Cenotaph

A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been reinterred elsewhere. Although the vast majority of cenotaphs honour individuals, many noted cenotaphs are instead dedicated to the memories of groups of individuals, such as the lost soldiers of a country or of an empire.

UK-2014-London-The Cenotaph
The Cenotaph, Whitehall, London
CenotaphAucklandWarMemorialMuseum
The Cenotaph, Auckland, New Zealand
Cenotaph, Hong Kong 1
The Cenotaph, Hong Kong

History and etymology

The English word "cenotaph" derives from the Greek: κενοτάφιον kenotaphion (κενός kenos, meaning "empty", and τάφος taphos, "tomb").[1]

Cenotaphs were common in the ancient world, with many built in Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and across Northern Europe (in the shape of Neolithic barrows).

The cenotaph in Whitehall, London - designed in 1919 by Sir Edwin Lutyens - influenced the design of many other war memorials in Britain and in the British sectors of the Western Front, as well as those in other Commonwealth nations.

The Church of Santa Engrácia, in Lisbon, Portugal, turned into a National Pantheon in 1966, holds six cenotaphs, namely to Luís de Camões, Pedro Álvares Cabral, Afonso de Albuquerque, Nuno Álvares Pereira, Vasco da Gama and Henry the Navigator.

The Basilica di Santa Croce in Florence, Italy, contains a number of cenotaphs, including one for Dante Alighieri, who is buried in Ravenna.

Regional

Africa

South Africa

A cenotaph is the focal point of the Voortrekker Monument in Pretoria, South Africa. It is situated below the other main point of interest, a marble Historical Frieze in the Hall of Heroes, and is visible through a round opening in the floor. The Hall of Heroes itself has a dome from the summit of which one can view the interior of the monument. At noon on 16 December each year the sun shines through another opening in the dome onto the middle of the cenotaph, where the words Ons vir Jou, Suid-Afrika (from Die Stem van Suid-Afrika; Afrikaans for "We for Thee, South Africa") are inscribed. The ray of sunshine symbolises God's blessing on the lives and endeavours of the Voortrekkers. 16 December is the date in 1838 that the Battle of Blood River was fought.

Durban, South Africa, has a striking and unusual cenotaph made of granite and lavishly decorated with brightly coloured ceramics.

Port Elizabeth, South Africa, has a cenotaph. Located on the edge of St George's Park in Rink Street, it was designed by Elizabeth Gardner to commemorate the men who died in the First World War (1914 - 1918) and was erected by the monumental mason firm of Pennachini Bros. On either side of the central sarcophagus are statues by Technical College Art School principal, James Gardner, who served in the trenches during the war. One depicts St George and the Dragon, the other depicts the sanctity of family life. Surrounding the sarcophagus are a number of bas-relief panels depicting scenes and people during the First World War. It was unveiled by Mrs W F Savage and dedicated by Canon Mayo on 10 November 1929. A surrounding memorial wall commemorates the men and women killed during World War II.

Zambia

In Livingstone there is a cenotaph at the Eastern Cataract of The Victoria Falls with the names of the men of Northern Rhodesia who died during the Great War 1914–18. It was unveiled by HRH Prince Arthur of Connaught on 1 August 1923.

There is also a cenotaph in Lusaka at Embassy Park, opposite the Cabinet Office along Independence Avenue, and commemorates those Zambians who fought and died in World Wars I & II. The cenotaph was commemorated in 1977.[2]

The Americas

Argentina

Monumento Malvinas Plaza San Martin I
Monumento a los caídos en Malvinas (Monument for the fallen in the Falklands War) is located in Plaza San Martin.

A monument which has come to be known to as the "Cenotaph" was erected in Plaza San Martín, in downtown Buenos Aires, to commemorate the Argentinian soldiers who died during the Falklands War, in 1982. The monument consists of a series of plaques of black marble with the names of the fallen, surrounding a flame, and during the day is guarded by two soldiers.

Another cenotaph, which is a replica of the Argentine Military Cemetery in Darwin on the Falkland Islands, exists in Campo de Mayo, a large Army facility and training field just outside Buenos Aires.

Bermuda

A limestone replica of the Cenotaph at Whitehall in London was erected outside the Cabinet Building in Hamilton, Bermuda in 1920.[3]

Canada

In Canada, major cenotaphs commemorating the nation's war dead in World War I and later conflicts include the National War Memorial (a cenotaph surmounted by a bronze sculpture entitled "The Response") in Ottawa; Montreal, Toronto, Hamilton, Victoria, St. John's, Halifax, and the Victory Square Cenotaph, in Vancouver, British Columbia. and in Midland Ontario.

Falkland Islands

Falklands War Memorial, Stanley (Falkland Islands)
The Liberation Memorial situated in front of the Secretariat Building in Stanley, overlooking Stanley Harbour.

In the Falkland Islands, there are several war memorials to commemorate those killed in the Falklands War in 1982. The main memorial for Falkland Islanders is the 1982 Liberation Memorial, a cenotaph erected in Stanley in 1984 which lists all the British Army regiments, RAF squadrons, Royal Navy vessels and the Royal Marine formations and units that took part in the conflict. The names of the 255 British military personnel who died during the war are listed on ten plaques behind the Memorial, divided into the service branches.

Services are held at the Memorial each year on 14 June (Liberation Day)[4] and on Remembrance Sunday, with wreaths being laid at the foot of the Memorial.[5]

United States

In the United States, a cenotaph in Yale University's Hewitt Quad (or Beinecke Plaza) honours men of Yale who died in battle. The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial in Dallas is often described as a cenotaph.

The Battle Monument in Baltimore, Maryland commemorates the Battle of Baltimore, the Battle of North Point on 12 September 1814, the Bombardment of Fort McHenry on 13–14 September, and the stand-off on Loudenschlager's Hill (now Hampstead Hill in Patterson Park). It has an Egyptian Revival cenotaph base, surmounted by a fasces bound together with ribbons bearing the names of the dead. It was designed by French émigré architect Maximilian Godefroy in 1815, and construction was completed in 1827. It is considered the first war memorial in America, and an early example of a memorial to individual soldiers. The Monument appears on the Seal and the Logo of the City of Baltimore, and serves as a symbol for any agencies of the municipal government.[6]

A cenotaph for the defenders of the Battle of the Alamo (March 1836) stands in front of the Alamo mission chapel in San Antonio, Texas. The cenotaph is empty because the remains of the fallen were cremated.

Atop War Memorial Chapel at Virginia Tech, there is a cenotaph honouring all Virginia Tech cadets who have been killed in battle. Inscribed upon the cenotaph are the names of the seven Virginia Tech Alumni who have been awarded the Medal of Honor.

The United States Capitol was constructed with the intention that it house the tomb of George Washington and contains a crypt and burial chamber directly below its rotunda. Due to a disagreement between his family, the state of Virginia, and the federal government, his body was never moved there, making it a de facto cenotaph.

Asia

In Asia, the Cenotaph in Central District of Hong Kong Island, cenotaphs in Kuala Lumpur, George Town, Ipoh, Seremban and Jesselton in Malaysia, the Cenotaph in Singapore, the Cenotaph in Colombo and the stone Cenotaph in the new Allenby Square, Romema, Jerusalem - were erected as memorials to the war dead of World War I.

Various cenotaphs in Asia have also been erected to commemorate the dead from events outside conventional Western coverage. The concrete Memorial Cenotaph at the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park was designed by Kenzo Tange to commemorate the victims of the August 1945 atomic bomb attacks. The cenotaph at the 228 Peace Memorial Park in Taipei, Taiwan was erected as a memorial to the February 28 incident. In the Philippines, a cenotaph was erected inside the Manila North Cemetery in honour of the 24 Scouts who died in a plane crash en route to the 11th World Scout Jamboree.

Europe

Armenia

Tsitsernakaberd Genocide Memorial - The Armenian Genocide memorial complex is Armenia's official memorial dedicated to the victims of the Armenian Genocide, built in 1967 on the hill of Tsitsernakaberd (Ծիծեռնակաբերդ) in Yerevan. Every year on April 24—the Armenian Genocide Remembrance Day—thousands of Armenians gather at the memorial to commemorate the victims of the genocide.

United Kingdom

A cenotaph in the UK that stands in Whitehall, London, was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens[7] and replaced Lutyens' identical wood-and-plaster cenotaph erected in 1919 for the Allied Victory Parade, and is a Grade I listed building.[8] It is undecorated save for a carved wreath on each end and the words "The Glorious Dead," chosen by Lloyd George. It was intended to commemorate specifically the victims of the First World War, but is used to commemorate all of the dead in all wars in which British servicemen and women have fought. The dates of the First World War and the Second World War are inscribed on it in Roman numerals. The design was used in the construction of many other war memorials throughout the British Empire.

There is another Cenotaph that stands on Victoria Square in Aberdare Glamorgan.

The Cenotaph in Belfast, Northern Ireland, is located in the grounds of Belfast City Hall and is set within a Garden of Remembrance. It is about 9.5 metres (31 ft) high and presents several carvings including laurel wreaths, symbolising victory and honour. The Cenotaph is the site of the annual Northern Ireland memorial held on Remembrance Sunday, the closest Sunday to 11 November (Armistice Day).

The Middle East

Jerusalem

Ottoman-ruled Jerusalem surrendered to the British Egyptian Expeditionary Force under General Edmund Allenby during the Battle of Jerusalem in December 1917 during World War I. A cenotaph was erected in 1920 at the historical site of the surrender, later to be named Allenby Square. The inscription dedicates it to the fallen of the 60th London Division.

Oceania

Australia

In Australia, Anzac Day commemorations are usually held at all of the nation's many war memorials, but not all of them are cenotaphs. Cenotaphs include the Hobart Cenotaph and the Sydney Cenotaph.

New Zealand

Anzac Day commemorations are usually held at local war memorials as in Australia. Cenotaphs include the Dunedin Cenotaph and the Wellington Cenotaph.

Cenotaphs for the missing

Although most notable cenotaphs commemorate notable individuals buried elsewhere, many cenotaphs pay tribute to people whose remains have never been located, particularly those lost at sea. Some such cenotaphs are dedicated to victims of the RMS Titanic whose bodies were not recovered after the sinking. Although Isidor Straus's body was recovered, Ida Straus's body was not, and a cenotaph at the Straus Mausoleum at Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx is dedicated to Isidor and Ida together. Its inscription reads: "Many waters cannot quench love - neither can the floods drown it."[9] (Song of Solomon 8:7) The striking cenotaph of Major Archibald Butt, aide to U.S. President William Taft, is located at Arlington National Cemetery.[10]

In Inishmore, one of the Aran Islands of Ireland, drowning was formerly such a common cause of death for island fishermen that each family had a memorial to those lost at sea known as leachtaí cuimhneacháin (memorial cairns). Most were erected in the 19th century, although some date back to the eighteenth. A modern memorial was erected in 1997.[11][12]

Chhatris

Moosi rani ki chatri
Moosi Rani ki Chatri, Alwar

In India, cenotaphs are a basic element of Hindu architecture, later used by Moghuls as seen in most of the mausoleums of Mughal Emperors which have two burial chambers, the upper one with a cenotaph, as in Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, or the Taj Mahal, Agra, while the real tomb often lies exactly below it, or further removed. The Chhatri(s) trace their origin at 2000 years ago at Fort Kangara. The term chhatri, used for these canopylike structures, comes from Hindustani word literally meaning umbrella, and are found throughout the northwestern region of Rajasthan as well as in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. In the Shekhawati region of Rajasthan, chhatris are built on the cremation sites of wealthy or distinguished individuals. Chhatris in Shekhawati may consist of a simple structure of one dome raised by four pillars to a building containing many domes and a basement with several rooms. In some places, the interior of the chhatri is painted in the same manner as the Haveli.

Art

Cenotaphs have also been the subject of a number of illustrations including:

Poetry

Cenotaph is used in Henry Ellison's[13] (1833) poem, Scientific Theories:

 
O Science! proud Iconoclast, thy way
Is strewed with fragments of our reverence
And love—idols with small or no pretence,
Right oft, upon their pedestals to stay,
The light oft intercepting of God's day,
E'en in His Temple! Light too pure, intense,
Which puts the eye out, dazzles the weak sense
Of mere Humanity, after its clay
Shaping its images. But take thou good heed
Thou dost not, in self-blindness and self-pride,
Pluck down the Temple's self, and, in its stead
And on its ruins, strewed far and wide,
Building as not for Living but True-dead,
A cenotaph for Man's lost Soul provide!

Mentioned in Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf

Digital and astronomical

In the Internet age, virtual cenotaphs are common in the game World of Warcraft.[14][15] They have also been created in the augmented reality game Ingress in honour of the slain MIT police officer Sean Collier[16] and in memory of the victims of the 1942 Struma disaster.[17]

On 13 January 2016, Belgian amateur astronomers at MIRA Public Observatory dedicated, in conjunction with radio station Studio Brussels, an asterism of seven stars in the vicinity of Mars which had been photographed at the exact time of David Bowie's death; when appropriately connected they form the iconic lightning bolt of Aladdin Sane.[18][19]

Gallery

Cenotaph Flesherton Ontario

Cenotaph, Flesherton, Ontario, Canada

Cenotaph 2006 10 01 04

Port Arthur Cenotaph, Waverley Park, Thunder Bay, Ontario

Great War Memorial Niagara Falls Canada

Great War Memorial, Niagara Falls, Ontario

VictorySquare 1932

Cenotaph (Victoria), Victory Square, Vancouver, British Columbia

Victoria park cenotaph

Cenotaph, Victoria Park, Regina, Saskatchewan

Remembrance Belfast

The Cenotaph located in Donegall Square in Belfast

Newton memorial boullee

Étienne-Louis Boullée, fantasy sketch Cénotaphe a Newton (1784)

KL Cenotaph

Kuala Lumpur cenotaph, National Monument, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

AlamoMemorial-0727

Cenotaph at The Alamo, Spirit of Sacrifice, San Antonio, Texas

Cenotaph Aldershot Gardens 2016

Cenotaph in Aldershot in the UK, 'Home of the British Army'

See also

References

  1. ^ Whitney, William Dwight (1914), The Century Dictionary: The Century dictionary, Century Company, p. 882
  2. ^ The Zambian Freedom Trail Project, pamphlet phase 1 published with support by U.S. Embassy, Lusaka, Zambia
  3. ^ "Bermuda Cenotaph". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  4. ^ "Commemorations for 35th anniversary of Liberation Day held in Falklands". MercoPress. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
  5. ^ "Falklands Observance of Remembrance Day on Sunday 12 November". MercoPress. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
  6. ^ Dorsey, John & Dilts, James D., Guide to Baltimore Architecture (1997) p. 145–146. Tidewater Publishers, Centreville, Maryland ISBN 0-87033-477-8
  7. ^ Skelton & Gliddon – Lutyens and the Great War, published 2008, Pages 23–47 (also see external link below: Cenotaph of Sigismunda and Lutyen's Whitehall Cenotaph)
  8. ^ "Buildings of outstanding or national architectural or historic interest."
  9. ^ "Many Waters Cannot Quench Love" http://www.straushistoricalsociety.org/documents.html
  10. ^ "Titanic Memorials: Archibald Butt Cenotaph, Arlington National Cemetery – Arlington, VA". Retrieved 11 July 2010.
  11. ^ "Leachtaí Cuimhneacháin (Stone Memorials for Dead)". Aran Islands. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  12. ^ Mike. "Have you been to Inis Mhór - the largest of the Aran Islands off County Galway? - Your Irish Heritage". Your Irish Heritage. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  13. ^ Ellison, Henry. "Scientific Theories". sonnets.org. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  14. ^ "Game Studies". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  15. ^ A Tribute to World of Warcraft Memorials. YouTube. 13 January 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  16. ^ Scott Kirsner (24 April 2013). "In Google's Ingress augmented reality game, a ceasefire at MIT and a memorial to slain officer Sean Collier". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  17. ^ "Operation Struma". Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  18. ^ "StardustForBowie, Mira in the eye of a Cyclone...". MIRA. Retrieved 19 January 2016
  19. ^ Kreps, Daniel (16 January 2016). "Belgian Astronomers Pay Tribute to David Bowie With New Constellation". Rolling Stone.

Further reading

External links

Alamo Cenotaph

The Alamo Cenotaph, also known as the Spirit of Sacrifice, is a monument in San Antonio, Texas, United States, commemorating the Battle of the Alamo of the Texas Revolution, which was fought at the adjacent Alamo Mission. The monument was erected in celebration of the centenary of the battle, and bears the names of those known to have fought there on the Texas side.

Cenotaph (Regina, Saskatchewan)

The Cenotaph, in Regina, Saskatchewan, was built in honour Regina's fallen heroes of World War I.

The cenotaph replaced the fountain that honoured Nicholas Flood Davin, which had stood in Victoria Park since 1908. The Cenotaph was unveiled on November 11, 1926.A rededication was held in 1990 to honour those Regina citizens who served in World War II and the Korean War and inscription was added to the monument.

Cenotaph Road

Cenotaph Road is a famous road in Teynampet in Chennai.

This road connects Mount Road to Turn Bulls Signal. The road has an important branch of ICICI Bank. TPL House (which houses Tamil Nadu Petroproducts Limited), Sasken Communication Technologies, Ernst & Young, etc.), the Russian Trade Embassy, and a Cafe Coffee Day outlet are other important landmarks on this road. The corporate office of Arihant Foundations, a leading real estate company based in Chennai, is also located on Cenotaph Road.

Cenotaph road has a first and second street, first and second lanes, and another road named Chitharanajan road adjoining it. Kollywood actress Trisha Krishnan resides on 2nd lane while UB Group chairman Vijay Mallya has a house on 2nd lane. The politician, M. K. Stalin, lives on Chitharanjan road.In the first lane, Dr. K. P. Shamsuddeen,a leading cardiologist has a house. Sudha Ragunathan also resides at Cenetoph Road.

Cenotaph Road is also the name of a science fiction series by American writer Robert E. Vardeman.

Croydon Cenotaph

Croydon Cenotaph is a war memorial, in Croydon, London, England. It is located outside Croydon Library, on Katharine Street in Croydon.The cenotaph, made from Portland stone, was designed by James Burford ARIBA and was unveiled on 22 October 1921, to commemorate local victims of World War I.

It is framed by two bronze statues of seated figures by Paul Raphael Montford, cast at the M. Maneti foundry. One depicts a wounded soldier from the East Surrey Regiment, the other a widow holding her child. The former was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1921.The cenotaph's inscription reads:

The dates "1939 1945" were added after World War II ended. The AND IN MEMORY ... SINCE lines were added in 1997.The cenotaph was granted Grade II listed status on 19 November 1973, both in its own right and as part of a group of municipal buildings, legally protecting it from unauthorised modification or demolition.A roll of honour is kept in the library.

Dörtayak

Dörtayak is an ancient cenotaph in Aydıncık of Mersin Province, Turkey

Grade II* listed war memorials in England

There are 129 Grade II* listed war memorials in England, out of over 2,000 listed war memorials. In the United Kingdom, a listed building is a building or structure of special historical or architectural importance; listing offers the building legal protection against demolition or modification, which requires permission from the local planning authority. Listed buildings are divided into three categories—grade I, grade II*, and grade II—which reflect the relative significance of the structure and may be a factor in planning decisions. Grade I is the most significant and accounts for 2.5% of listed buildings, while grade II accounts for 92%. Grade II* is the intermediate grade accounting for the remaining 5.5%; it is reserved for "particularly important buildings of more than special interest".

A war memorial listed at grade II* may be of particular artistic interest or accomplishment, of a highly unusual design, or of significant historical interest below that required for grade I. It is explicitly unnecessary for the architect or sculptor to be well known in order for a memorial to be listed at grade II*. As part of the commemorations of the centenary of the First World War, Historic England—the government body responsible for listing in England—is running a project with the aim of significantly increasing the number of war memorials on the National Heritage List for England.This list includes only memorials that are grade II* listed buildings in their own right. Memorials which are not free-standing—such as a plaque on a church wall—or which form part of the curtilage of a listed building—such as a sculpture within a building—but do not have their own entry on the National Heritage List for England are not included.

War memorials in England take a wide variety of forms and commemorate centuries of conflicts, though memorials to conflicts and the soldiers who fought in them—rather than exclusively commemorating victorious commanders—only started to be commonplace after the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, which ended the Napoleonic Wars. The aftermath of the First World War (1914–1918) produced significantly more memorials than any other single conflict; thus this list is dominated by First World War memorials, many of which were later re-dedicated or added to reflect losses from the Second World War (1939–1945).

The list below also features five memorials to the Second Boer War (1899–1902), to which around 1,000 memorials were built in Britain, four commissioned specifically to commemorate the Second World War, and one each to the Seven Years' War (1756–1763) and the Crimean War (1853–1856).

Hobart Cenotaph

Hobart Cenotaph, (usually 'The Cenotaph', also referred to as Hobart War Memorial), is the main commemorative military monument for the Australian state of Tasmania. It is located in the capital Hobart in a prominent position on the Queens Domain, on a small rise overlooking the city and River Derwent. The Cenotaph sits directly above what was once the location of the Queens Battery.

The Cenotaph is the centre of Anzac Day commemoration services at dawn and mid-morning, and is the destination of the marching procession. On Anzac Day at the break of dawn, a lone bugler always plays the Last Post.

Indiana World War Memorial Plaza

The Indiana World War Memorial Plaza is an urban feature located in Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, originally built to honor the veterans of World War I. The five-city-block plaza was conceived in 1919 as a location for the national headquarters of the American Legion and a memorial to the state's and nation's veterans. At the north end of the plaza is the American Legion Mall, which is the site of the administration buildings of the Legion, as well as a memorial cenotaph. South of that is the Veterans Memorial Plaza with its obelisk.

The centerpiece of the plaza is the Indiana World War Memorial, modeled after the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus. Within is a military museum, the Shrine Room, and an auditorium. At the south end is University Park, the oldest part of the plaza, filled with statues and a fountain. On October 11, 1994, the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza was designated a National Historic Landmark District. In 2016, the district was enlarged to include in its scope the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument and was renamed the Indiana World War Memorial Historic District.

Manchester Cenotaph

Manchester Cenotaph is a First World War memorial, with additions for later conflicts, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens for St Peter's Square in Manchester, England. Manchester was late in commissioning a war memorial compared to most British towns and cities—the city council did not convene a war memorial committee until 1922. The committee quickly raised £10,000 but finding a suitable location for the monument proved controversial. The preferred site in Albert Square required the removal and relocation of several statues, and was opposed by the city's artistic community. The next choice was Piccadilly Gardens, an area ripe for development, but in the interests of expediency, the council chose St Peter's Square, although it already contained a stone cross commemorating the former St Peter's Church. Negotiations to move the cross were unsuccessful and the cenotaph was built with the cross in situ.

The choice of architect was initially to be decided by open competition, but the committee was criticised in the local press when it reserved the right to overrule the result. It abandoned the competition and approached Lutyens, who produced a variation of his design for his cenotaph in London. The memorial consists of a central cenotaph and a Stone of Remembrance flanked by twin obelisks, all features characteristic of Lutyens' works. The cenotaph is topped by an effigy of a fallen soldier and decorated with relief carvings of the imperial crown, Manchester's coat of arms and inscriptions commemorating the dead. The structures, based on classical architecture, use abstract, ecumenical shapes rather than overt religious symbolism. The memorial was unveiled on 12 July 1924 by the Earl of Derby, assisted by Mrs Bingle, a local resident whose three sons had died in the war. It cost £6,940 and the remaining funds were used to provide hospital beds.

In 2014, Manchester City Council dismantled the memorial and reconstructed it at the northwest corner of St Peter's Square next to Manchester Town Hall to make room for the expanded Metrolink tram network. It is a grade II* listed structure and in 2015, Historic England recognised Manchester Cenotaph as part of a national collection of Lutyens' war memorials.

National Monument (Malaysia)

The National Monument is a sculpture that commemorates those who died in Malaysia's struggle for freedom, principally against the Japanese occupation during World War II and the Malayan Emergency, which lasted from 1948 until 1960. It is located in the Federal capital, Kuala Lumpur. The Malaysian Houses of Parliament are situated near the monument.

It is the world's tallest bronze freestanding sculpture grouping. Every year on 31 July on Warriors' Day, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the Prime Minister, and the heads of the Malaysian Armed Forces and the Royal Malaysia Police pay their respects to the fallen heroes by laying garlands at the monument.

Portland Cenotaph

The Portland Cenotaph is a war memorial located on the Isle of Portland, Dorset, England. It is situated at New Ground, looking down to Underhill of the island and overlooking Chesil Beach, as it sits in front of Portland Heights Hotel. The monument is dedicated to the local soldiers who died during both the First and Second World Wars. It has been a Grade II Listed Monument since May 1993.

Rochdale Cenotaph

Rochdale Cenotaph is a First World War memorial on the Esplanade in Rochdale, Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, it is one of seven memorials in England based on his Cenotaph on Whitehall in London and one of his more ambitious designs. The memorial was unveiled in 1922 and consists of a raised platform bearing Lutyens' characteristic Stone of Remembrance next to a 10-metre (33 ft) pylon topped by an effigy of a recumbent soldier. A set of painted stone flags surrounds the pylon.

A public meeting in February 1919 established a consensus to create a monument and a fund for the families of wounded servicemen. The meeting agreed to commission Lutyens to design the monument. His design for a bridge over the River Roch was abandoned after a local dignitary purchased a plot of land adjacent to Rochdale Town Hall and donated it for the site of the memorial. Lutyens revised his design, and Edward Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby, unveiled the memorial on 26 November 1922. It is a Grade I listed structure, having been upgraded in 2015 when Lutyens' war memorials were declared a national collection.

Royal Air Force Ensign

The Royal Air Force Ensign is the official flag which is used to represent the British Royal Air Force. The ensign has a field of air force blue with the United Kingdom's flag in the canton and the Royal Air Force's roundel in the middle of the fly.

The RAF Ensign was introduced in 1921 after some opposition from senior members of the Royal Navy. Various countries' air force ensigns have been based upon the RAF's ensign. Currently it is flown from the flagstaff of every Royal Air Force station during daylight hours and has been permanently displayed on the Cenotaph in London since 1943.

South African War Memorial, Richmond Cemetery

The South African War Memorial is a First World War memorial in Richmond Cemetery in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. Designed by architect Sir Edwin Lutyens, the memorial is in the form of a cenotaph, similar to that on Whitehall, also by Lutyens. It was commissioned by the South African Hospital and Comforts Fund Committee to commemorate the 39 South African soldiers who died of their wounds at a military hospital in Richmond Park during the First World War. The memorial was unveiled by General Jan Smuts in 1921 and was the focus of pilgrimages from South Africa through the 1920s and 1930s, after which it was largely forgotten until the 1980s when the Commonwealth War Graves Commission took responsibility for its maintenance. It has been a grade II listed building since 2012.

Southampton Cenotaph

Southampton Cenotaph is a First World War memorial designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and located in Watts Park in Southampton, southern England. The memorial was the first of dozens by Lutyens to be built in permanent form and it influenced his later designs, including The Cenotaph on Whitehall in London. It is a tapering, multi-tiered pylon which culminates in a series of diminishing layers before terminating in a sarcophagus (or cenotaph, "empty tomb") which features a recumbent figure of a soldier. In front is an altar-like Stone of Remembrance. The cenotaph contains multiple sculptural details including a prominent cross, the town's coat of arms, and two lions. The names of the dead are inscribed on three sides. Although similar in outline, Lutyens' later cenotaphs were much more austere and featured almost no sculpture. The design uses abstract, ecumenical features and lifts the recumbent soldier high above eye level, anonymising him.

The memorial was unveiled at a public ceremony on 6 November 1920. Shortly afterwards, concerns emerged that the list of names on the cenotaph was not complete. After a newspaper campaign, over 200 further names were identified and these were eventually added to the cenotaph. The names of most Jewish casualties were omitted, the Jewish community being unhappy that the memorial featured a Christian cross. By the beginning of the 21st century, the engravings on the memorial had deteriorated noticeably. Rather than re-cut them and damage the stonework, they were supplemented by a series of glass panels which bear all the names from the cenotaph, as well as names from the Second World War and later conflicts. The panels were unveiled in 2011.

The memorial is a Grade I listed building, having been upgraded in 2015 when Lutyens' war memorials were declared a national collection.

Sydney Cenotaph

The Sydney Cenotaph is a heritage-listed monument located in Martin Place, in the Sydney central business district, in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Bertram Mackennal and built from 1927 to 1929 by Dorman Long & Co. It is also known as Martin Place Memorial and The Cenotaph. It is one of the oldest World War I monuments in central Sydney. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 11 November 2009.The cenotaph takes the form of a monolithic stone block in a sepulchral shape. At its two shorter ends stand two bronze statues, a soldier and a sailor guarding the cenotaph. Words are carved into the longer faces of the cenotaph: on the southern side, facing the General Post Office, the carving reads: "To Our Glorious Dead"; on the northern side, facing Challis House, it reads: "Lest We Forget." Remembrance events are frequently held at the Cenotaph. Most importantly, it is the centre for Sydney's main ANZAC and Armistice Day dawn service ceremonies, regularly drawing thousands of attendees.

The Cenotaph

The Cenotaph is a war memorial on Whitehall in London, England. Its origin is in a temporary structure erected for a peace parade following the end of the First World War, and after an outpouring of national sentiment it was replaced in 1920 by a permanent structure and designated the United Kingdom's official national war memorial.

Designed by Edwin Lutyens, the permanent structure was built from Portland stone between 1919 and 1920 by Holland, Hannen & Cubitts, replacing Lutyens' earlier wood-and-plaster cenotaph in the same location. An annual Service of Remembrance is held at the site on Remembrance Sunday, the closest Sunday to 11 November (Armistice Day) each year. Lutyens' cenotaph design has been reproduced elsewhere in the UK and in other countries of historical British allegiance including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Bermuda and Hong Kong.

The Cenotaph, Singapore

The Cenotaph (Chinese: 战亡纪念碑) is a war memorial located within the Esplanade Park at Connaught Drive, within the Central Area in Singapore's central business district.

The Curse of the Monolith

"The Curse of the Monolith" is a short story by American writers L. Sprague de Camp and Lin Carter, featuring the fictional sword and sorcery hero Conan of Cimmeria created by Robert E. Howard. It was first published in the magazine Worlds of Fantasy in 1968 as "Conan and the Cenotaph".

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