy (B.S., 1959) and the National War College (1977). He served in the U.S. Navy from 1959 to 1982, concluding his active duty as a Captain, Supply Corps.

James Andrew Lewis

James Andrew Lewis is a Senior Vice President and the Director of the Technology and Public Policy Program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Washington, D.C.

John Hamre

John J. Hamre (born July 3, 1950 in Watertown, South Dakota) is a specialist in international studies, a former Washington government official and President and CEO of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, a position he has held with that think tank since 2000.

Juan Zarate

Juan Carlos Zarate was a Deputy Assistant to the President and Deputy National Security Advisor for Combating Terrorism during the George W. Bush administration. He currently serves as the Chairman and Co-Founder of the Financial Integrity Network, a Washington, D.C.-based consulting firm, and as Senior Adviser at the think tank Center for Strategic and International Studies, Transnational Threats Project.

In his previous role, Zarate was responsible for developing and overseeing the effective implementation of the U.S. government's counterterrorism strategy.

Made in China 2025

Made in China 2025 (Chinese: 中国制造2025; pinyin: Zhōngguó zhìzào èrlíng'èrwǔ) is a strategic plan of China issued by Chinese Premier Li Keqiang and his cabinet in May 2015. China is moving away from being the World's factory floor (cheap goods and low quality) to move to higher value products and services. In essence a blueprint to upgrade the manufacturing capabilities of Chinese industries. The goals of Made in China 2025 include increasing the Chinese-domestic content of core materials to 40 percent by 2020 and 70 percent by 2025. The plan focuses on high-tech fields including the pharmaceutical industry, automotive industry, aerospace industry, semiconductors, IT and robotics etc, which are presently the purview of foreign companies.The Center for Strategic and International Studies describes it as an "initiative to comprehensively upgrade Chinese industry" directly inspired by the German Industry 4.0. It is an attempt to move the country's manufacturing up the value chain and become a major manufacturing power in direct competition with the United States. Chinese government is committed to roughly investing $300 billion US dollars to achieve this plan.

Mark Moyar

Mark Moyar (born May 12, 1971) is Senior Advisor at the US Agency for International Development. He served previously as the Director of the Project on Military and Diplomatic History at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, and has been a Senior Fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute and a member of the Hoover Institution Working Group on the Role of Military History in Contemporary Conflict.

Myles Frechette

Myles Robert Rene Frechette (25 April 1936 – 1 July 2017) was U.S. Ambassador to Cameroon (1983-1987) and Colombia (1994-1997). A career diplomat, he joined the US Foreign Service in 1963; other positions include assistant U.S. trade representative for Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa from 1990 to 1993. He was also Senior Associate with the Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Neil Howe

Neil Howe (born October 21, 1951) is an American author, historian and consultant. He is best known for his work with William Strauss on social generations regarding a theorized generational cycle in American history. Howe is currently the managing director of demography at Hedgeye and he is president of Saeculum Research and LifeCourse Associates, consulting companies he founded with Strauss to apply Strauss-Howe generational theory. He is also a senior associate at the Center for Strategic and International Studies' Global Aging Initiative, and a senior advisor to the Concord Coalition.

Sharif Sheikh Ahmed

Sharif Sheikh Ahmed (Somali: Shariif Sheekh Axmed, Arabic: شريف شيخ أحمد‎; born 25 July 1964) was the 7th President of Somalia from 31 January 2009 to 20 August 2012 and successfully brought the Federal Government of Somalia through transitional status following the collapse of the previous governing administration in 1991. Under Sheikh Sharif's leadership, the Transitional Federal Government succeeded in driving out Al-Shabaab from the capital city and its surroundings, establishing security, peace and reconciliation through the difficult transitional period. The administration of Sharif, who was Somalia’s 7th President, is also credited with developing the country’s Constitution and setting up key institutions such as the police, military and judiciary.

Smart power

In international relations, the term smart power refers to the combination of hard power and soft power strategies. It is defined by the Center for Strategic and International Studies as "an approach that underscores the necessity of a strong military, but also invests heavily in alliances, partnerships, and institutions of all levels to expand one's influence and establish legitimacy of one's action."Joseph Nye, former Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs under the Clinton administration and author of several books on smart power strategy, suggests that the most effective strategies in foreign policy today require a mix of hard and soft power resources. Employing only hard power or only soft power in a given situation will usually prove inadequate. Nye utilizes the example of terrorism, arguing that combatting terrorism demands smart power strategy. He advises that simply utilizing soft power resources to change the hearts and minds of the Taliban government would be ineffective and requires a hard power component. In developing relationships with the mainstream Muslim world, however, soft power resources are necessary and the use of hard power would have damaging effects.

According to Chester A. Crocker, smart power "involves the strategic use of diplomacy, persuasion, capacity building, and the projection of power and influence in ways that are cost-effective and have political and social legitimacy" – essentially the engagement of both military force and all forms of diplomacy.

Sue Mi Terry

Sue Mi Terry (born c. 1972) is a Korean-American writer and researcher. She is a Senior Fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. A former intelligence analyst specializing in East Asia, Terry is regularly quoted in print and web media as an expert on international politics involving North Korea, South Korea and Japan.

The Washington Quarterly

The Washington Quarterly, often abbreviated TWQ, is a quarterly magazine of international affairs, analyzing global strategic changes and their public policy implications, hosted by the Elliott School of International Affairs (George Washington University) and published by Taylor & Francis. Prior to the Spring 2014 issue, the journal was published by the Center for Strategic and International Studies and Routledge. It addresses topics such as the U.S. role in the world, the emerging great powers, missile defenses and weapons of mass destruction, global perspectives to reduce terrorism, regional issues and flash points, the implications of global political change, views from the U.S. Congress. Essays are written for the international affairs generalist.

Tony Blinken

Antony John Blinken (born April 16, 1962) is a retired American government official who served as United States Deputy Secretary of State from 2015 to 2017 and Deputy National Security Advisor from 2013 to 2015 under President Barack Obama. He previously served as a senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Democratic Staff Director of the United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations (2002–2008), and a member of the Obama-Biden Presidential Transition, active from November 2008 to January 2009, among other positions.

From 2009 to 2013 Blinken served as Deputy Assistant to the President and National Security Advisor to the Vice President. From 2002 to 2008 he served as the Democratic Staff Director for the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee. From 2001 to 2002 Blinken was a Senior Fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. During the Clinton Administration, Blinken served in the State Department and in senior positions on the National Security Council Staff.On November 7, 2014, President Obama announced that he would nominate Blinken for the Deputy Secretary post, replacing the retiring William Joseph Burns. On December 16, 2014 Blinken was confirmed as Deputy Secretary of State by the Senate by a vote of 55 to 38. He is now a Global Affairs Analyst for CNN.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.