Celtic languages

The Celtic languages (usually /ˈkɛltɪk/, but sometimes /ˈsɛl-/)[4] are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European language family.[5] The term "Celtic" was first used to describe this language group by Edward Lhuyd in 1707,[6] following Paul-Yves Pezron, who made the explicit link between the Celts described by classical writers and the Welsh and Breton languages.[7]

During the 1st millennium BC, Celtic languages were spoken across much of Europe and in Asia Minor. Today, they are restricted to the northwestern fringe of Europe and a few diaspora communities. There are four living languages: Welsh, Breton, Irish and Scottish Gaelic. All are minority languages in their respective countries, though there are continuing efforts at revitalisation. Welsh is an official language in Wales and Irish is an official language of Ireland and of the European Union. Welsh is the only Celtic language not classified as endangered by UNESCO. The Cornish and Manx languages went extinct in modern times. They have been the object of revivals and now each has several hundred second-language speakers.

Irish and Scottish form the Goidelic languages, while Welsh and Breton are Brittonic. Beyond that there is no agreement on the subdivisions of the Celtic language family They may be divided into and Continental group and Insular group, or else into P-Celtic and Q-Celtic. All the living languages are Insular, since Breton, the only Celtic language spoken in continental Europe, is descended from the language of settlers from Britain. The Continental Celtic languages, such as Celtiberian, Galatian and Gaulish, are all extinct.

The Celtic languages have a rich literary tradition. The earliest specimens of written Celtic are Lepontic inscriptions from the 6th century BC in the Alps. Early Continental inscriptions used Italic and Paleohispanic scripts. Between the 4th and 8th centuries, Irish and Pictish were occasionally written in an original script, Ogham, but the Latin alphabet came to be used for all Celtic languages. Welsh has had a continuous literary tradition from the 6th century AD.

Celtic
Geographic
distribution
Formerly widespread in Europe; today Cornwall, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Brittany, Patagonia, Nova Scotia and the Isle of Man
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Proto-languageProto-Celtic
Subdivisions
ISO 639-2 / 5cel
Linguasphere50= (phylozone)
Glottologcelt1248[3]
{{{mapalt}}}
Distribution of Celtic speakers:
  Hallstatt culture area, 6th century BC
  Maximal Celtic expansion, c. 275 BC
  Lusitanian area; Celtic affiliation unclear
  Areas where Celtic languages are widely spoken in the 21st century

Living languages

SIL Ethnologue lists six living Celtic languages, of which four have retained a substantial number of native speakers. These are the Goidelic languages (i.e. Irish and Scottish Gaelic, which are both descended from Middle Irish) and the Brittonic languages (i.e. Welsh and Breton, which are both descended from Common Brittonic).[8]

The other two, Cornish (a Brittonic language) and Manx (a Goidelic language), died in modern times[9][10][11] with their presumed last native speakers in 1777 and 1974 respectively. For both these languages, however, revitalisation movements have led to the adoption of these languages by adults and children and produced some native speakers.[12][13]

Taken together, there were roughly one million native speakers of Celtic languages as of the 2000s.[14] In 2010, there were more than 1.4 million speakers of Celtic languages.[15]

Demographics

Language Native name Grouping Number of native speakers Number of people who have one or more skills in the language Main area(s) in which the language is spoken Regulated by/language body Estimated number of speakers in major cities
Welsh Cymraeg / Y Gymraeg Brittonic 562,000 (19.0% of the population of Wales) claim that they "can speak Welsh" (2011)[16][17] Around 947,700 (2011) total speakers
Wales: 788,000 speakers, 26.7% of the population of Wales,[16][17]
England: 150,000[18]
Chubut Province, Argentina: 5,000[19]
United States: 2,500[20]
Canada: 2,200[21]
Wales;
Y Wladfa, Chubut
Welsh Language Commissioner (Meri Huws)
— The Welsh Government
(previously the Welsh Language Board, Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg)
Cardiff: 54,504
Swansea: 45,085
Newport: 18,490[22] Bangor: 7,190
Irish Gaeilge/ Gaedhilge / Gaeiluinn / Gaeilig Goidelic 40,000–80,000[23][24][25][26]
In the Republic of Ireland, 94,000 people use Irish daily outside the education system.[27]
1,887,437
Republic of Ireland:
1,774,437[27]
United Kingdom:
95,000
United States:
18,000
Ireland Foras na Gaeilge Dublin: 184,140
Galway: 37,614
Cork: 57,318[28]
Belfast: 30,360[29]
Breton Brezhoneg Brittonic 206,000 356,000[30] Brittany Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg Rennes: 7,000
Brest: 40,000
Nantes: 4,000[31]
Scottish Gaelic Gàidhlig Goidelic 57,375 (2011)[32] in Scotland as well as 1,275 (2011) in Nova Scotia[33] 87,056 (2011)[32] in Scotland Scotland Bòrd na Gàidhlig Glasgow: 5,726
Edinburgh: 3,220[34]
Aberdeen: 1,397[35]
Cornish Kernowek Brittonic Unknown.[36] 3,000[37] Cornwall Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek) Truro: 118[38]
Manx Gaelg/ Gailck Goidelic 100+,[12][39] including a small number of children who are new native speakers[40] 1,823[41] Isle of Man Coonceil ny Gaelgey Douglas: 507[42]

Mixed languages

Classification

Celtic language family tree
Classification of Celtic languages according to Insular vs. Continental hypothesis. (click to enlarge)
IndoEuropeanTree
Classification of Indo-European languages. (click to enlarge)

Celtic is divided into various branches:

Bronce de Botorrita II
The second of the four Botorrita plaques. The third plaque is the longest text discovered in any ancient Celtic language. This, the second plaque, is inscribed in Latin however.[50]
Greek and Phoenician Colonies in The Iberian Peninsula
Pre-Roman map of The Iberian Peninsula

Scholarly handling of the Celtic languages has been contentious owing to scarceness of primary source data. Some scholars (such as Cowgill 1975; McCone 1991, 1992; and Schrijver 1995) distinguish Continental Celtic and Insular Celtic, arguing that the differences between the Goidelic and Brittonic languages arose after these split off from the Continental Celtic languages.[55] Other scholars (such as Schmidt 1988) distinguish between P-Celtic and Q-Celtic, putting most of the Gaulish and Brittonic languages in the former group and the Goidelic and Celtiberian languages in the latter. The P-Celtic languages (also called Gallo-Brittonic) are sometimes seen (for example by Koch 1992) as a central innovating area as opposed to the more conservative peripheral Q-Celtic languages.

The Breton language is Brittonic, not Gaulish, though there may be some input from the latter,[56] having been introduced from Southwestern regions of Britain in the post-Roman era and having evolved into Breton.

In the P/Q classification schema, the first language to split off from Proto-Celtic was Gaelic. It has characteristics that some scholars see as archaic, but others see as also being in the Brittonic languages (see Schmidt). In the Insular/Continental classification schema, the split of the former into Gaelic and Brittonic is seen as being late.

The distinction of Celtic into these four sub-families most likely occurred about 900 BC according to Gray and Atkinson[57][58] but, because of estimation uncertainty, it could be any time between 1200 and 800 BC. However, they only considered Gaelic and Brythonic. The controversial paper by Forster and Toth[59] included Gaulish and put the break-up much earlier at 3200 BC ± 1500 years. They support the Insular Celtic hypothesis. The early Celts were commonly associated with the archaeological Urnfield culture, the Hallstatt culture, and the La Tène culture, though the earlier assumption of association between language and culture is now considered to be less strong.[60][61]

Map of Celtic Nations-flag shades
The Celtic nations, where Celtic languages are spoken today, or were spoken into the modern era:
  Wales (Welsh)

There are legitimate scholarly arguments in favour of both the Insular Celtic hypothesis and the P-Celtic/Q-Celtic hypothesis. Proponents of each schema dispute the accuracy and usefulness of the other's categories. However, since the 1970s the division into Insular and Continental Celtic has become the more widely held view (Cowgill 1975; McCone 1991, 1992; Schrijver 1995), but in the middle of the 1980s, the P-Celtic/Q-Celtic hypothesis found new supporters (Lambert 1994), because of the inscription on the Larzac piece of lead (1983), the analysis of which reveals another common phonetical innovation -nm- > -nu (Gaelic ainm / Gaulish anuana, Old Welsh enuein "names"), that is less accidental than only one. The discovery of a third common innovation would allow the specialists to come to the conclusion of a Gallo-Brittonic dialect (Schmidt 1986; Fleuriot 1986).

The interpretation of this and further evidence is still quite contested, and the main argument in favour of Insular Celtic is connected with the development of the verbal morphology and the syntax in Irish and British Celtic, which Schumacher regards as convincing, while he considers the P-Celtic/Q-Celtic division unimportant and treats Gallo-Brittonic as an outdated hypothesis.[45] Stifter affirms that the Gallo-Brittonic view is "out of favour" in the scholarly community as of 2008 and the Insular Celtic hypothesis "widely accepted".[62]

When referring only to the modern Celtic languages, since no Continental Celtic language has living descendants, "Q-Celtic" is equivalent to "Goidelic" and "P-Celtic" is equivalent to "Brittonic".

Within the Indo-European family, the Celtic languages have sometimes been placed with the Italic languages in a common Italo-Celtic subfamily, a hypothesis that is now largely discarded, in favour of the assumption of language contact between pre-Celtic and pre-Italic communities.

How the family tree of the Celtic languages is ordered depends on which hypothesis is used:

"Insular Celtic hypothesis"

"P-Celtic hypothesis"

Eska (2010)

Eska (2010)[63] evaluates the evidence as supporting the following tree, based on shared innovations, though it is not always clear that the innovations are not areal features. It seems likely that Celtiberian split off before Cisalpine Celtic, but the evidence for this is not robust. On the other hand, the unity of Gaulish, Goidelic, and Brittonic is reasonably secure. Schumacher (2004, p. 86) had already cautiously considered this grouping to be likely genetic, based, among others, on the shared reformation of the sentence-initial, fully inflecting relative pronoun *i̯os, *i̯ā, *i̯od into an uninflected enclitic particle. Eska sees Cisalpine Gaulish as more akin to Lepontic than to Transalpine Gaulish.

Eska considers a division of Transalpine–Goidelic–Brittonic into Transalpine and Insular Celtic to be most probable because of the greater number of innovations in Insular Celtic than in P-Celtic, and because the Insular Celtic languages were probably not in great enough contact for those innovations to spread as part of a sprachbund. However, if they have another explanation (such as an SOV substratum language), then it is possible that P-Celtic is a valid clade, and the top branching would be:

Characteristics

Although there are many differences between the individual Celtic languages, they do show many family resemblances.

  • consonant mutations (Insular Celtic only)
  • inflected prepositions (Insular Celtic only)
  • two grammatical genders (modern Insular Celtic only; Old Irish and the Continental languages had three genders, although Gaulish may have merged the neuter and masculine in its later forms)[64]
  • a vigesimal number system (counting by twenties)
    • Cornish hwetek ha dew ugens "fifty-six" (literally "sixteen and two twenty")
  • verb–subject–object (VSO) word order (probably Insular Celtic only)
  • an interplay between the subjunctive, future, imperfect, and habitual, to the point that some tenses and moods have ousted others
  • an impersonal or autonomous verb form serving as a passive or intransitive
    • Welsh dysgaf "I teach" vs. dysgir "is taught, one teaches"
    • Irish múinim "I teach" vs. múintear "is taught, one teaches"
  • no infinitives, replaced by a quasi-nominal verb form called the verbal noun or verbnoun
  • frequent use of vowel mutation as a morphological device, e.g. formation of plurals, verbal stems, etc.
  • use of preverbal particles to signal either subordination or illocutionary force of the following clause
    • mutation-distinguished subordinators/relativisers
    • particles for negation, interrogation, and occasionally for affirmative declarations
  • infixed pronouns positioned between particles and verbs
  • lack of simple verb for the imperfective "have" process, with possession conveyed by a composite structure, usually BE + preposition
    • Cornish Yma kath dhymm "I have a cat", literally "there is a cat to me"
    • Welsh Mae cath gyda fi "I have a cat", literally "a cat is with me"
  • use of periphrastic constructions to express verbal tense, voice, or aspectual distinctions
  • distinction by function of the two versions of BE verbs traditionally labelled substantive (or existential) and copula
  • bifurcated demonstrative structure
  • suffixed pronominal supplements, called confirming or supplementary pronouns
  • use of singulars or special forms of counted nouns, and use of a singulative suffix to make singular forms from plurals, where older singulars have disappeared

Examples:

Irish: Ná bac le mac an bhacaigh is ní bhacfaidh mac an bhacaigh leat.
(Literal translation) Don't bother with son the beggar's and not will-bother son the beggar's with-you.
  • bhacaigh is the genitive of bacach. The igh the result of affection; the bh is the lenited form of b.
  • leat is the second person singular inflected form of the preposition le.
  • The order is verb–subject–object (VSO) in the second half. Compare this to English or French (and possibly Continental Celtic) which are normally subject–verb–object in word order.
Welsh: pedwar ar bymtheg a phedwar ugain
(Literally) four on fifteen and four twenties
  • bymtheg is a mutated form of pymtheg, which is pump ("five") plus deg ("ten"). Likewise, phedwar is a mutated form of pedwar.
  • The multiples of ten are deg, ugain, deg ar hugain, deugain, hanner cant, trigain, deg a thrigain, pedwar ugain, deg a phedwar ugain, cant.*

Comparison table

The lexical similarity between the different Celtic languages is apparent in their core vocabulary, especially in terms of the actual pronunciation of the words. Moreover, the phonetic differences between languages are often the product of regular sound change (i.e. lenition of /b/ into /v/ or Ø).

The table below contains words in the modern languages that were inherited directly from Proto-Celtic, as well as a few old borrowings from Latin that made their way into all the daughter languages. Among the modern languages, there is often a closer match between Welsh, Breton, and Cornish on one hand, and Irish, Gaelic and Manx on the other. For a fuller list of comparisons, see the Swadesh list for Celtic.

English Welsh Breton[65] Cornish Irish[66] Scottish Gaelic[67] Manx
bee gwenynen gwenanenn gwenenen beach seillean shellan
big mawr meur meur mór mòr mooar
dog ci ki ki gadhararchaic coo
fish pysgodyn pesk pysk iasc iasg eeast
full llawn leun leun lán làn lane
goat gafr gavr gaver gabhar gobhar goayr
house ti chi teach, tigh taigh thie
lip (anatomical) gwefus gweuz gweus liopa bile meill
mouth of a river aber aber aber inbhear inbhir inver
four pedwar pevar peswar ceathair ceithir kiare
night nos noz nos oíche oidhche oie
number rhif, nifer niver niver uimhir àireamh earroo
three tri tri tri trí trì tree
milk llaeth laezh leth bainne bainne bainney
you (sg) ti te ty thu oo
star seren steredenn steren réalta reult, rionnag rollage
today heddiw hiziv hedhyw inniu an-diugh jiu
tooth dant dant dans fiacail deud feeackle
(to) fall cwympo kouezhañ kodha tit(im) tuit(eam) tuitt(ym)
(to) smoke ysmygu mogediñ, butuniñ megi caith(eamh) tobac smocadh toghtaney, smookal
(to) whistle chwibanu c'hwibanat hwibana feadáil fead fed

† Borrowings from Latin.

Examples

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

  • Irish: Saolaítear na daoine uile saor agus comhionann ina ndínit agus ina gcearta. Tá bua an réasúin agus an choinsiasa acu agus dlíd iad féin d'iompar de mheon bráithreachais i leith a chéile.
  • Manx: Ta dagh ooilley pheiagh ruggit seyr as corrym ayns ard-cheim as kiartyn. Ren Jee feoiltaghey resoon as cooinsheanse orroo as by chair daue ymmyrkey ry cheilley myr braaraghyn.
  • Scottish Gaelic: Tha gach uile dhuine air a bhreith saor agus co-ionnan ann an urram 's ann an còirichean. Tha iad air am breith le reusan is le cogais agus mar sin bu chòir dhaibh a bhith beò nam measg fhèin ann an spiorad bràthaireil.
  • Breton: Dieub ha par en o dellezegezh hag o gwirioù eo ganet an holl dud. Poell ha skiant zo dezho ha dleout a reont bevañ an eil gant egile en ur spered a genvreudeuriezh.
  • Cornish: Genys frank ha par yw oll tus an bys yn aga dynita hag yn aga gwiryow. Enduys yns gans reson ha kowses hag y tal dhedha omdhon an eyl orth y gila yn spyrys a vrederedh.
  • Welsh: Genir pawb yn rhydd ac yn gydradd â'i gilydd mewn urddas a hawliau. Fe'u cynysgaeddir â rheswm a chydwybod, a dylai pawb ymddwyn y naill at y llall mewn ysbryd cymodlon.

Possibly Celtic languages

It has been suggested that several poorly-documented languages may possibly have been Celtic.

  • Camunic is an extinct language which was spoken in the first millennium BC in the Valcamonica and Valtellina valleys of the Central Alps. It has most recently been proposed to be a Celtic language.[68]
  • Ligurian was spoken in the Northern Mediterranean Coast straddling the southeast French and northwest Italian coasts, including parts of Tuscany, Elba island and Corsica. Xavier Delamarre argues that Ligurian was a Celtic language, similar to, but not the same as Gaulish.[69] The Ligurian-Celtic question is also discussed by Barruol (1999). Ancient Ligurian is either listed as Celtic (epigraphic),[70] or Para-Celtic (onomastic).[47]
  • Lusitanian was spoken in the area between the Douro and Tagus rivers of western Iberia (a region straddling the present border of Portugal and Spain). It is known from only five inscriptions and various place names.[71] It is an Indo-European language and some scholars have proposed that it may be a para-Celtic language, which evolved alongside Celtic or formed a dialect continuum or sprachbund with Tartessian and Gallaecian. This is tied to a theory of an Iberian origin for the Celtic languages.[71][72][73]
It is also possible that the Q-Celtic languages alone, including Goidelic, originated in western Iberia (a theory that was first put forward by Edward Lhuyd in 1707) or shared a common linguistic ancestor with Lusitanian.[74] Secondary evidence for this hypothesis has been found in research by biological scientists, who have identified (firstly) deep-rooted similarities in human DNA found precisely in both the former Lusitania and Ireland,[75][76] and; (secondly) the so-called "Lusitanian distribution" of animals and plants unique to western Iberia and Ireland. Both of these phenomena are now generally believed to have resulted from human emigration from Iberia to Ireland, during the late Paleolithic or early Mesolithic eras.[77]
Other scholars see greater linguistic affinities between Lusitanian, proto-Italic and Old European.[78][79]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "North-West Indo-European". Old European. Archived from the original on 12 September 2018. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  2. ^ "North-West Indo-European". Academia Prisca. Archived from the original on 12 September 2018. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Celtic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ "American Heritage Dictionary. Celtic: kel-tik, sel". Dictionary.reference.com. Archived from the original on 8 August 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  5. ^ The Celtic languages:an overview, Donald MacAulay, The Celtic Languages, ed. Donald MacAulay, (Cambridge University Press, 1992), 3.
  6. ^ Cunliffe, Barry W. 2003. The Celts: a very short introduction. pg.48
  7. ^ Alice Roberts, The Celts (Heron Books 2015)
  8. ^ "Celtic Branch | About World Languages". aboutworldlanguages.com. Archived from the original on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  9. ^ Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 34, 365–366, 529, 973, 1053. Retrieved 15 June 2010.
  10. ^ "A brief history of the Cornish language". Maga Kernow. Archived from the original on 25 December 2008.
  11. ^ Beresford Ellis, Peter (1990, 1998, 2005). The Story of the Cornish Language. Tor Mark Press. pp. 20–22. ISBN 0-85025-371-3. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  12. ^ a b Staff. "Fockle ny ghaa: schoolchildren take charge". Iomtoday.co.im. Archived from the original on 4 July 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  13. ^ "'South West:TeachingEnglish:British Council:BBC". BBC/British Council website. BBC. 2010. Archived from the original on 8 January 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  14. ^ "Celtic Languages". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
  15. ^ Crystal, David (2010). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-73650-3.
  16. ^ a b "Welsh language skills by local authority, gender and detailed age groups, 2011 Census". StatsWales website. Welsh Government. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  17. ^ a b Office for National Statistics 2011 http://ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/census/2011-census/key-statistics-for-unitary-authorities-in-wales/stb-2011-census-key-statistics-for-wales.html#tab---Proficiency-in-Welsh Archived 5 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – UK: Welsh". UNHCR. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
  19. ^ "Wales and Argentina". Wales.com website. Welsh Assembly Government. 2008. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
  20. ^ "Table 1. Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English for the Population 5 Years and Over for the United States: 2006–2008 Release Date: April 2010" (xls). United States Census Bureau. 27 April 2010. Archived from the original on 22 September 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
  21. ^ "2006 Census of Canada: Topic based tabulations: Various Languages Spoken (147), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data". Statistics Canada. 7 December 2010. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2011.
  22. ^ StatsWales. "Welsh language skills by local authority, gender and detailed age groups, 2011 Census". Welsh Government. Archived from the original on 31 December 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  23. ^ "Irish Examiner". Archives.tcm.ie. 24 November 2004. Archived from the original on 19 January 2005. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  24. ^ Christina Bratt Paulston. Linguistic Minorities in Multilingual Settings: Implications for Language Policies. J. Benjamins Pub. Co. p. 81. ISBN 1-55619-347-5.
  25. ^ Pierce, David (2000). Irish Writing in the Twentieth Century. Cork University Press. p. 1140. ISBN 1-85918-208-9.
  26. ^ Ó hÉallaithe, Donncha (1999). Cuisle. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  27. ^ a b "www.cso.ie Central Statistics Office, Census 2011 – This is Ireland – see table 33a" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  28. ^ Central Statistics Office. "Population Aged 3 Years and Over by Province County or City, Sex, Ability to Speak Irish and Census Year". Government of Ireland. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  29. ^ Department of Finance and Personnel. "Census 2011 Key Statistics for Northern Ireland" (PDF). The Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 December 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  30. ^ (in French) Données clés sur breton, Ofis ar Brezhoneg Archived 15 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ Pole Études et Développement Observatoire des Pratiques Linguistiques. "Situation de la Langue". Office Public de la Langue Bretonne. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  32. ^ a b 2011 Scotland Census Archived 4 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Table QS211SC.
  33. ^ "National Household Survey Profile, Nova Scotia, 2011". Statistics Canada. 11 September 2013. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  34. ^ Scotland's Census. "Standard Outputs". National Records of Scotland. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  35. ^ Alison Campsie. "New bid to get us speaking in Gaelic". The Press and Journal. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  36. ^ See Number of Cornish speakers
  37. ^ Around 2,000 fluent speakers. "'South West:TeachingEnglish:British Council:BBC". BBC/British Council website. BBC. 2010. Archived from the original on 8 January 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  38. ^ Equalities and Wellbeing Division. "Language in England and Wales: 2011". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  39. ^ "Anyone here speak Jersey?". Independent.co.uk. 11 April 2002. Archived from the original on 11 September 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  40. ^ "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: glv". Sil.org. 14 January 2008. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  41. ^ "Isle of Man Census Report 2011" (PDF). Economic Affairs Division, Isle of Man Government Treasury. April 2012. p. 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
  42. ^ Sarah Whitehead. "How the Manx language came back from the dead". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  43. ^ "Shelta". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 29 June 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
  44. ^ "ROMLEX: Romani dialects". Romani.uni-graz.at. Archived from the original on 27 August 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  45. ^ a b Schumacher, Stefan; Schulze-Thulin, Britta; aan de Wiel, Caroline (2004). Die keltischen Primärverben. Ein vergleichendes, etymologisches und morphologisches Lexikon (in German). Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Kulturen der Universität Innsbruck. pp. 84–87. ISBN 3-85124-692-6.
  46. ^ Percivaldi, Elena (2003). I Celti: una civiltà europea. Giunti Editore. p. 82.
  47. ^ a b Kruta, Venceslas (1991). The Celts. Thames and Hudson. p. 55.
  48. ^ Stifter, David (2008). Old Celtic Languages (PDF). p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  49. ^ MORANDI 2004, pp. 702-703, n. 277
  50. ^ Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia John T. Koch, Vol 1, p. 233
  51. ^ Prósper, B.M. (2002). Lenguas y religiones prerromanas del occidente de la península ibérica. Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca. pp. 422–27. ISBN 84-7800-818-7.
  52. ^ Villar F., B. M. Prósper. (2005). Vascos, Celtas e Indoeuropeos: genes y lenguas. Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca. pgs. 333–350. ISBN 84-7800-530-7.
  53. ^ "In the northwest of the Iberian Peninula, and more specifically between the west and north Atlantic coasts and an imaginary line running north-south and linking Oviedo and Merida, there is a corpus of Latin inscriptions with particular characteristics of its own. This corpus contains some linguistic features that are clearly Celtic and others that in our opinion are not Celtic. The former we shall group, for the moment, under the label northwestern Hispano-Celtic. The latter are the same features found in well-documented contemporary inscriptions in the region occupied by the Lusitanians, and therefore belonging to the variety known as LUSITANIAN, or more broadly as GALLO-LUSITANIAN. As we have already said, we do not consider this variety to belong to the Celtic language family." Jordán Colera 2007: p.750
  54. ^ Kenneth H. Jackson suggested that there were two Pictish languages, a pre-Indo-European one and a Pritenic Celtic one. This has been challenged by some scholars. See Katherine Forsyth's "Language in Pictland: the case against 'non-Indo-European Pictish'" "Etext" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 February 2006. Retrieved 20 January 2006. (27.8 MB). See also the introduction by James & Taylor to the "Index of Celtic and Other Elements in W. J. Watson's 'The History of the Celtic Place-names of Scotland'" "Etext" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2006. (172 KB ). Compare also the treatment of Pictish in Price's The Languages of Britain (1984) with his Languages in Britain & Ireland (2000).
  55. ^ "What are the Celtic Languages? — Celtic Studies Resources". Celtic Studies Resources. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  56. ^ Barbour and Carmichael, Stephen and Cathie (2000). Language and nationalism in Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-19-823671-9.
  57. ^ Gray and Atkinson, RD; Atkinson, QD (2003). "Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin". Nature. 426 (6965): 435–439. Bibcode:2003Natur.426..435G. doi:10.1038/nature02029. PMID 14647380.
  58. ^ Rexova, K.; Frynta, D; Zrzavy, J. (2003). "Cladistic analysis of languages: Indo-European classification based on lexicostatistical data". Cladistics. 19 (2): 120–127. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2003.tb00299.x.
  59. ^ Forster, Peter; Toth, Alfred (2003). "Toward a phylogenetic chronology of ancient Gaulish, Celtic, and Indo-European". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100 (15): 9079–9084. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.9079F. doi:10.1073/pnas.1331158100. PMC 166441. PMID 12837934.
  60. ^ Renfrew, Colin (1987). Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of Indo-European Origins. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0224024957.
  61. ^ James, Simon (1999). The Atlantic Celts: Ancient People or Modern Invention?. London: British Museum Press. ISBN 0714121657.
  62. ^ Stifter, David (2008). Old Celtic Languages (PDF). p. 11. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  63. ^ Joseph F. Eska (2010) "The emergence of the Celtic languages". In Martin J. Ball and Nicole Müller (eds.), The Celtic languages. Routledge.
  64. ^ Koch, John T.; Minard, Antone (8 August 2012). The Celts: History, Life, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598849646. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  65. ^ "Dictionnaires bretons parlants".
  66. ^ "Trinity College Phonetics and Speech Lab".
  67. ^ "Learn Gaelic Dictionary".
  68. ^ Markey, Thomas (2008). Shared Symbolics, Genre Diffusion, Token Perception and Late Literacy in North-Western Europe. NOWELE.
  69. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 2015-03-04.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  70. ^ Kruta, Venceslas (1991). The Celts. Thames and Hudson. p. 54.
  71. ^ a b Wodtko, Dagmar S (2010). Celtic from the West Chapter 11: The Problem of Lusitanian. Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK. pp. 360–361. ISBN 978-1-84217-410-4.
  72. ^ a b Cunliffe, Barry (2003). The Celts – A Very Short Introduction – see figure 7. Oxford University Press. pp. 51–52. ISBN 0-19-280418-9.
  73. ^ Ballester, X. (2004). ""Páramo" o del problema del la */p/ en celtoide". Studi Celtici. 3: 45–56.
  74. ^ Unity in Diversity, Volume 2: Cultural and Linguistic Markers of the Concept Editors: Sabine Asmus and Barbara Braid. Google Books.
  75. ^ Hill, E. W.; Jobling, M. A.; Bradley, D. G. (2000). "Y chromosome variation and Irish origins". Nature. 404: 351–352. doi:10.1038/35006158. PMID 10746711.
  76. ^ McEvoy, B.; Richards, M.; Forster, P.; Bradley, D. G. (2004). "The longue durée of genetic ancestry: multiple genetic marker systems and Celtic origins on the Atlantic facade of Europe". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 75: 693–702. doi:10.1086/424697. PMC 1182057. PMID 15309688.
  77. ^ Masheretti, S.; Rogatcheva, M. B.; Gündüz, I.; Fredga, K.; Searle, J. B. (2003). "How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences". Proc. R. Soc. B. 270: 1593–1599. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2406. PMC 1691416.
  78. ^ Villar, Francisco (2000). Indoeuropeos y no indoeuropeos en la Hispania Prerromana (in Spanish) (1st ed.). Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca. ISBN 84-7800-968-X. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  79. ^ The inscription of Cabeço das Fráguas revisited. Lusitanian and Alteuropäisch populations in the West of the Iberian Peninsula Transactions of the Philological Society vol. 97 (2003)
  80. ^ Forsyth 2006, p. 1447; Forsyth 1997; Fraser 2009, pp. 52–53; Woolf 2007, pp. 322–340
  81. ^ Scullard, HH (1967). The Etruscan Cities and Rome. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  82. ^ Koch, John T (2010). Celtic from the West Chapter 9: Paradigm Shift? Interpreting Tartessian as Celtic. Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK. pp. 292–293. ISBN 978-1-84217-410-4.
  83. ^ Cólera, Carlos Jordán (16 March 2007). "The Celts in the Iberian Peninsula:Celtiberian" (PDF). e-Keltoi. 6: 749–750. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  84. ^ a b Koch, John T (2011). Tartessian 2: The Inscription of Mesas do Castelinho ro and the Verbal Complex. Preliminaries to Historical Phonology. Oxbow Books, Oxford, UK. pp. 1–198. ISBN 978-1-907029-07-3. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011.

References

  • Ball, Martin J. & James Fife (ed.) (1993). The Celtic Languages. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-01035-7.
  • Borsley, Robert D. & Ian Roberts (ed.) (1996). The Syntax of the Celtic Languages: A Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521481600.
  • Cowgill, Warren (1975). "The origins of the Insular Celtic conjunct and absolute verbal endings". In H. Rix. Flexion und Wortbildung: Akten der V. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, Regensburg, 9.–14. September 1973. Wiesbaden: Reichert. pp. 40–70. ISBN 3-920153-40-5.
  • Celtic Linguistics, 1700–1850 (2000). London; New York: Routledge. 8 vols comprising 15 texts originally published between 1706 and 1844.
  • Forster, Peter; Toth, Alfred (July 2003). "Toward a phylogenetic chronology of ancient Gaulish, Celtic, and Indo-European". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 100 (15): 9079–84. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.9079F. doi:10.1073/pnas.1331158100. PMC 166441. PMID 12837934.
  • Gray, Russell D.; Atkinson, Quintin D. (November 2003). "Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin". Nature. 426 (6965): 435–39. Bibcode:2003Natur.426..435G. doi:10.1038/nature02029. PMID 14647380.
  • Hindley, Reg (1990). The Death of the Irish Language: A Qualified Obituary. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04339-5.
  • Lewis, Henry & Holger Pedersen (1989). A Concise Comparative Celtic Grammar. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 3-525-26102-0.
  • McCone, Kim (1991). "The PIE stops and syllabic nasals in Celtic". Studia Celtica Japonica. 4: 37–69.
  • McCone, Kim (1992). "Relative Chronologie: Keltisch". In R. Beekes; A. Lubotsky; J. Weitenberg (eds.). Rekonstruktion und relative Chronologie: Akten Der VIII. Fachtagung Der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, Leiden, 31 August – 4 September 1987. Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck. pp. 12–39. ISBN 3-85124-613-6.CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link)
  • McCone, K. (1996). Towards a Relative Chronology of Ancient and Medieval Celtic Sound Change. Maynooth: Department of Old and Middle Irish, St. Patrick's College. ISBN 0-901519-40-5.
  • Russell, Paul (1995). An Introduction to the Celtic Languages. Longman. ISBN 0582100828.
  • Schmidt, K.H. (1988). "On the reconstruction of Proto-Celtic". In G. W. MacLennan. Proceedings of the First North American Congress of Celtic Studies, Ottawa 1986. Ottawa: Chair of Celtic Studies. pp. 231–48. ISBN 0-09-693260-0.
  • Schrijver, Peter (1995). Studies in British Celtic historical phonology. Amsterdam: Rodopi. ISBN 90-5183-820-4.
  • Schumacher, Stefan; Schulze-Thulin, Britta; aan de Wiel, Caroline (2004). Die keltischen Primärverben. Ein vergleichendes, etymologisches und morphologisches Lexikon (in German). Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Kulturen der Universität Innsbruck. ISBN 3-85124-692-6.

External links

Alba

"Alba" (English: ) is the Scottish Gaelic name (pronounced [ˈal̪ˠapə]) for Scotland. It is cognate with the Irish term Alba (gen. Albann, dat. Albainn) and the Manx term Nalbin, the two other Goidelic Insular Celtic languages, as well as contemporary words used in Cornish (Alban) and Welsh (Yr Alban), both of which are Brythonic Insular Celtic languages. (The third surviving Brythonic language, Breton, instead uses Bro-Skos, meaning 'country of the Scots'.) In the past these terms were names for Great Britain as a whole, related to the Brythonic name Albion.

Brittonic languages

The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (Welsh: ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; Cornish: yethow brythonek/predennek; Breton: yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic. The name Brythonic was derived by Welsh Celticist John Rhys from the Welsh word Brython, meaning an indigenous Briton as opposed to an Anglo-Saxon or Gael. The name Brittonic derives ultimately from the name Πρεττανική (Prettanike), recorded by Greek authors for the British Isles.

The Brittonic languages derive from the Common Brittonic language, spoken throughout Great Britain south of the Firth of Forth during the Iron Age and Roman period. In addition, North of the Forth, the Pictish language is considered to be related; it is possible it was a Brittonic language, but it may have been a sister language. In the 5th and 6th centuries emigrating Britons also took Brittonic speech to the continent, most significantly in Brittany and Britonia. During the next few centuries the language began to split into several dialects, eventually evolving into Welsh, Cornish, Breton and Cumbric. Welsh and Breton continue to be spoken as native languages, while a revival in Cornish has led to an increase in speakers of that language. Cumbric is extinct, having been replaced by Goidelic and English speech. The Isle of Man and Orkney may also have originally spoken a Brittonic language, later replaced with a Goidelic one. Due to emigration, there are also communities of Brittonic language speakers in England, France, and Y Wladfa (the Welsh settlement in Patagonia).

Celtic nations

The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived. The term "nation" is used in its original sense to mean a people who share a common identity and culture and are identified with a traditional territory.

The six territories widely considered Celtic nations are Brittany (Breizh), Cornwall (Kernow), Wales (Cymru), Scotland (Alba), Ireland (Éire) and the Isle of Man (Mannin or Ellan Vannin). These together are commonly referred to as the "Celtic fringe". In each of the six nations a Celtic language is spoken to some extent: Brittonic or Brythonic languages are spoken in Brittany, Cornwall, and Wales, while Goidelic or Gaelic languages are spoken in Scotland, Ireland, and the Isle of Man.Before the expansions of Ancient Rome and the Germanic and Slavic tribes, a significant part of Europe was dominated by Celts, leaving behind a legacy of Celtic cultural traits. Territories in north-western Iberia—particularly Galicia, northern Portugal and Asturias, historically referred to as Gallaecia and Astures, covering north-central Portugal and northern Spain—are considered Celtic nations due to their culture and history. Unlike the others, however, no Celtic language has been spoken there in modern times.A genetics study from an Oxford University research team in 2006 claimed that the majority of Britons, including many of the English, are descended from a group of tribes which arrived from Iberia around 5000 BC, before the spread of Celts into western Europe. However, three major genetic studies in 2015 have instead shown that haplogroup R1b in western Europe, most common in traditionally Celtic-speaking areas of Atlantic Europe like Ireland and Brittany, would have largely expanded in massive migrations from the Indo-European homeland, the Yamnaya culture in the Pontic-Caspian steppe, during the Bronze Age along with carriers of Indo-European languages like proto-Celtic. Unlike previous studies, large sections of autosomal DNA were analyzed in addition to paternal Y-DNA markers. They detected an autosomal component present in modern Europeans which was not present in Neolithic or Mesolithic Europeans, and which would have been introduced into Europe with paternal lineages R1b and R1a, as well as the Indo-European languages. This genetic component, labelled as "Yamnaya" in the studies, then mixed to varying degrees with earlier Mesolithic hunter-gatherer and/or Neolithic farmer populations already existing in western Europe.

Celtic studies

Celtic studies or Celtology is the academic discipline occupied with the study of any sort of cultural output relating to the Celtic people. This ranges from linguistics, literature and art history, archaeology and history, the focus lying on the study of the various Celtic languages, living and extinct. The primary areas of focus are the six Celtic languages currently in use: Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Welsh, Cornish, and Breton.

As a university subject, it is taught at a number of universities, most of them in Ireland, the United Kingdom, or France, but also in the United States, Canada, Australia, Germany, Poland, Austria and the Netherlands.

Celts

The Celts (, see pronunciation of Celt for different usages) are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group of Europe identified by their use of Celtic languages and cultural similarities.The history of pre-Celtic Europe and the exact relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial. The exact geographic spread of the ancient Celts is disputed; in particular, the ways in which the Iron Age inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland should be regarded as Celts have become a subject of controversy. According to one theory, the common root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe, which flourished from around 1200 BC. According to a theory proposed in the 19th century, the first people to adopt cultural characteristics regarded as Celtic were the people of the Iron Age Hallstatt culture in central Europe (c. 800–450 BC), named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt, Austria. Thus this area is sometimes called the "Celtic homeland". By or during the later La Tène period (c. 450 BC to the Roman conquest), this Celtic culture was supposed to have expanded by trans-cultural diffusion or migration to the British Isles (Insular Celts), France and the Low Countries (Gauls), Bohemia, Poland and much of Central Europe, the Iberian Peninsula (Celtiberians, Celtici, Lusitanians and Gallaeci) and northern Italy (Golasecca culture and Cisalpine Gauls) and, following the Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe beginning in 279 BC, as far east as central Anatolia (Galatians) in modern-day Turkey.The earliest undisputed direct examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested almost exclusively through inscriptions and place-names. Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although it was clearly being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century CE. Coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge ("Cattle Raid of Cooley"), survive in 12th-century recensions.

By the mid-1st millennium, with the expansion of the Roman Empire and migrating Germanic tribes, Celtic culture and Insular Celtic languages had become restricted to Ireland, the western and northern parts of Great Britain (Wales, Scotland, and Cornwall), the Isle of Man, and Brittany. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a reasonably cohesive cultural entity. They had a common linguistic, religious and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities. By the 6th century, however, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use.

Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels (Irish, Scottish and Manx) and the Celtic Britons (Welsh, Cornish, and Bretons) of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain, Ireland, and other European territories, such as Portugal and Spanish Galicia. Today, Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, and Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival.

Continental Celtic languages

The Continental Celtic languages are the Celtic languages, now extinct, that were spoken on the continent of Europe, as distinguished from the Insular Celtic languages of the British Isles and Brittany. Continental Celtic is a geographic, not a linguistic, grouping of the ancient Celtic languages. The Continental Celtic languages were spoken by the people known to Roman and Greek writers as Keltoi, Celtae, Galli and Galatae. These languages were spoken in an arc stretching across from Iberia in the west to the Balkans and Anatolia in the east.

Even though Breton is spoken in continental Europe, and has been since at least the 6th century AD, it is not considered one of the Continental Celtic languages. It is a Brittonic language closely related to Cornish and Welsh. Whilst it has been suggested that there is a Gaulish substratum in the Vannetais dialect (Galliou and Jones 1991) the historical and linguistic evidence shows otherwise.

Gaelic

Gaelic is an adjective that means "pertaining to the Gaels". As a noun, it refers to the group of languages spoken by the Gaels, or to any one of the languages individually. Celtic languages are spoken in both Ireland and Scotland, in Scotland it is very often referred to just as "Gaelic", but in Ireland it is referred to as "Irish".

Galatian language

Galatian is an extinct Celtic language once spoken by the Galatians in Galatia mainly in north central lands of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) from the 3rd century BC up to at least the 4th century AD, although ancient sources suggest it was still spoken in the 6th century. Galatian was likely contemporary with and closely related to the Gaulish language.

Gallaecian language

Gallaecian, or Northwestern Hispano-Celtic, is an extinct Celtic language and was one of the Hispano-Celtic languages. It was spoken at the beginning of the 1st millennium in the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula that became the Roman province of Gallaecia and is now divided between the modern regions of Galicia, Norte Region, Portugal, western Asturias, and the Province of León, in Spain.

Gallo-Brittonic languages

The Gallo-Brittonic languages, also known as the P-Celtic languages, are a subdivision of the Celtic languages of Ancient Gaul (both celtica and belgica) and Celtic Britain, which share certain features. Besides common linguistic innovations, speakers of these languages shared cultural features and history. The cultural aspects are commonality of art styles and worship of similar gods. Coinage just prior to the British Roman period was also similar. In Julius Caesar's time, the Atrebates held land on both sides of the English Channel.

Goidelic languages

The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (Irish: teangacha Gaelacha; Scottish Gaelic: cànanan Goidhealach; Manx: çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.Goidelic languages historically formed a dialect continuum stretching from Ireland through the Isle of Man to Scotland. There are three modern Goidelic languages: Irish (Gaeilge), Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) and Manx (Gaelg), the last of which died out in the 20th century but has since been revived to some degree.

Hispano-Celtic languages

Hispano-Celtic is a hypernym to include all the varieties of Celtic spoken in the Iberian Peninsula before the arrival of the Romans (in c. 218 BC, during the Second Punic War):

a northern-eastern, inland language attested at a relatively late date in the extensive corpus of Celtiberian. This variety, which Jordán Cólera proposed to name northeastern Hispano-Celtic, has long been synonymous with the term Hispano-Celtic and is universally accepted as a Celtic language.

a language in the north west corner of the peninsula, with a northern and western boundary marked by the Atlantic Ocean, a southern boundary along the river Douro, and an eastern boundary marked by Oviedo, which Jordán Cólera has proposed to call northwestern Hispano-Celtic, where there is a corpus of Latin inscriptions containing isolated words and sentences that are clearly Celtic.Western Hispano-Celtic is a term that has been proposed for a language continuum of dlalects, ranging from Celtic Gallaecian and Tartessian to para-Celtic Lusitanian, located in the Iberian peninsula west of an imaginary line running north-south linking Oviedo and Mérida. According to Koch, the Western Celtic varieties of the Iberian Peninsula share with Celtiberian a sufficient core of distinctive features to justify Hispano-Celtic as a term for a linguistic sub-family as opposed to a purely geographical classification. In Naturalis Historia 3.13 (written 77–79 CE), Pliny the Elder states that the Celtici of Baetica (now western Andalusia) descended from the Celtiberians of Lusitania, since they shared common religions, languages, and names for their fortified settlements.As part of the effort to prove the existence of a western Iberian Hispano-Celtic dialect continuum, there have been attempts to differentiate the Vettonian dialect from the neighboring Lusitanian language using the personal names of the Vettones to describe the following sound changes (PIE to Proto-Celtic):

*ō > ā occurs in Enimarus.

*ō > ū in final syllables is indicated by the suffix of, e. g., Abrunus, Caurunius.

*ē > ī is attested in the genitive singular Riuei.

*n̥ > an appears in Argantonius.

*m̥ > am in names with Amb-.

*gʷ > b is attested in names such as Bouius, derived from *gʷow- 'cow'.

*kʷ in PIE *perkʷ-u- 'oak' appears in a lenited form in the name Erguena.

*p > ɸ > 0 is attested in:*perkʷ-u- > ergʷ- in Erguena (see above).

*plab- > lab- in Laboina.

*uper- > ur- in Uralus and Urocius.However, *p is preserved in Cupiena, a Vettonian name not attested in Lusitania; also in names like Pinara, while *-pl- probably developed into -bl- in names like Ableca.

Insular Celtic languages

Insular Celtic languages are a group of Celtic languages that originated in Britain and Ireland, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia. All surviving Celtic languages are from the Insular Celtic group, including the one which is now spoken in Continental Europe; the Continental Celtic languages are extinct. The six Insular Celtic languages of modern times are divided into two groups:

Goidelic languages: Irish, Manx, and Scottish Gaelic,

and Brittonic languages: Breton, Cornish, and Welsh.

Insular Celts

The Insular Celts are the speakers of the Insular Celtic languages, which comprise all the living Celtic languages as well as their precursors, but the term is mostly used in reference to the peoples of the British Iron Age prior to the Roman conquest, and their contemporaries in Ireland.

According to older theories, the Insular Celtic languages spread throughout the islands in the course of the insular Iron Age. But this is now doubted by most scholars, who see the languages as already present, and possibly dominant, in the Bronze Age. At some point the languages split into the two major groups, Goidelic in Ireland and Brittonic in Great Britain, corresponding to the population groups of the Goidels (Gaels) on one hand and the Britons and the Picts on the other. The extent to which these peoples ever formed a distinct ethnic group remains unclear. While there are early records of the Continental Celtic languages, allowing a comparatively confident reconstruction of Proto-Celtic, Insular Celtic languages become attested in connected texts only at the end of the Dark Ages, from around the 7th century AD, by which time they had become mutually incomprehensible.

Italo-Celtic

In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others. There is controversy about the causes of these similarities. They are usually considered to be innovations, likely to have developed after the breakup of the Proto-Indo-European language. It is also possible that some of these are not innovations, but shared conservative features, i.e. original Indo-European language features which have disappeared in all other language groups. What is commonly accepted is that the shared features may usefully be thought of as Italo-Celtic forms.

Lepontic language

Lepontic is an ancient Alpine Celtic language that was spoken in parts of Rhaetia and Cisalpine Gaul (what is now Northern Italy) between 550 and 100 BC. Lepontic is attested in inscriptions found in an area centered on Lugano, Switzerland, and including the Lake Como and Lake Maggiore areas of Italy.

Lepontic is a Celtic language. While some recent scholarship (e.g. Eska 1998) has tended to consider it simply as an early outlying form of Gaulish and closely akin to other, later attestations of Gaulish in Italy (Cisalpine Gaulish), some scholars (notably Lejeune 1971) continue to view it as a distinct Continental Celtic language. Within this latter view, the earlier inscriptions found within a 50 km radius of Lugano are considered Lepontic, while the later ones, to the immediate south of this area, are considered Cisalpine Gaulish.Lepontic was assimilated first by Gaulish, with the settlement of Gaulish tribes north of the River Po, and then by Latin, after the Roman Republic gained control over Gallia Cisalpina during the late 2nd and 1st century BC.

Noric language

The Noric language, or Eastern Celtic, is an unclassified Continental Celtic language. It is attested in only two fragmentary inscriptions from the Roman province of Noricum (one in Grafenstein, Austria, the other in Ptuj, Slovenia), which do not provide enough information for any conclusions about the nature of the language to be drawn. However, the language was probably similar to the other Celtic languages near to it, such as Gaulish. Due to the scanty evidence it is unknown when it became extinct.

Proto-Celtic language

The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages. Its lexis can be confidently reconstructed on the basis of the comparative method of historical linguistics. As Celtic is a branch of the Indo-European language family, Proto-Celtic is a descendant of the Proto-Indo-European language. According to one theory, Celtic may be closest to the Italic languages, which together form an Italo-Celtic branch. The earliest archaeological culture that may justifiably be considered as Proto-Celtic is the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe from the last quarter of the second millennium BC. By the Iron Age Hallstatt culture of around 800 BC, these people had become fully Celtic.The reconstruction of Proto-Celtic is currently being undertaken. While Continental Celtic presents much substantiation for its phonology, and some for morphology, recorded material is too scanty to allow a secure reconstruction of syntax. Although some complete sentences are recorded in Gaulish and Celtiberian, the oldest Celtic literature is found in Old Irish and Middle Welsh.

Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie

The Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie is an academic journal of Celtic studies, which was established in 1897 by the German scholars Kuno Meyer and Ludwig Christian Stern. It was the first journal devoted exclusively to Celtic languages and literature and is the oldest significant journal of Celtic studies still in existence today. The emphasis is on (early) Irish language and literature and Continental Celtic languages, but other aspects of Celtic philology and literature (including modern literature) also receive attention.Apart from Stern and Meyer, previous editors include Julius Pokorny, Ludwig Mühlhausen, Rudolf Thurneysen, Rudolf Hertz, Heinrich Wagner, Hans Hartmann, and Karl Horst Schmidt. The current editors-in-chief are Jürgen Uhlich, Torsten Meißner and Bernhard Maier.

In addition to the regular volumes, the journal also has a subsidiary series, Buchreihe der Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie.The journal features in a poem by Flann O'Brien which satirises scholars who "rose in their nightshift / To write for the Zeitschrift".

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.