Cengage

Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide. It has operations in more than 20 countries around the world.[2][3][4]

Cengage
Cengage logo
Founded2007
Country of originUnited States
Headquarters locationBoston, United States
Key people
  • Michael Hansen (CEO)
  • Fernando Bleichmar – Chief Product Officer
  • Todd Markson – Chief Strategy Officer
  • Alexander Broich – President, International
  • Laura Stevens – General Counsel
  • Sharon Loeb – Chief Marketing Officer
  • George Moore – Chief Technology Officer
  • Judah Karkowsky – Global Head, M&A
  • Rebecca McNamara – Chief Financial Officer (interim)
  • Gary Fortier – Chief People Officer
Publication typesEducational content, technology, and services
Imprints
  • 4LTR Press
  • Aplia
  • Cengage Learning PTR
  • Chilton
  • ed2go
  • Gale
  • Heinle
  • Milady
  • MindTap
  • National Geographic Learning
RevenueIncrease US$1.5 billion (2017)
Owner(s)Apax Partners, Searchlight Capital Partners, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co., Oaktree Capital Management, Oak Hill Advisors, BlackRock Financial Management, Franklin Mutual Advisers, and others[1]
No. of employees5,000 (2017)
Official websitewww.cengage.com

Company information

The company is headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts, and has approximately 5,000 employees worldwide across nearly 38 countries.[3][5] It was headquartered at its Stamford, Connecticut office until April 2014.[6]

Gale is Cengage's library reference arm and specializes in e-research and educational publishing for libraries, schools and businesses. The company creates and maintains databases that are published online, in print, as e-books and in microform.[7]

Services

Cengage offers print and digital textbooks, instructor supplements, online reference databases, distance learning courses, test preparation materials, corporate training courses, career assessment tools, materials for specific academic disciplines, and custom solutions.

On December 5, 2017, Cengage announced Cengage Unlimited, a subscription service that allows students to pay for access to the company's entire digital higher education catalog by the semester or year, rather than buying individual textbooks.[8] This service became available during summer 2018, and was reported to be "in line with expectations" with its initial sales goal.[9] The University of Missouri is the first university to offer this plan to all students, effective January 2019.[10]

History

Thomson Learning, which owned the Wadsworth Publishing imprint, was created out of a restructuring of International Thomson Publishing.[11] It was announced on October 25, 2006 that Thomson Learning would be offered for sale by the Thomson Corporation, with an estimated value of up to US$5 billion.[12][13] The company was bought by a private equity consortium consisting of Apax Partners and OMERS Capital Partners for US$7.75 billion, and the name was changed to Cengage Learning on 24 July 2007.[14] In 2011, Cengage Learning acquired the National Geographic Society's school publishing unit, and combined this school business with the Global ELT business to create and launch the National Geographic Learning brand. The global brand combined the former Cengage Learning ELT and National Geographic School Publishing imprints and sub-brands under one unified identity.[15]

In September 2013 David Shaffer retired as chairman of the company.[16] He had previously been executive vice president of The Thomson Corporation from 2005 to 2006, and then President and CEO of both Thomson Publishing International and Thomson Learning.[17]

The company had acquired a large amount of debt through the course of its initial buyout and subsequent acquisitions, and had seen declining revenue through a shrinking market for paper textbooks. Cengage Learning filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 11 on July 2, 2013.[14][18] Cengage Learning emerged from bankruptcy on April 1, 2014, eliminating approximately $4 billion of its funded debt and securing $1.75 billion in exit financing. Post-bankruptcy, the company decided to focus on developing digital study guides and other educational supplements, as well as hard-copy textbooks.

In January 2015 they announced expansion of their LearnLaunch Accelerator program, which provides seed funding and intensive coaching to promising startups, to the University of Chihuahua in Mexico.[19][20]

In November 2016, Cengage Learning rebranded as simply Cengage and rolled out a new branding scheme that highlights its student-centered approach.

Acquisitions

In addition to organic growth, Cengage has expanded through acquisitions within the publishing industry. Notable acquisitions include:

Date of acquisition announced Asset acquired Industry
1 March 2004 Education to Go[21] Online continuing education courses
16 May 2008 PAL Publications[22] Professional reference series
2 June 2008 Houghton Mifflin College Division[22] Publishing for 2- and 4-year colleges
17 July 2008 Gatlin Education Services[23] Web-based training for education providers
16 December 2008 HighBeam Research[24] Paid search engine of newspapers and magazines
1 August 2011 National Geographic School Publishing[15] Publishing for K-12 schools
September 2015 Learning Objects, Inc Learning management systems and adaptive education tools
October 2015 Pathbrite, Inc ePortfolio services for learning, reflection, and career advancement
September 2016 WebAssign[25] Online instructional application for faculty and students. Deal led by Judah Karkowsky.

Brands/imprints

The company's product lines include 4LTR Press, Aplia, Cengage Learning PTR, Chilton, Education To Go, Gale, Milady, MindTap, and National Geographic Learning.

Since 2015, South-Western products have been branded as Cengage Learning.[26]

Cengage Unlimited, a SaaS solution, launched on August 1, 2018. [27]

Rankings

In 2016, based on its 2015 revenues, Publishers Weekly ranked the company 14 out of 57 publishers worldwide, a decline of three slots from the previous year. The list includes both trade and educational publishers.[28]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Callum Borchers (1 April 2014). "Cengage emerges from bankruptcy with Boston as its electronic publishing base". BostonGlobe.com. Archived from the original on 15 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-15.
  2. ^ (Jun 27, 2014) Global Publishing Leaders 2014: Cengage Archived 2015-06-12 at the Wayback Machine publishersweekly.com
  3. ^ a b Company Info - Wall Street Journal. Cengage Learning Archived 2015-06-18 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Company Overview of Cengage Learning, Inc. Archived 2017-08-09 at the Wayback Machine BloombergBusiness
  5. ^ "Global Publishing Leaders 2017: Cengage Learning Holdings II LP". PublishersWeekly.com. Retrieved 2018-09-06.
  6. ^ "Ed publishing firm Cengage will move into new Pier 4 building - The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. Retrieved 2018-09-06.
  7. ^ Gale : A Cengage Learning Company Archived 2013-10-17 at the Wayback Machine CAUL (Council of Australian University Librarians)
  8. ^ "Boston publisher launches a Netflix for textbooks - The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com.
  9. ^ McKenzie, Lindsay (November 8, 2018). "Promising Early Sales for Cengage Unlimited". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  10. ^ "University of Missouri System Chooses Cengage Unlimited Subscriptions to Save Students Money on Course Materials". Business Insider. November 16, 2018. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  11. ^ https://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/print/20000731/19613-pw-thomson-learning-adapts-to-market.html
  12. ^ Thomas, Helen (25 October 2006) Thomson to put learning unit on the block. FT Alphaville. Financial Times.
  13. ^ (October 25, 2006) Thomson to sell education units Archived 2015-06-05 at the Wayback Machine Boston.com
  14. ^ a b "Cengage Learning Files for Bankruptcy". New York Times. July 2, 2013. Archived from the original on November 8, 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-07.
  15. ^ a b Jinks, Beth (June 24, 2011) Apax's Cengage Buying National Geographic's School Publisher Archived 2016-07-31 at the Wayback Machine Bloomberg.com
  16. ^ Edgecliffe-Johnson, Andrew (July 6, 2013) Debt-laden Cengage in hunt for new chief Archived 2012-07-14 at the Wayback Machine The Financial Times
  17. ^ Executive Profile - David H. Shaffer bloomberg.com
  18. ^ Howard, Jennifer (July 3, 2013) Publisher's Bankruptcy Filing Comes as Market for Print Textbooks Shrinks Archived 2015-05-12 at the Wayback Machine The Chronicle of Higher Education
  19. ^ Borchers, Callum (April 01, 2014) Cengage exits bankruptcy, focuses on e-books in Boston Archived 2014-09-15 at the Wayback Machine bostonglobe.com
  20. ^ Shulman, Eden (12 Feb, 2015) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-05-02. Retrieved 2015-06-04.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) BetaBoston - Boston Globe
  21. ^ MacFadyen, Ken (June 9, 2008) Thomson Course Technology Acquires Education To Go To Expand Continuing Education Offerings Archived 2016-01-29 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ a b MacFadyen, Ken (June 9, 2008) Cengage Buys Houghton Mifflin's College Unit Archived 2015-06-05 at the Wayback Machine themiddlemarket.com
  23. ^ Cengage Learning Acquired Gatlin Education Services. Was this a good decision? owler.com
  24. ^ Polanka, Sue (Dec 16, 2008) http://www.libraries.wright.edu/noshelfrequired/2008/12/16/highbeam-research-now-part-of-galecengage/ Archived June 5, 2015, at the Wayback Machine No Shelf Required - Wright State University Libraries
  25. ^ "Cengage Acquires WebAssign, Strengthening Market Position in Science, Technology and Math". Cengage. 2016-09-27. Archived from the original on 2016-11-16. Retrieved 2016-11-15.
  26. ^ "There’s a new way to find South-Western titles" Archived 2017-04-08 at the Wayback Machine, Cengage Learning. Retrieved April 8, 2017.
  27. ^ (Aug 04, 2018) eLearning Inside News: Cengage
  28. ^ "The World's 57 Largest Book Publishers, 2015" Archived 2015-11-15 at the Wayback Machine publishersweekly.com. Jun 26, 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-07.

References

External links

Aristotle and the Gun and Other Stories

Aristotle and the Gun and Other Stories is a collection of short stories by American science fiction and fantasy author L. Sprague de Camp. It was published in hardcover in August 2002 by the Gale Group as part of its Five Star Speculative Fiction Series.The book contains short works of fiction by the author spanning much of his writing career, having originally been published from 1939 to 1993. It also contains an introduction by Harry Turtledove.

Boston Public Library

The Boston Public Library is a municipal public library system in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, founded in 1848. The Boston Public Library is also the Library for the Commonwealth (formerly library of last recourse) of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts; all adult residents of the commonwealth are entitled to borrowing and research privileges, and the library receives state funding. The Boston Public Library contains approximately 24 million volumes, and electronic resources, making it the third-largest public library in the United States behind only the Library of Congress and the New York Public Library. In fiscal year 2014, the library held over 10,000 programs, all free to the public, and lent 3.7 million materials.

Charles Scribner's Sons

Charles Scribner's Sons, or simply Scribner's or Scribner, is an American publisher based in New York City, known for publishing American authors including Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Kurt Vonnegut, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Stephen King, Robert A. Heinlein, Thomas Wolfe, George Santayana, John Clellon Holmes, Don DeLillo, and Edith Wharton.

The firm published Scribner's Magazine for many years. More recently, several Scribner titles and authors have garnered Pulitzer Prizes, National Book Awards and other merits. In 1978 the company merged with Atheneum and became The Scribner Book Companies. In turn it merged into Macmillan in 1984.Simon & Schuster bought Macmillan in 1994. By this point only the trade book and reference book operations still bore the original family name. The former imprint, now simply "Scribner," was retained by Simon & Schuster, while the reference division has been owned by Gale since 1999. As of 2012, Scribner is a division of Simon & Schuster under the title Scribner Publishing Group which also includes the Touchstone Books imprint.The president of Scribner as of 2017 is Susan Moldow (who also held the position of publisher from 1994 to 2012), and the current publisher is Nan Graham.

Chilton Company

Chilton Company (AKA Chilton Printing Co., Chilton Publishing Co., Chilton Book Co. and Chilton Research Services) is a former publishing company, most famous for its trade magazines, and automotive manuals. It also provided conference and market research services to a wide variety of industries. Chilton grew from a small publisher of a single magazine to a leading publisher of business-to-business magazines, consumer and professional automotive manuals, craft and hobby books, and a large, well-known marketing research company.

In the early years, its flagship magazine was Iron Age. In 1955, Chilton's profit reached $1 million for the first time, of which Iron Age accounted for $750,000. By 1980, Iron Age's revenue and status had declined due to the reduction in the size of the US metalworking manufacturing industry, and Jewelers Circular Keystone captured the position of Chilton's most profitable magazine. While Chilton had leading magazines in several different industries, the Chilton name is most strongly associated with the consumer and professional automotive manuals, which Cengage Learning continues to license or publish.

Christine (novel)

Christine is a horror novel written by Stephen King, published in 1983. It tells the story of a 1958 Plymouth Fury apparently possessed by supernatural forces. A film adaptation, directed by John Carpenter, was released in the same year; this adaptation starred Keith Gordon, John Stockwell, Alexandra Paul and Harry Dean Stanton. In April 2013, PS Publishing released Christine in a limited 30th Anniversary Edition.

Columbia Encyclopedia

The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group. First published in 1935, and continuing its relationship with Columbia University, the encyclopedia underwent major revisions in 1950 and 1963; the current edition is the sixth, printed in 2000. It contains over 51,000 articles totaling some 6.5 million words and has also been published in two volumes.

An electronic version of the encyclopedia is available, and the Columbia Encyclopedia is licensed by several different companies for use over the Internet.

Contemporary Authors

Contemporary Authors is an annually updated reference work published by Gale Cengage. It provides biographical details on over 120,000 writers in all genres whose works have been published in the English language. Contemporary Authors was originally released as a series of books, but is now available in an online version as part of Gale's Literature Resource Center.

Authors can submit information about themselves, but they must meet certain inclusion criteria to receive a profile in Contemporary Authors. Authors whose works have been published only by vanity presses are generally excluded.The first edition of Contemporary Authors was released in 1962. The series is held in many libraries, and was honored by the American Library Association in 1985 as one of the "most distinguished reference titles" of the preceding 25 years.

Dictionary of Scientific Biography

The Dictionary of Scientific Biography is a scholarly reference work that was published from 1970 through 1980. It is supplemented by the New Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Both these publications are comprised in an electronic version, called the Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography.

Elementary algebra

Elementary algebra encompasses some of the basic concepts of algebra, one of the main branches of mathematics. It is typically taught to secondary school students and builds on their understanding of arithmetic. Whereas arithmetic deals with specified numbers, algebra introduces quantities without fixed values, known as variables. This use of variables entails a use of algebraic notation and an understanding of the general rules of the operators introduced in arithmetic. Unlike abstract algebra, elementary algebra is not concerned with algebraic structures outside the realm of real and complex numbers.

The use of variables to denote quantities allows general relationships between quantities to be formally and concisely expressed, and thus enables solving a broader scope of problems. Many quantitative relationships in science and mathematics are expressed as algebraic equations.

Encyclopaedia Judaica

The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and of Judaism. It covers diverse areas of the Jewish world and civilization, including Jewish history of all eras, culture, holidays, language, scripture, and religious teachings. As of 2010, it had been published in two editions accompanied by a few revisions.

The English-language Judaica was also published on CD-ROM. The CD-ROM version has been enhanced by at least 100,000 hyperlinks and several other features, including videos, slide shows, maps, music and Hebrew pronunciations. While the CD-ROM version is still available, the publisher has discontinued it.The encyclopedia was written by Israeli, American and European professional subject specialists.

Encyclopedia.com

Encyclopedia.com (also known as HighBeam Encyclopedia) is an online encyclopedia. It aggregates information from other published dictionaries, encyclopedias and reference works including pictures and videos. It received Codie awards in 2009 and 2010. The website is operated by Chicago based company Highbeam Research a subsidiary of reference publisher Gale itself a subsidiary of Cengage.Encyclopedia.com allows users to access information on a subject from multiple encyclopedias and dictionary sources, and has nearly 200,000 entries and 50,000 topic summaries. It provides a collection of online encyclopedias and entries from various sources, including Oxford University Press, Columbia Encyclopedia and Gale its parent company.The website was launched by Infonautics in March 1998. Infonautics was acquired by Tucows in August 2001. In August 2002, Patrick Spain bought Encyclopedia.com and its sister website eLibrary from Tucows and incorporated them in a new company called Alacritude, LLC (a combination of Alacrity and Attitude). The business became known as Highbeam Research and was eventually sold to Gale.

Gale (publisher)

Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, Michigan, west of Detroit. Since 2007 it has been a division of Cengage Learning.

The company, formerly known as Gale Research and the Gale Group, is active in research and educational publishing for public, academic, and school libraries, and businesses. The company is known for its full-text magazine and newspaper databases, InfoTrac, and other online databases subscribed by libraries, as well as multi-volume reference works, especially in the areas of religion, history, and social science.

Founded in Detroit, Michigan in 1954 by Frederick Gale Ruffner, the company was acquired by the Thomson Corporation (as a part of the Thomson Learning division) in 1985 before its 2007 sale to Cengage.

HighBeam Research

HighBeam Research was a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary of Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English. It was headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. In late 2018, the archive was shut down and redirected to the Questia Online Library.

InfoTrac

InfoTrac is a family of full-text databases of content from academic journals and general magazines, of which the majority are targeted to the English-speaking North American market. As is typical of online proprietary databases, various forms of authentication are used to verify affiliation with subscribing academic, public, and school libraries. InfoTrac databases are published by Gale, a part of Cengage Learning.

As of 1994, InfoTrac databases were published by Information Access Company (IAC) on CD-ROMs which were mailed to subscribing libraries at regular intervals. In that era, when personal computers were still relatively new, many publishers were not yet licensing full text of their articles, so most publications were represented only by article abstracts. This meant the InfoTrac family of products at their inception were primarily bibliographic databases as opposed to full-text databases. Furthermore, the personal computers typically used as InfoTrac terminals operated only in text mode, meaning that "full text" meant only text and not the article as originally published with photos and illustrations.

However, InfoTrac databases were published in coordination with various microfilm products from IAC which came on sequentially numbered auto-loading cartridges, on which individual frames were also individually numbered. Most InfoTrac abstracts and full-text articles from the 1980s and 1990s have a location code at the end of the article which points to the exact frame on a microfilm cartridge where the story begins, which a library user could use to obtain a copy of the article as originally published.

With each microfilm product subscription, IAC included a large rotating carousel with slots in which the cartridges could be stored for easy access, and also sold proprietary microfilm readers for its cartridges.

The readers were able to automatically take up the loose end of the microfilm upon cartridge insertion after a second or two, while standard microfilm reels must be manually wound into a reader, which is much slower.

Thus, well-funded U.S. public libraries in the 1980s and 1990s typically had several Infotrac database terminals, several carousels of IAC cartridges, and several microfilm readers. Researchers would use the database terminals to compile a list of all the cartridge-and-frame codes for all articles they were interested in, then they would pull the corresponding cartridges from the carousels and use printers built into the readers to make photocopies of the articles as originally printed.

IAC was acquired by Gale Group in 1994. Like most database companies, Gale started offering real-time access to InfoTrac databases through a Web interface in the late 1990s (while simultaneously improving its full-text coverage). Around 2000, Gale began making scanned articles in PDF format directly available through the Web interface, thus relieving users of having to go to microfilm or hard copy to obtain as-published copies of articles.

The InfoTrac brand was relaunched in 2005 on a new technology platform named Thomson Gale PowerSearch, which was named "most improved product" at the 2005 Charleston Conference. InfoTrac has also placed ninth in Library Journal's list of the top 50 library brands of the millennium.

Mouth

In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds. It is also the cavity lying at the upper end of the alimentary canal, bounded on the outside by the lips and inside by the pharynx and containing in higher vertebrates the tongue and teeth. This cavity is also known as the buccal cavity, from the Latin bucca ("cheek").Some animal phyla, including vertebrates, have a complete digestive system, with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. Which end forms first in ontogeny is a criterion used to classify animals into protostomes and deuterostomes.

New Catholic Encyclopedia

The New Catholic Encyclopedia (NCE) is a multi-volume reference work on Roman Catholic history and belief edited by the faculty of The Catholic University of America. It was intended by the faculty to become, like its predecessor the 1914 Catholic Encyclopedia, a standard reference work for students, teachers, librarians, journalists, and general readers interested in the history, doctrine, practices, and people of the Catholic faith. However, unlike its predecessor, its first edition also contained more general articles on science, education, and the liberal arts. The NCE was originally published by McGraw-Hill in 1967. A second edition, which gave up the articles more reminiscent of a general encyclopedia, was published in 2002 and was listed as one of Library Journal's "Best Reference Sources" for 2003.

Sexual intercourse

Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both. This is also known as vaginal intercourse or vaginal sex. Other forms of penetrative sexual intercourse include anal sex (penetration of the anus by the penis), oral sex (penetration of the mouth by the penis or oral penetration of the female genitalia), fingering (sexual penetration by the fingers), and penetration by use of a dildo (especially a strap-on dildo). These activities involve physical intimacy between two or more individuals and are usually used among humans solely for physical or emotional pleasure and can contribute to human bonding.There are different views on what constitutes sexual intercourse or other sexual activity, which can impact on views on sexual health. Although sexual intercourse, particularly the variant coitus, generally denotes penile–vaginal penetration and the possibility of creating offspring, it also commonly denotes penetrative oral sex and penile–anal sex, especially the latter. It usually encompasses sexual penetration, while non-penetrative sex has been labeled "outercourse", but non-penetrative sex may also be considered sexual intercourse. Sex, often a shorthand for sexual intercourse, can mean any form of sexual activity. Because people can be at risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections during these activities, safe sex practices are advised, although transmission risk is significantly reduced during non-penetrative sex.Various jurisdictions have placed restrictive laws against certain sexual acts, such as incest, sexual activity with minors, prostitution, rape, zoophilia, sodomy, premarital and extramarital sex. Religious beliefs also play a role in personal decisions about sexual intercourse or other sexual activity, such as decisions about virginity, or legal and public policy matters. Religious views on sexuality vary significantly between different religions and sects of the same religion, though there are common themes, such as prohibition of adultery.

Reproductive sexual intercourse between non-human animals is more often called copulation, and sperm may be introduced into the female's reproductive tract in non-vaginal ways among the animals, such as by cloacal copulation. For most non-human mammals, mating and copulation occur at the point of estrus (the most fertile period of time in the female's reproductive cycle), which increases the chances of successful impregnation. However, bonobos, dolphins and chimpanzees are known to engage in sexual intercourse regardless of whether or not the female is in estrus, and to engage in sex acts with same-sex partners. Like humans engaging in sexual activity primarily for pleasure, this behavior in these animals is also presumed to be for pleasure, and a contributing factor to strengthening their social bonds.

Vagina

In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract. In humans, it extends from the vulva to the cervix. The outer vaginal opening is normally partly covered by a membrane called the hymen. At the deep end, the cervix (neck of the uterus) bulges into the vagina. The vagina allows for sexual intercourse and birth. It also channels menstrual flow (menses), which occurs in humans and closely related primates as part of the monthly menstrual cycle.

Although research on the vagina is especially lacking for different animals, its location, structure and size is documented as varying among species. Female mammals usually have two external openings in the vulva, the urethral opening for the urinary tract and the vaginal opening for the genital tract. This is different from male mammals, who usually have a single urethral opening for both urination and reproduction. The vaginal opening is much larger than the nearby urethral opening, and both are protected by the labia in humans. In amphibians, birds, reptiles and monotremes, the cloaca is the single external opening for the gastrointestinal tract, the urinary, and reproductive tracts.

To accommodate smoother penetration of the vagina during sexual intercourse or other sexual activity, vaginal moisture increases during sexual arousal in human females and other female mammals. This increase in moisture provides vaginal lubrication, which reduces friction. The texture of the vaginal walls creates friction for the penis during sexual intercourse and stimulates it toward ejaculation, enabling fertilization. Along with pleasure and bonding, women's sexual behavior with others (which can include heterosexual or lesbian sexual activity) can result in sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the risk of which can be reduced by recommended safe sex practices. Other health issues may also affect the human vagina.

The vagina and vulva have evoked strong reactions in societies throughout history, including negative perceptions and language, cultural taboos, and their use as symbols for female sexuality, spirituality, or regeneration of life. In common speech, the word vagina is often used to refer to the vulva or to the female genitals in general. By its dictionary and anatomical definitions, however, vagina refers exclusively to the specific internal structure, and understanding the distinction can improve knowledge of the female genitalia and aid in healthcare communication.

WebAssign

WebAssign is an American educational company which provides online homework application for faculty and students.

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