Ceded and Conquered Provinces

The Ceded and Conquered Provinces constituted a region in northern India that was ruled by the British East India Company from 1805 to 1834;[1] it corresponded approximately—in present-day India—to all regions in Uttar Pradesh state with the exception of the Lucknow and Faizabad divisions of Awadh; in addition, it included the Delhi territory and, after 1816, the Kumaun division and a large part[2] of the Garhwal division of present-day Uttarakhand state.[1] In 1836, the region became the North-Western Provinces (under a Lieutenant-Governor), and in 1904, the Agra Province within the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.[1]

Ceded and Conquered Provinces
Region of the British Empire in India
 
Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg
1805–1834 Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg
Location of Agra
Map of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces (1805). The Kumaun Division was annexed in 1816.
Capital Agra
History
 •  Established 1805
 •  Disestablished 1834
Area
 •  1835 (?) 9,479 km2 (3,660 sq mi)
Population
 •  1835 (?) 4,500,000 
Density 474.7 /km2  (1,229.6 /sq mi)
Today part of Portions in
Uttar Pradesh
Uttarakhand
Rajasthan
Madhya Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
Haryana
Delhi
SitaRam1814AllahabadTamarindTree
"A Tamarind tree at Allahabad." Water color (1814) by Sita Ram, an artist who accompanied Lord Moira, Governor-General of India on a journey from Calcutta—through the Ceded and Conquered Provinces—to Delhi.

Ceded Provinces

At the start of the 19th century, only the Banares division and the fort of Allahabad in present-day Uttar Pradesh were under British rule.[1] In 1801, the Nawab of Awadh, Saadat Ali, ceded some territory to the British in return for protection against a threat of attack from the north-west by Zaman Shah Durrani, the grandson of Ahmad Shah Durrani.[1] The territory included the Gorakhpur and Rohilkhand divisions; the districts of Allahabad, Fatehpur, Cawnpore, Etawah, Mainpuri, Etah; the southern part of Mirzapur; and the terai parganas of Kumaun, and came to be known as the Ceded Provinces.[1] A year later the Nawab of Farrukhabad ceded Farrukhabad district to the British.[1]

Conquered Provinces

Ceded Conquered Provinces details
A more detailed map showing the Ceded and Conquered Provinces on a later (1908) map of the United Provinces.

With the outbreak the Second Anglo-Maratha War, General Lake, took the Meerut division (including Aligarh, after the Battle of Ally Ghur), and soon, the rest of the Agra division (including Agra city), and the districts around Delhi.[1] In addition, most of the trans-Jamuna districts of Banda and Hamirpur were added, as well as a small area in Jalaun district.[1]

In 1816, under the Treaty of Sugauli signed at the conclusion of the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814–1816), the Kumaun division and Dehra Dun district of present-day Uttarakhand state were annexed as well.[1]

Administration

CededConqueredProvincesDelhiTerritory
The "Delhi Territory", shown here in a 1908 map of Punjab province, was a part of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces.

The Ceded and Conquered Provinces were a part of the Bengal Presidency of British India under the administration of the Governor-General-in-Council.[1] The great distance of the newly acquired territory from the capital of the presidency in Calcutta created administrative hitches.[3] In response, a number of temporary arrangements were attempted, but proved to be less than optimal; finally, in 1831, an independent Board of Revenue and a separate Sadr Diwani and Nizamat Adalat (Chief Civil and Criminal Courts) were created for these provinces.[3] In 1833, an Act of the British Parliament (statute 3 and 4, William IV, cap. 85) concurrently promulgated the division of the Bengal Presidency, the elevation the Ceded and Conquered Provinces to the new Presidency of Agra, and the appointment of a new Governor for the latter.[3] However, the plan was never carried out, and in 1835 another Act of Parliament (statute 5 and 6, William IV, cap. 52) renamed the region the North Western Provinces, this time to be administered by a Lieutenant-Governor, the first of whom, Sir Charles Metcalfe, would be appointed in 1836.[3]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. XXIV 1908, p. 158
  2. ^ It included the districts of Chamoli, Pauri, Dehradun, and Rudraprayag in present-day Garhwal division of Uttarakhand state; the Haridwar district of Uttarakhand had become a part of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces in 1805. The two remaining districts, Tehri Garhwal and Uttarkashi, of present-day Garhwal division of Uttarakhand state were part of the princely state of Tehri, and never a part of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces.
  3. ^ a b c d Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. V 1908, p. 72

References

  • Alavi, Seema (1993), "The makings of Company power: James Skinner in the Ceded and Conquered Provinces, 1802–1840", Indian Economic Social History Review, 30 (4): 437–466, doi:10.1177/001946469303000403
  • Bayly, C. A. (2002), Rulers, Townsmen, and Bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion 1770–1870, Delhi: Oxford University Press. Pp. 530, ISBN 0-19-566345-4
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. V (1908), Abāzai to Arcot ("Agra Province" pp. 71–72), Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. viii, 1 map, 437.
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. XXIV (1908), Travancore to Zīra ("United Provinces" pp. 132–276), Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. vi, 1 map, 437.
  • Mann, Michael (1995), "A permanent settlement for the Ceded and Conquered provinces: Revenue administration in north India, 1801-1833", Indian Economic Social History Review, 32 (2): 245–269, doi:10.1177/001946469503200205
Agra Presidency

Agra Presidency was one of the six Northwestern Provinces of British India (which constituted one of the eight separate administrations into which India was divided in the first half of the 19th century). It had an area of 9,479 sq mi (24,550 km2) and a population of about 4,500,000.Presidency of Agra was established on 14 November 1834 under the provisions of Government of India Act 1833 by elevating and renaming the Ceded and Conquered Provinces. Sir C. T. Metcalfe was appointed as the new Governor for the Presidency. However, in 1835 another Act of Parliament (statute 5 and 6, William IV, cap. 52) renamed the region to the North-Western Provinces, this time to be administered by a Lieutenant-Governor. Agra Presidency ceased to exist on 1 June 1836.

Agra Province

Agra Province was a part of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh of British India during the closing decades of the British Raj, from 1904 until 1947; it corresponded (under Section 4(4) of United Provinces Act 1, 1904) to the former regions, Ceded and Conquered Provinces (1805–1836) and the North Western Provinces (1836–1902).

Agra famine of 1837–38

The Agra famine of 1837–1838 was a famine in the newly established North-Western Provinces (formerly Ceded and Conquered Provinces) of Company-ruled India that affected an area of 25,000 square miles (65,000 km2) and a population of 8 million people. The central Doab in present-day Uttar Pradesh—the region of the districts of Kanpur, Etawah, Mainpuri, Agra and Kalpi—was the hardest hit; the trans-Jumna districts of Jalaun, Hamirpur, and Banda also suffered extreme distress.By the end of 1838, approximately 800,000 people had died of starvation, as had an even larger number of livestock. The famine came to be known in folk memory as chauranvee, (Hindi, literally, "of ninety four,") for the year 1894 in the Samvat calendar corresponding to the year 1838 CE.

Allahabad

Allahabad (pronunciation ), officially known as Prayagraj, and also known as Illahabad and Prayag, is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of Allahabad district—the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India—and the Allahabad division.

The city is the judicial capital of Uttar Pradesh with Allahabad High Court being the highest judicial body in the state. As of 2011, Allahabad is the seventh most populous city in the state, twelfth in Northern India and thirty-eighth in India, with an estimated population of 1.11 million in the city and 1.21 million in its metropolitan region. In 2011 it was ranked the world's 40th fastest-growing city. Allahabad, in 2016, was also ranked the third most liveable city in the state (after Noida and Lucknow) and sixteenth in the country. The 2016 update of the World Health Organization's Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database found Allahabad to have the third highest mean concentration of "PM2.5" (<2.5 μm diameter) particulate matter in the ambient air among all the 2972 cities tested (after Zabol and Gwalior).The city lies close to Triveni Sangam, "three-river confluence", original name – Prayag, "place of sacrifice or offering" – which lies at the sangam (confluence) of the Ganga, Yamuna and Sarasvati rivers, a propitious place to conduct sacrifices. It plays a central role in Hindu scriptures. Allahabad was originally called Kaushambi (now a separate district) by the Kuru rulers of Hastinapur, who developed it as their capital. Since then, the city has been a political, cultural and administrative centre of the Doab region. In the early 17th century, Allahabad was a provincial capital in the Mughal Empire under the reign of Jahangir.Akbarnama mentions that the Mughal emperor Akbar founded a great city in Allahabad. `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni and Nizamuddin Ahmad mention that Akbar laid the foundations of an imperial city there which was called Ilahabas or Ilahabad. He was said to be impressed by its strategic location and built a fort there, later renaming it Ilahabas by 1584 which was changed to Allahabad by Shah Jahan.In 1580, Akbar created the "Subah of Ilahabas" with Allahabad as its capital. In mid-1600, Salim had made an abortive attempt to seize Agra's treasury and came to Allahabad, seizing its treasury and setting himself up as a virtually independent ruler. He was, however, reconciled with Akbar and returned to Allahabad where he stayed before returning to the royal court in 1604.In 1833 it became the seat of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces region before its capital was moved to Agra in 1835. Allahabad became the capital of the North-Western Provinces in 1858 and was the capital of India for a day. The city was the capital of the United Provinces from 1902 to 1920 and remained at the forefront of national importance during the struggle for Indian independence.Located in southern Uttar Pradesh, the city's metropolitan area covers 70.5 km2 (27.22 sq miles). Although the city and its surrounding area are governed by several municipalities, a large portion of Allahabad District is governed by the Allahabad City Council. The city is home to colleges, research institutions and 2 dozen central and state government offices. Allahabad has hosted cultural and sporting events, including Kumbh Mela and the Indira Marathon. Although the city's economy was built on tourism, most of its income now derives from real estate and financial services. The Allahabad district is the second-most revenue providing district in Uttar Pradesh.

British Raj

The British Raj (; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India. The region under British control was commonly called British India or simply India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, and those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, and called the princely states. The whole was also informally called the Indian Empire.

As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, when, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria (who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India). It lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India (later the Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the eastern part of which, still later, became the People's Republic of Bangladesh). At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was already a part of British India; Upper Burma was added in 1886, and the resulting union, Burma, was administered as an autonomous province until 1937, when it became a separate British colony, gaining its own independence in 1948.

Company rule in India

Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj", lit. "rule" in Hindustani) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent. This is variously taken to have commenced in 1757, after the Battle of Plassey, when Mir Jafar, the new Nawab of Bengal enthroned by Robert Clive, became a puppet in the Company's hands; in 1765, when the Company was granted the diwani, or the right to collect revenue, in Bengal and Bihar; or in 1773, when the Company established a capital in Calcutta, appointed its first Governor-General, Warren Hastings, and became directly involved in governance. By 1818, with the defeat of the Marathas, followed by the pensioning of the Peshwa and the annexation of his territories, British supremacy in India was complete.The East India Company was a private company owned by stockholders and reporting to a board of directors in London. Originally formed as a monopoly on trade, it increasingly took on governmental powers with its own army and judiciary. It seldom turned a profit, as employees diverted funds into their own pockets. The British government had little control, and there was increasing anger at the corruption and irresponsibility of Company officials or "nabobs" who made vast fortunes in a few years. Pitt's India Act of 1784 gave the British government effective control of the private company for the first time. The new policies were designed for an elite civil service career that minimized temptations for corruption. Increasingly Company officials lived in separate compounds according to British standards. The Company's rule lasted until 1858, when, after the Indian rebellion of 1857, it was abolished. With the Government of India Act 1858, the British government assumed the task of directly administering India in the new British Raj.

Kashipur, Uttarakhand

Kashipur [kaːʃiːpʊr] is a city of Udham Singh Nagar district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and one of its seven subdivisions. Located in the western part of Udham Singh Nagar district, it is Kumaun's third most populous city and the sixth most populous in Uttarakhand. According to the 2011 Census of India, the population is 121,623 for the city of Kashipur and 283,136 for Kashipur Tehsil.

Historically part of Kumaun, Kashipur is named after Kashinath Adhikari, the founder of the township and governor of the pargana, one of the officers of the Chand Kings of Kumaun in the 16th and 17th centuries. Kashipur remained under the rule of Chand Kings until the latter half of eighteenth century until Nand Ram, the then governor of Kashipur, became practically independent.

Kashipur was ceded to British in 1801, after which, it played a major role in the conquest of Kumaon during the Anglo-Gorkha war in 1815. After Kumaun was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Sugauli, Kashipur became the headquarters of Terai district in the Kumaon division. The Municipality of Kashipur was established in 1872, and was upgraded to a Municipal Corporation on 26 January 2013.

Kumaon division

For Kumaoni people see Kumaoni people

Kumaon or Kumaun is one of the two regions and administrative divisions of Uttarakhand, a mountainous state of northern India, the other being Garhwal. It includes the districts of Almora, Bageshwar, Champawat, Nainital, Pithoragarh, and Udham Singh Nagar. It is bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Nepal, on the south by the state of Uttar Pradesh, and on the west by the Garhwal region. The people of Kumaon are known as Kumaonis and speak the Kumaoni language.

Historically ruled by the kings of Katyuri and Chand Dynasties, the Kumaon division was formed in 1816, when the British reclaimed this region from the Gorkhas, who had annexed the erstwhile Kingdom of Kumaon in 1790. The division initially consisted of three districts, Kumaon, Terai and Garhwal, and formed the northernmost frontier of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces in British India, that later became North Western Provinces in 1836, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh in 1902, and United Provinces in 1937.

It is home to a famous Indian Army regiment, the Kumaon Regiment.

Important towns of Kumaon are Haldwani, Nainital, Almora, Pithoragarh, Rudrapur, Kichha, Kashipur, Pantnagar, Mukteshwar and Ranikhet. Nainital is the administrative centre of Kumaon Division and this is where the Uttarakhand high court is located.

Kurmi

Kurmi is a Hindu agricultural caste of India.

Mangal Pandey

Mangal Pandey (19 July 1827 – 8 April 1857) was an Indian soldier who played a key part in events immediately preceding the outbreak of the Indian rebellion of 1857. He was a sepoy (sipahi) in the 34th Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) regiment of the British East India Company. While contemporary British opinion denounced him as a traitor and mutineer, Pandey is a hero in modern India. In 1984, the Indian government issued a postage stamp to remember him. His life and actions have also been portrayed in several cinematic productions and

Mangal Pandey was born on 19 July 1827 in Nagwa, a village of upper Ballia district, Ceded and Conquered Provinces (now in Uttar Pradesh). He had joined the Bengal Army in 1849. In March 1857 Pandey was a private soldier in the 5th Company of the 34th Bengal Native Infantry (B.N.I.).

North-Western Provinces

The North-Western Provinces was an administrative region in British India. The North-Western Provinces were established in 1836, through merging the administrative divisions of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces. In 1858, the nawab-ruled kingdom of Oudh was annexed and merged with the North-Western Provinces to form the renamed North-Western Provinces and Oudh. In 1902, this province was reorganized to form the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Allahabad served as its capital from 1858, when it also became the capital of India for a day.

Pataudi State

Pataudi State was a small princely state in India, established in 1804 during the East India Company rule in India.

The state formed a part of the Delhi Territory in the Ceded and Conquered Provinces.. It was under the suzerainty of the Commissioner of Delhi. It had an area of 52 square miles and included one town, Pataudi, and 40 villages, ruled by Pataudi family.

Presidencies and provinces of British India

The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods:

Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" (trading posts) in several locations, mostly in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers. Its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, Denmark, Holland and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras, Bombay and Calcutta, had grown in size.

During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company gradually acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it also increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it gradually lost its mercantile privileges.

Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown. In the new British Raj (1858–1947), sovereignty extended to a few new regions, such as Upper Burma. Increasingly, however, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces".

Samuel Ludlow (surgeon)

Samuel Ludlow (died 1853) was a British surgeon in the East India Company medical establishment, serving in the Bengal Presidency in British India during the first half of the 19th century. Ludlow spent many years at the Delhi Residency, the headquarters of the British Resident to the Mughal Court in Delhi. The Resident's Office was created some time after 1803, when the British acquired Delhi, which soon became the Delhi Territory within the Ceded and Conquered Provinces, a part of the Bengal Presidency.

Ludlow joined the Bengal medical department (season of 1804) and was appointed Assistant Surgeon, First Class, on 18 March 1805. In March 1806 he became Assistant Surgeon to the civil station of Benaras. He was transferred to the Delhi Residency in 1813, and promoted to Surgeon on 30 January 1817. In 1828, at the time of the wedding of his daughter, he was Presidency Surgeon at Delhi. In 1831 he was appointed Superintending Surgeon and on 28 March of that year, transferred from Delhi to the Neemuch Division of the British Indian Army. On 7 December 1835 he was appointed Superintending Surgeon, Agra Circle. On 11 August 1838 he was transferred from the Agra circle to Superintending Surgeon, Sirhind Division, British Indian Army, based in Ambala. Ludlow was appointed to the Bengal Medical Board and eventually retired from East India Company service and settled in Exeter. In 1844, he was elected Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons (Hon.), one of the original 300. Sometime later, Samuel Ludlow moved to Bath, where he died on 17 October 1853 after a protracted illness. His widow, Mary Ludlow, died in Cheltenham on 26 July 1870, aged 93.Ludlow is best known today for having constructed a house in the Civil Lines, just outside the city walls of Old Delhi, which was christened "Ludlow Castle," a play on words on his surname, the building's turret, its decorative crenelations, and the 11th-century Ludlow Castle, Shropshire. Ludlow Castle, Delhi, was later to become the Residency at Delhi, and, still later, in September 1857, be the site of a battery used by British troops in the Siege of Delhi to breach the city wall and retake the city.

Timeline of Allahabad history

This is a timeline of the history of the city of Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

United Provinces of Agra and Oudh

The United Provinces of Agra and Oudh was a province of India under the British Raj, which existed from 1902 to 1947; the official name was shortened by the Government of India Act 1935 to United Provinces (UP), by which the province had been commonly known, and by which name it was also a province of independent India until 1950. It corresponded approximately to the present-day Indian states of Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Uttarakhand. From 1856 to 1902, the region had existed as two separate provinces, North-Western Provinces and Oudh. Allahabad became its capital in 1902 and continued until 1920. Lucknow was not made the capital until after 1921.

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