Censorinus

Censorinus was a Roman grammarian and miscellaneous writer from the 3rd century AD.

He was the author of a lost work De Accentibus and of an extant treatise De Die Natali, written in 238, and dedicated to his patron Quintus Caerellius as a birthday gift. The contents are of a varied character: the natural history of man, the influence of the stars and genii, music, religious rites, astronomy, the doctrines of the Greek philosophers, and antiquarian subjects.

The second part deals with chronological and mathematical questions, and has been of great service in determining the principal epochs of ancient history. The whole is full of curious and interesting information. The style is clear and concise, although somewhat rhetorical, and the Latinity – for the period – good.

The chief authorities used were Varro and Suetonius. Some scholars, indeed, hold that the entire work is practically an adaptation of the lost Pratum of Suetonius. The fragments of a work De Naturali Institutione, dealing with astronomy, geometry, music, and versification, and usually printed with the De Die Natali of Censorinus, are not by him. Part of the original manuscript, containing the end of the genuine work, and the title and name of the author of the fragment are lost.

A bright crater on the moon has been named after him.

References

  • Good edition with commentary by Heinrich Lindenbrog (1614)
  • Critical editions by
  • English translation of the De Die Natali (the first eleven chapters being omitted) with notes by William Maude (New York, 1900)
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Censorinus" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • New English translation of the De Die Natali by Holt N. Parker (trans.): Censorinus. The Birthday Book. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2007. Pp. xiv, 102. ISBN 0-226-09974-1
  • New German translation by Kai Brodersen (trans.): Censorinus. Das Geburtstagsbuch. Darmstadt: Primus, 2011. Pp. 120. ISBN 978-3-89678-752-1
  • New critical edition with German translation by Kai Brodersen: Censorinus. Über den Geburtstag (Edition Antike). Darmstadt: WBG, 2012. Pp. 160. ISBN 978-3-534-18154-4

External links

39 BC

Year 39 BC was either a common year starting on Friday, Saturday or Sunday or a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a common year starting on Saturday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Censorinus and Sabinus (or, less frequently, year 715 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 39 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

8 BC

Year 8 BC was either a common year starting on Friday or Saturday or a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Censorinus and Gaius Asinius (or, less frequently, year 746 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 8 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Battle of Lake Tunis

The Battle of Lake Tunis was a series of engagements of the Third Punic War fought in 149 BC between the Carthaginians and the Roman Republic.

Cato the Elder

Cato the Elder (; Latin: Cato Major; 234–149 BC), born Marcus Porcius Cato and also known as Cato the Censor (Cato Censorius), Cato the Wise (Cato Sapiens), and Cato the Ancient (Cato Priscus), was a Roman senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization. He was the first to write history in Latin.

He came from an ancient Plebeian family who were noted for their military service. Like his forefathers, Cato was devoted to agriculture when not serving in the army. Having attracted the attention of Lucius Valerius Flaccus, he was brought to Rome and began to follow the cursus honorum: he was successively military tribune (214 BC), quaestor (204 BC), aedile (199 BC), praetor (198 BC), junior consul (195 BC) together with Flaccus, and censor (184 BC). As praetor, he expelled usurers from Sardinia. As censor, he tried to preserve Rome's ancestral customs and combat "degenerate" Hellenistic influences. His epithet "Elder" distinguishes him from his equally famous great-grandson Cato the Younger, who opposed Julius Caesar.

Censorinus (crater)

Censorinus is a tiny lunar impact crater located on a rise to the southeast of the Mare Tranquillitatis. It is named after the ancient Roman writer Censorinus. To the northeast is the crater Maskelyne.

Censorinus is distinguished by an area of high-albedo material surrounding the rim. This makes the feature highly prominent when the Sun is at a high angle, and it is one of the brightest objects on the visible Moon. Bright streaks radiate away radially from the crater, and contrast with the darker lunar mare.

This formation has a sharp-edged, raised rim and a symmetrical, cup-shaped interior. Close-up photographs of this crater by Lunar Orbiter 5 show many large blocks lying along the sloping outer rampart. The surface near the crater is hummocky from the deposited ejecta. The crater is otherwise undistinguished.

The vicinity of Censorinus was once considered for an early Apollo landing site.

Censorinus (died 53 BC)

Censorinus (died 53 BC) was a friend and contemporary of Publius Crassus, son of the triumvir Marcus Crassus. His gens name was almost certainly Marcius, and he may have been the son of the Gaius Marcius Censorinus who was monetalis around 88 BC. If so, his father and uncle Lucius were staunch supporters of the popularist faction of Cinna.Censorinus is one of the two named friends of Publius Crassus who died with him at the Battle of Carrhae. Plutarch calls him "a man of senatorial dignity and a powerful speaker." During the battle, Censorinus is among those who ride with young Crassus on a last desperate cavalry foray; after sustaining heavy casualties, the Romans and their Gallic auxiliaries retreat to a sand dune, where hope is soon lost under the constant barrage of Parthian arrows. Wounded and with his sword-arm incapacitated, Crassus orders his shield-bearer to take his life. Censorinus does likewise, and dies at his side. Their friend Megabocchus and most of the other officers commit suicide.This Censorinus is possibly also the young man who had accompanied Quintus Cicero to Asia, as mentioned in a letter written by Quintus's elder brother Marcus Cicero between 25 October and 10 December, 59 BC. He is named in the company of four other young nobiles who seemed willing to support Quintus if he were to be prosecuted as a result of his governorship. The others are an Antonius who is either the famous Marcus Antonius or one of his two brothers, Gaius or Lucius; Cassius Longinus and his brother Lucius; and Quintus Mucius Scaevola (tribune of the plebs in 54 BC). Other close members of the Censorinus family were supporters of Antonius as triumvir, and one of them, the consul of 39 BC, came into possession of Cicero's house on the Palatine after his death.

Censorinus (usurper)

Appius Claudius Censorinus was a fictional usurper against Roman Emperor Claudius II, (in ca AD 269) according to the unreliable Historia Augusta. He is included in the list of the Thirty Tyrants.

It is claimed that he had a lengthy career, having served twice as a consul, twice as a praetorian prefect, thrice as a praefectus urbi, and four times as a proconsul. He served under Valerian in the Roman–Persian Wars and was wounded in combat. His wounds forced him to retire from military service. He was already an old man and long retired when the troops of Bononia revolted and proclaimed him an Augustus. He was killed by his own soldiers, because he enforced too strict discipline. His reign lasted only a few days.The entire account is a fabrication. His name and career are meant to reflect traditional Roman values, and may form part of the author's agenda when he wrote the Historia Augusta.Francisco Mediobarbo Birago, a 17th-century numismatist, reported the existence of a coin commemorating the 3rd year of Censorinus' reign. The lack of sources for such a coin, make it likely that it was a forgery of some kind. Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de Tillemont suggested that Censorinus and Victorinus could be the same person.

Cleostratus

This article concerns the Greek astronomer. For the article on the lunar crater named for him, see Cleostratus (crater).Cleostratus (Greek: Κλεόστρατος; b. c. 520 BC; d. possibly 432 BC) was an astronomer of ancient Greece. He was a native of Tenedos. He is believed by ancient historians to have introduced the zodiac (beginning with Aries and Sagittarius) and the solar calendar. According to J. Webb, Cleostratus took his ideas from the Babylonians.There is little primary material to credit any person with the creation or design of the Zodiac. Historical research into this has shown translation issues and coincidences including the Tenedos connection with the Philosopher Thales. Historical writings also refer to Cleostratus as a means of establishing a tradition of authority of Greek accomplishments. Continuation of Babylonian cycles is considered not to be scientific progress as the Greeks improved the accuracy of their cycles, only exercises in the art of combining days, months, and years, of which the relative mean durations had been learned from Babylon. The Greeks may have established a similar system, as other cultures had too, independently of the Babylonians. However, most agree that there can never be a definite answer for the argument concerning who established the first known system in the west.

Pliny the Elder writes in his Natural History: "Anaximander the Milesian, in the 58th Olympiad, is said to have been the first who understood its obliquity, and thus opened the road to a correct knowledge of the subject. Afterwards Cleostratus made the signs in it, first marking those of Aries and Sagittarius; Atlas had formed the sphere long before this time." Pliny also was writing in a way similar to his contemporaries in that a sound argument had to be based on past knowledge or the accomplishments of past thinkers.

Censorinus (De Die Natali, c. 18) considers Cleostratus to have been the inventor of the octaeteris, or cycle of eight years. Cleostratus' name is associated with an eight-year intercalation cycle, to keep Greek civil calendars (lunar in nature) in line with the solar year, a cycle which was improved by Harpalus Censorinus, De Die Natali, c. 18, The octaeteris was used before the Metonic cycle of 19 years, and was popularly attributed to Eudoxus. Theophrastus (de Sign. Pluv., p. 239, ed. Basil. 1541) mentions him as a meteorological observer along with Matricetas of Methymna and Phaeinus of Athens. Gaius Julius Hyginus (Poetica Astronomica, ii. 13) says that Cleostratus first pointed out the two stars in Auriga called Haedi.

The crater Cleostratus on the Moon is named after him. Names for the Moon's features are chosen based on scientific contributions and important astronauts of the world. The International Astronomical Union. IAU.

Denarius of L. Censorinus

In 82 BC, a denarius was minted by Lucius Marcius Censorinus picturing Apollo and Marsyas the satyr. The coin has attracted several interpretations because of the ambiguity of its symbolism.

Gaius Marcius Censorinus

Gaius Marcius Censorinus can refer to the following Roman people:

Gaius Marcius Censorinus (consul 8 BC) - consul 8 BC.

Gaius Marcius Censorinus (General) - Populares general who fought against Sulla.

Gaius Marcius Censorinus (consul 8 BC)

Gaius Marcius Censorinus (died c. AD 2) was a Roman Senator who was elected consul in 8 BC.

Gaius Marcius Censorinus (general)

Gaius Marcius Censorinus (Latin Gaius Marcius Censorinus; d. 3 November, 82 BC) was a late Roman Republican politician and soldier who participated in the First Civil War of the Roman Republic. During this war, he commanded the Populares forces at the Second Battle of Clusium.

Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC (709 AUC), by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

The Julian calendar is still used in parts of the Eastern Orthodox Church, in parts of Oriental Orthodoxy and Anabaptism, as well as by the Berbers.

During the 20th and 21st centuries, the date according to the Julian calendar is 13 days behind the Gregorian date, and after the year 2100 will be one day more.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi (consul 133 BC)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi (sometimes Censorinus), born around 180 BC, was a Roman politician and historian of plebeian origin.

Lucius Marcius Censorinus

Lucius Marcius Censorinus was a Roman Republican consul who served alongside Manius Manilius.

He and Manilius led the Roman legions in an ill-fated two-pronged attack on Carthage, which was eventually repulsed by the army of the Carthaginian Generals Hasdrubal the Boeotarch and Himilco Phameas, during the first stages of the Third Punic War.

Lucius Marcius Censorinus (consul 39 BC)

For others with similar names, see Marcius Censorinus.Lucius Marcius Censorinus was a consul of the Roman Republic in 39 BC, during the Second Triumvirate. He and his colleague Gaius Calvisius Sabinus had been the only two senators who tried to defend Julius Caesar when he was assassinated on the Ides of March in 44 BC, and their consulship under the triumvirate was a recognition of their loyalty.Marcius Censorinus was proconsul of Macedonia and Achaea 42–40 BC. He and a Fabius Maximus were the last proconsuls honored abroad with the title "savior and founder" and with a festival bearing their names before the establishment of the imperial monarchy under Augustus. Following the civil wars of the 40s, Censorinus took possession of Cicero's beloved house on the Palatine.

Lunar Orbiter 5

Lunar Orbiter 5, the last of the Lunar Orbiter series, was designed to take additional Apollo and Surveyor landing site photography and to take broad survey images of unphotographed parts of the Moon's far side. It was also equipped to collect selenodetic, radiation intensity, and micrometeoroid impact data and was used to evaluate the Manned Space Flight Network tracking stations and Apollo Orbit Determination Program. The spacecraft was placed in a cislunar trajectory and on August 5, 1967 was injected into an elliptical near polar lunar orbit 194.5 by 6,023 kilometres (120.9 mi × 3,742.5 mi) with an inclination of 85 degrees and a period of 8 hours 30 minutes. On August 7 the perilune was lowered to 100 kilometers (62 mi), and on August 9 the orbit was lowered to a 99-by-1,499-kilometer (62 mi × 931 mi), 3 hour 11 minute period.

The spacecraft acquired photographic data from August 6 to 18, 1967, and readout occurred until August 27, 1967. A total of 633 high resolution and 211 medium resolution frames at resolution down to 2 meters (6 ft 7 in) were acquired, bringing the cumulative photographic coverage by the five Lunar Orbiter craft to 99% of the Moon's surface. Accurate data were acquired from all other experiments throughout the mission. The spacecraft was tracked until it struck the lunar surface on command at 2.79 degrees S latitude, 83 degrees W longitude (selenographic coordinates) on January 31, 1968.

Features on the near side of the Moon that were photographic targets included Petavius, Hyginus, Messier, Tycho, Copernicus, Gassendi, Vitello, Mons Gruithuisen Gamma, Prinz, Aristarchus, Vallis Schroteri, Marius Hills, Montes Apenninus, Rimae Plato, Sinus Aestuum, Hipparchus, Rimae Sulpicius Gallus, Rimae Calippus, Censorinus, Dionysius, and the future landing site of Apollo 11.

Marcia (gens)

The gens Marcia, occasionally written Martia, was one of the oldest and noblest houses at ancient Rome. They claimed descent from the second and fourth Roman Kings, and the first of the Marcii appearing in the history of the Republic would seem to have been patrician; but all of the families of the Marcii known in the later Republic were plebeian. The first to obtain the consulship was Gaius Marcius Rutilus in 357 BC, only a few years after the passage of the lex Licinia Sextia opened this office to the plebeians.

Marcii Censorini

Marcius Censorinus was a name used by a branch of the plebeian gens Marcia of ancient Rome. The cognomen Censorinus was acquired through Gaius Marcius Rutilus, the first plebeian censor, whose son used it. The gens Marcia claimed descent from both Ancus Marcius, a king of Rome, and symbolically from Marsyas the satyr, who was associated with free speech and political liberty; see further discussion at Prophecy and free speech at Rome. The Marcii Censorini were consistent populares, supporting Marius, Cinna, Julius Caesar, and Antonius.

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