Cemal Tollu

Cemal Tollu (19 April 1899 – 26 July 1968) was a Turkish painter.[1] He served in the Turkish war of independence as a cavalry lieutenant.[2] and witnessed the Fire of Manisa. In 1933 he founded the "D Group" with several other painters[1] who were devoted to Cubism and Constructivism.[3] In his later life he was to teach at the Fine Arts Academy of Istanbul until 1965.[2]


  • The Burning of Manisa during the War for Liberation (1968)
  • Mother Earth (1956)
  • The Ballerina (1935)
  • Woman with Black Dress (1930)


  1. ^ a b Fleet, Kate (2006). The Cambridge History of Turkey. Cambridge University Press. p. 437. ISBN 9780521620963.
  2. ^ a b [1]
  3. ^ Shaw, Wendy M. K. (2011). Ottoman Painting: Reflections of Western Art from the Ottoman Empire to the Turkish Republic. I.B.Tauris. p. 170. ISBN 9781848852884.
April 19

April 19 is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 256 days remaining until the end of the year.

D Grubu

The D Grubu, Group D, is a collective of artists founded in Turkey in 1933 by five painters (Zeki Faik İzer, Nurullah Berk, Elif Naci, Cemal Tollu, Abidin Dino) and one sculptor (Zühtü Müridoğlu).The group is considered Turkey's first contemporary art movement.

Group D

Group D may refer to:

One of six or eight groups of four teams competing at the FIFA World Cup

2018 FIFA World Cup Group D

2014 FIFA World Cup Group D

2010 FIFA World Cup Group D

2006 FIFA World Cup Group D

2002 FIFA World Cup Group D

1998 FIFA World Cup Group D

1994 FIFA World Cup Group D

1990 FIFA World Cup Group D

Group D Production Sports Cars, a motor racing category current in Australia from 1972 to 1981

D Grubu, Turkish artists group founded in 1933 by Zeki Faik İzer, Nurullah Berk, Elif Naci, Cemal Tollu, Abidin Dino and Zühtü Müridoğlu.

History of Modern Turkish painting

The history of modern Turkish painting can be traced back to the modernization efforts in the Ottoman Empire during the Tanzimat period, in the 19th century. This article contains a brief history of Turkish painters and art movements from the mid-19th century to the present.

Julie van der Veen

Julie Henriëtte Eugénie van der Veen (Kudus, Dutch East Indies, 8 February 1903 – The Hague, 12 January 1997) was a Dutch visual artist.

July 26

July 26 is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 158 days remaining until the end of the year.

Nermin Farukî

Nermin Farukî (1904–1991) or (1914–2001), was a Turkish sculptor, and one of Turkeys first female sculptors. She received education in the Istanbul Academy of Fine Arts painting department and later at the Berlin Fine Arts Academy. Along with sculpture she also worked on painting.

She was the daughter of the Ottoman Empires first perfume producers, Ahmet Farukî.

Nur Koçak

Nur Koçak is a contemporary feminist Turkish artist who was born in Istanbul, Turkey in 1941. She is a pioneering representative of hyperrealism in Turkey since the 1970s. She is most well known for her works that comment on women's objectification in consumerist societies. She lives and works in Istanbul, Turkey.


Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije dʒumˈhuɾijeti] (listen)), is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles (collectively called the Turkish Straits). Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Ankara is its capital but Istanbul is the country's largest city. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians, and Armenians. Hellenization started during the era of Alexander the Great and continued into the Byzantine era. The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, and their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities. After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens.In 1913, a coup d'état effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. The Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president. Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought, philosophy, and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 primarily in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey.

Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, and a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been effectively stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history. Turkey is a secular, unitary, formerly parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017; the new system came into effect with the presidential election in 2018. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, and undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press.

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