A cel, short for celluloid, is a transparent sheet on which objects are drawn or painted for traditional, hand-drawn animation. Actual celluloid (consisting of cellulose nitrate and camphor) was used during the first half of the 20th century, but since it was flammable and dimensionally unstable it was largely replaced by cellulose acetate. With the advent of computer-assisted animation production, the use of cels has been all but abandoned in major productions. Disney studios stopped using cels in 1990 when Computer Animation Production System (CAPS) replaced this element in their animation process, and in the next decade and a half, the other major animation studios phased cels out as well.
Generally, the characters are drawn on cels and laid over a static background drawing. This reduces the number of times an image has to be redrawn and enables studios to split up the production process to different specialised teams. Using this assembly line way to animate has made it possible to produce films much more cost-effectively. The invention of the technique is generally attributed to Earl Hurd, who patented the process in 1914.
The outline of the images are drawn on the front of the cel while colors are painted on the back to eliminate brushstrokes. Traditionally, the outlines were hand-inked but since the 1960s they are almost exclusively xerographed on. Another important breakthrough in cel animation was the development of the Animation Photo Transfer Process, first seen in The Black Cauldron, released in 1985.
Typically, an animated feature would require over 100,000 hand-painted cels.
Production cels were sometimes sold after the animation process was completed. More popular shows and movies demanded higher prices for the cels, with some selling for thousands of dollars.
Some cels are not used for actual production work, but may be a "special" or "limited edition" version of the artwork, sometimes even printed ("lithographed") instead of hand-painted. These normally do not fetch as high a price as original "under-the-camera" cels, which are true collector's items. Some unique cels have fetched record prices at art auctions. For example, a large "pan" cel depicting numerous characters from the finale of Who Framed Roger Rabbit sold for $50,600 at Sotheby's in 1989, including its original background.
Disney Stores sold production cels from The Little Mermaid (their last film to use cels) at prices from $2,500 to $3,500, without the original backgrounds. Lithographed "sericels" from the same film were $250, with edition sizes of 2,500–5,000 pieces.
Disney’s next animation smash was The Little Mermaid - the last Disney feature to utilize hand-painted acetate cels...Beauty and the Beast, Disney’s next hit animation feature, was the first to use, instead of hand-painted cels, Disney’s “CAPS” computer-generated characters.
[The Black Cauldron was] The first film to utilize Disney's revolutionary Animation Photo Transfer Process, which transfers drawings to cells with greater speed and resolution than the usual Xeroxing Method;
A cel-animated feature requires over 100,000 hand-painted cels, so from Beauty there was obviously far less production artwork.
Prices at the Roger Rabbit sale went through the roof. One cel, depicting a large group of characters, sold for $50,600!
Barenton-Cel is a commune in the department of Aisne in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France.Bile salt-dependent lipase
Bile salt-dependent lipase (or BSDL), also known as carboxyl ester lipase (or CEL) is an enzyme produced by the adult pancreas and aids in the digestion of fats. Bile salt-stimulated lipase (or BSSL) is an equivalent enzyme found within breast milk. BSDL has been found in the pancreatic secretions of all species in which it has been looked for. BSSL, originally discovered in the milk of humans and various other primates, has since been found in the milk of many animals including dogs, cats, rats, and rabbits.Cel shading
Cel shading or toon shading is a type of non-photorealistic rendering designed to make 3-D computer graphics appear to be flat by using less shading color instead of a shade gradient or tints and shades. Cel shading is often used to mimic the style of a comic book or cartoon and/or give it a characteristic paper-like texture. There are similar techniques that can make an image look like a sketch, an oil painting or an ink painting. It is somewhat recent, appearing around the beginning of the twenty-first century. The name comes from cels (short for celluloid), clear sheets of acetate which are painted on for use in traditional 2D animation.Cellcom (Israel)
Cellcom (Hebrew: סלקום) (TASE: CEL, NYSE: CEL) is an Israeli telecommunications company.
Founded in 1994, most of the company's business is centered on wireless service. Its current CEO is Nir Sztern, who was appointed on 1 January 2012. As of June 2016, Cellcom had 2.812 million subscribers.Celly Cel
Marcellus McCarver, better known by his stage name Celly Cel, is an American rapper from Vallejo, California. He released his first single, Lifestyle of a Mack, on his independent record label Realside Records in 1992. He released his debut studio album, Heat 4 Yo Azz, in 1994, and released a second album, Killa Kali, a year later.
In 1996, he appeared on the Red Hot Organization's compilation CD, America is Dying Slowly, alongside Biz Markie, Wu-Tang Clan, and Fat Joe, among many other prominent hip hop artists. The CD, meant to raise awareness of the AIDS epidemic among African American men, was heralded as "a masterpiece" by The Source magazine.
His next appearance wasn't until 1998, with his third album: G-Filez. Deep Conversation followed in mid-2000.
Celly has collaborated with fellow Bay Area rappers E-40 & B-Legit on several occasions.Călimănel (Mureș)
The Călimănel (Hungarian: Kelemen-patak) is a right tributary of the river Mureș in Transylvania, Romania. It discharges into the Mureș near Toplița.House of Drăculești
The House of Drăculești (Romanian: [drəkuˈleʃtʲ] ) were one of two major rival lines of Wallachian voivodes of the House of Basarab, the other being the House of Dănești.
These lines were in constant contest for the throne from the late fourteenth to the early sixteenth centuries. Descendants of the line of Drăculești would eventually come to dominate this principality until its unification with Transylvania and Moldavia by Mihai Viteazul in 1600.
The line of the Drăculești began with Vlad II Dracul, son of one of the most important rulers of the Basarab dynasty, Mircea cel Bătrân. The name Drăculești is derived from the membership of Vlad II Dracul (in old Romanian Dracul means "dragon", while currently means "the Devil") in the Order of the Dragon (founded 1408).List of rulers of Wallachia
This is a list of rulers of Wallachia, from the first mention of a medieval polity situated between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube until the union with Moldavia in 1862, leading to the creation of Romania.Mircea I of Wallachia
Mircea the Elder (Romanian: Mircea cel Bătrân, pronounced [ˈmirt͡ʃe̯a t͡ʃel bəˈtrɨn] (listen), d. 31 January 1418) was Voivode of Wallachia from 1386 until his death. The byname "elder" was given to him after his death in order to distinguish him from his grandson Mircea II ("Mircea the Younger"), although some historians believe the epithet was given to him as a sign of respect by later generations. He is considered the most important Wallachian ruler during the Middle Ages and one of the great rulers of his era, and starting in the 19th century Romanian historiography has also referred to him as Mircea the Great (Mircea cel Mare).Mircea cel Bătrân Naval Academy
The Mircea cel Bătrân Naval Academy (Romanian: Academia Navală "Mircea cel Bătrân") is a higher education institution based in the Black Sea port of Constanța that educates future officers for the Romanian Naval Forces, as well as maritime officers and engineers for the merchant marine. At the request of the Romanian Coast Guard, the Naval Academy prepares coast guard officers.Radu cel Frumos
Radu III the Fair, Radu III the Handsome or Radu III the Beautiful (Romanian: Radu cel Frumos), also known by his Turkish name Radu Bey (1437/1439—1475), was the younger brother of Vlad III and voivode (war-lord or a prince) of the principality of Wallachia. They were both sons of Vlad II Dracul and his wife, Princess Cneajna of Moldavia. In addition to Vlad III, Radu also had two older siblings, Mircea II and Vlad Călugărul, both of whom would also briefly rule Wallachia.Stadionul Dinamo
Dinamo Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Bucharest, Romania. It is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home ground of Dinamo București.Stephen III of Moldavia
Stephen III of Moldavia, known as Stephen the Great (Romanian: Ștefan cel Mare [ʃteˈfan tʃel ˈmare] ; died on 2 July 1504), was voivode (or prince) of Moldavia from 1457 to 1504. He was the son of and co-ruler with Bogdan II of Moldavia who was murdered in 1451 in a conspiracy organized by his brother and Stephen's uncle Peter III Aaron who took the throne. Stephen fled to Hungary, and later to Wallachia, but with the support of Vlad III Dracula, Voivode of Wallachia, he returned to Moldavia, forcing Aaron to seek refuge in Poland in the summer of 1457. Teoctist I, Metropolitan of Moldavia, anointed Stephen prince. He attacked Poland and prevented Casimir IV Jagiellon, King of Poland, from supporting Peter Aaron, but eventually acknowledged Casimir's suzerainty in 1459.
Stephen decided to recapture Chilia (now Kiliya in Ukraine), an important port on the Danube, which brought him into conflict with Hungary and Wallachia. He besieged the town during the Ottoman invasion of Wallachia in 1462, but was seriously wounded during the siege. Two years later, he captured the town. He promised support to the leaders of the Three Nations of Transylvania against Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, in 1467. Corvinus invaded Moldavia, but Stephen defeated him in the Battle of Baia. Peter Aaron attacked Moldavia with Hungarian support in December 1470, but was also defeated by Stephen and executed, along with the Moldavian boyars who still endorsed him. Stephen restored old fortresses and built new ones, which improved Moldavia's defence system as well as strengthened central administration.
Ottoman expansion threatened Moldavian ports in the region of the Black Sea. In 1473, Stephen stopped paying tribute (haraç) to the Ottoman sultan and launched a series of campaigns against Wallachia in order to replace its rulers – who had accepted Ottoman suzerainty – with his protégés. However, each prince who seized the throne with Stephen's support was soon forced to pay homage to the sultan. Stephen eventually defeated a large Ottoman army in the Battle of Vaslui in 1475. Stephen was referred to as Athleta Christi ("Champion of Christ") by Pope Sixtus IV, even though Moldavia's hopes for military support went unfulfilled.
The following year, Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II routed Stephen in the Battle of Valea Albă, but the lack of provisions and the outbreak of a plague forced him to withdraw from Moldavia. Taking advantage of a truce with Matthias Corvinus, the Ottomans captured Chilia, their Crimean Tatar allies Cetatea Albă (now Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi in Ukraine) in 1483. Although Corvinus granted two Transylvanian estates to Stephen, the Moldavian prince paid homage to Casimir, who promised to support him to regain Chilia and Cetatea Albă. Stephen's efforts to capture the two ports ended in failure. From 1486, he again paid a yearly tribute to the Ottomans. During the following years, dozens of stone churches and monasteries were built in Moldavia, which contributed to the development of a specific Moldavian architecture.
Casimir IV's successor, John I Albert, wanted to grant Moldavia to his younger brother, Sigismund, but Stephen's diplomacy prevented him from invading Moldavia for years. John Albert attacked Moldavia in 1497, but Stephen and his Hungarian and Ottoman allies routed the Polish army in the Battle of the Cosmin Forest. Stephen again tried to recapture Chilia and Cetatea Albă, but had to acknowledge the loss of the two ports to the Ottomans in 1503. During his last years, his son and co-ruler Bogdan III played an active role in government. Stephen's long rule represented a period of stability in the history of Moldavia. From the 16th century onwards both his subjects and foreigners remembered him as a great ruler. Modern Romanians regard him as one of their greatest national heroes, although he also endures as a cult figure in Moldovenism. After the Romanian Orthodox Church canonized him in 1992, he is venerated as "Stephen the Great and Holy" (Ștefan cel Mare și Sfânt).Traditional animation
Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation or hand-drawn animation) is an animation technique in which each frame is drawn by hand on a physical medium. The technique was the dominant form of animation in cinema until the advent of computer animation.Vlad Călugărul
Vlad IV Călugărul ("Vlad IV the Monk"; prior to 1425 – September 1495) was the Prince of Wallachia in 1481 and then from 1482 to 1495.
His father Vlad Dracul had previously held the throne, as had his brothers Mircea II and Radu the Handsome, and lastly Vlad III Dracula. The 15th century was a very volatile time in Wallachia, with the throne passing first from one then to another of the many princes that desired it. Both of his younger brothers, Vlad III and Radu, had been hostages for a number of years to the Ottoman Sultan, having been offered up to the Ottoman court by their own father, Vlad Dracul, in exchange for the Ottoman's support of Vlad Dracul regaining his throne. His father had first gained the throne following the death of Vlad the Monk's uncle.
Both his brothers Mircea II and Vlad III were able military commanders in the field, and both saw success in battle against the Ottomans. In 1447, his brother Mircea II and his father were both captured and brutally killed. Following this, Vlad III was placed on the throne by the Ottomans, but was forced off shortly thereafter by forces supported by John Hunyadi. This would begin a long quest by Vlad III to gain the throne, which he would do two more times. His longest time on the throne would be from 1456 to 1462, this being his reign of terror for which he would become best known, and which would lead to him being the inspiration for the novel Dracula, by Bram Stoker. His brother Radu gained the throne due to the fact that he was the second in the line of succession, losing it several times to Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân. Radu died in January 1475, as the result of a long bout with syphilis, at which time Basarab naturally took the throne yet again, only to be forced off shortly thereafter in 1476 by Vlad III. Vlad III was killed in battle during December 1476, after which Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân was restored to the throne, only to be pushed off by Basarab Țepeluș cel Tânăr in November 1477.
Vlad the Monk was a contender to his brother's throne as ruler of the principality of Wallachia for many years, but he took no active part in fighting for the throne until near the end of Vlad III's lifetime.
In 1481, the same year Mehmed II died, conflict between his two surviving sons, Bayezid II and Cem, erupted into open conflict. Vlad was now placed on the throne by Ștefan III of Moldavia, who had invaded Wallachia that June and routed Basarab IV at Râmnicu Vâlcea. Soon enough Basarab IV was again Voivode of Wallachia, with Ottoman support. Ștefan made a last attempt to secure his influence in Wallachia, and within the year Basarab lost the throne again, after which he would reign until 1495. Although Vlad IV was restored, he was soon forced to accept the Sultan's suzerainty.In 1495, he helped build St. Nicholas Church, in Brașov, Transylvania. There is nothing historically that suggests his death that same year was anything other than natural. His fairly long reign by comparison to those before him was due in part to his having the support of Ștefan III of Moldavia. He was succeeded by his son, Radu cel Mare, who would reign until 1508, when he was ousted by his first cousin Mihnea cel Rău, son of Vlad the Impaler.Ștefan cel Mare, Bacău
Ștefan cel Mare is a commune in Bacău County, Romania. It is composed of six villages: Bogdana, Gutinaș, Negoiești, Rădeana, Ștefan cel Mare and Viișoara. It also included Buciumi and Răcăuți villages until 2005, when they were split off to form Buciumi Commune.
At the 2011 census, 80.2% of inhabitants were Romanians and 19.8% Roma.Ștefan cel Mare, Olt
Ștefan cel Mare is a commune in Olt County, Romania. It is composed of two villages, Ianca Nouă and Ștefan cel Mare.Ștefan cel Mare, Vaslui
Ștefan cel Mare is a commune in Vaslui County, Romania. It is composed of seven villages: Bârzești, Brăhășoaia, Călugăreni, Cănțălărești, Mărășeni, Muntenești and Ștefan cel Mare.Ștefan cel Mare University of Suceava
The Ștefan cel Mare University of Suceava (Romanian: Universitatea „Ștefan cel Mare” din Suceava), also known as University of Suceava, is a public university in Suceava, Romania, founded in 1990. It was named in honor of the Moldavian Prince Stephen the Great.