Cecidomyiidae

Cecidomyiidae (sometimes misspelled "Cecidomyidae"[3]) is a family of flies known as gall midges or gall gnats. As the name implies, the larvae of most gall midges feed within plant tissue, creating abnormal plant growths called galls.

Cecidomyiidae laying eggs
A cecidomyiid laying eggs on grass
Cecidomyiid in copula

Cecidomyiidae are very fragile small insects usually only 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) in length; many are less than 1 mm (0.039 in) long. They are characterised by hairy wings, unusual in the order Diptera, and have long antennae. More than 6,000 species and 783 genera are described worldwide, but since 1,100 are from well-studied North America, this is certainly an underestimate,[4] and a recent DNA barcoding study estimated the fauna of Canada alone to be in excess of 16,000 species, hinting at a staggering global count of over 1 million cecidomyiid species that have yet to be described, which would make it the most speciose single family in the entire animal kingdom.[5]

WillistonCecidomyiidae
Catocha americana
Cecidomyiidae
Fly December 2007-4
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
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Family:
Cecidomyiidae
Subfamilies
Synonyms
  • Cecidomyidae
  • Itonididae

Description

Cecidomyiidae are minute to small (0.5–3.0 mm), rarely larger (up to 8 mm, wing length 15 mm) flies with a delicate appearance. Except for a few genera with reduced wings, the eyes are holoptic. The mouthparts are reduced. Cecidomyiid antennae are notably long, with 12–14 segments, (sometimes fewer and up to 40 in some genera). The antennal segments either consist of a basal thickening and petiole or they are binodal, with a proximal node, an intermediate petiole and a distal node. Basal, medial, and apical whorls of hairs occur on the antennal segments. In some species, whorls of loop-shaped sensory filaments are also found, the basal or medial one sometimes being reduced. Some gall flies have only one (basal) whorl of hairs on the antennal segments, and the sensoria (transparent sensory appendages) differ in size and shape. The filaments are thread-like in the Porricondylinae and in all the Cecidomyiinae and take the form of long loops in the supertribe Cecidomyiidi). Ocelli are present only in the Lestremiinae. The wings are usually clear, rarely patterned. The wing bears microtrichia, often as scales, and some species have macrotrichia. The number of longitudinal veins is reduced. Only veins R1, R4+5, M3+4 and Cu1 are well developed in most species. The medial veins M1 and M2 are developed only in primitive groups, and the costa usually has a break just beyond vein R5. The legs are long and slender, without apical bristles.

Catochini wing veins

Catochini wing veins

Cecidomyiinae wing veins

Cecidomyiinae wing veins

Lasiopterini wing veins

Lasiopterini wing veins

Lestremiini wing veins

Lestremiini wing veins

Micromyini and Peromyiini wing veins

Micromyini and Peromyiini wing veins

Porricondylinae (most) wing veins

Porricondylinae (most) wing veins

Winnertziini wing veins

Winnertziini wing veins

The genitalia of males consist of gonocoxites, gonostyles, aedeagus, and tergites 9 and 10. Lower (in the evolutionary sense) gall flies often have sclerotized parameres and a more or less transparent plate (the tegmen) located above theaedeagus-the tegmen. In higher gall flies, the parameres and tegmen are not developed. In these, instead, close to the aedeagus, is a triangular basal outgrowth of the gonocoxites called the gonosterna. Supporting structures called apodema are located near the base of the genitalia in males; these are often equipped with two outgrowths. The ovipositor is short, lamelliform, or long, mobile, and in some species, acicular.

The larva is peripneustic. The head is tiny, cone-shaped, and has two posterolateral extensions. The mouthparts are reduced, with minute styliform mandibles. The relatively prominent antennae are two-segmented. Integumental setae or papillae are important in taxonomy since they are constant in number within groups. The prothorax has sclerotized sternal spatula (most). The anus is terminal in the Lestremiinae and paedogenetic in the Porricondylinae and ventral in other groups. The pupa is exarate (in a few species it is enclosed within the last instar larval integument). The anterior spiracle and anterior angle of antennal bases is prominent (most).[6][7]

Draaihartigheid bij bloemkool (Contarinia nasturtii damage on cauliflower)
Contarinia nasturtii damage on cauliflower

Biology

Many are economically significant, especially the Hessian fly, a wheat pest, as the galls cause severe damage. Other important pests of this family are the wheat blossom midge Sitodiplosis mosellana, the asian rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae) and the African rice gall midge O. oryzivora. Other pests are the coffee flower midge (Dasyneura coffeae), Soybean pod gall midge, (Asphondylia yushimai) pine needle gall midge (Thecodiplosis japonensis), the lentil flower midge (Contarinia lentis), the lucerne flower midge (C. medicaginis), and the alfalfa sprout midge (Dasineura ignorata) on the Leguminosae; the black locust tree gall midge (Obolodiplosis robiniae), the swede midge (Contarinia nasturtii), and the brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae) on the Cruciferae; the pear midge (Contarinia pyrivora) and the raspberry cane midge (Resseliella theobaldi) on fruit crops; Horidiplosis ficifolii on ornamental figs, and the rosette gall midge (Rhopalomyia solidaginis) on goldenrod stalks, Porrcondylini spp. on Citrus, Lestremia spp. on sweet potato, yam, ginger, garlic, onions, taro tubers, and potato, Lestodiplosis spp., Acaroletes spp., and Aphidoletes spp. on oranges, Lestodiplosis spp., Acaroletes spp., and Aphidoletes spp. on oranges, and Arthrocnodax spp. on limes. [8] [9] [10]

Cecidomyiid oviposting into boreholes of bark beetles on a fallen beech

A large number of gall midge species are natural enemies of other crop pests. Their larvae are predatory, and some are reported as parasitic. The most common prey are aphids and spider mites, followed by scale insects, then other small prey such as whiteflies and thrips, which eat the eggs of other insects or mites. As the larvae are incapable of moving considerable distances, a substantial population of prey must be present before the adults lay eggs, and the Cecidiomyiidae are most frequently seen during pest outbreaks. One species, Aphidoletes aphidimyza, is an important component of biological control programs for greenhouse crops and is widely sold in the United States. In South Africa, Dasineura rubiformis has been deployed against invasive Australian Acacia species.

Cecidomyiids are also known for the strange phenomenon of paedogenesis in which the larval stage reproduces without maturing first. In some species, the daughter larvae consume the mother, while in others, reproduction occurs later on in the egg or pupa.[11]

Parasitoids hosted by the Cecidomyiidae, thereby limiting the gall midge population include the Braconidae (Opiinae, Euphorinae) and chalcidoid wasps in the families Eurytomidae, Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Eupelmidae, Trichogrammatidae, and Aphelinidae. All contain species which are actual or potential biolological agents.

See also

References

  1. ^ Gagné, Raymond; Jaschhof, Mathias (2017). "A Catalog of the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) of the World, Fourth Edition" (PDF). Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
  2. ^ Mathias Jaschhof (2016). "A review of world Diallactiini (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Winnertziinae), with the description of six new genera and seventeen new species". doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4127.2.1.
  3. ^ University of California, Riverside
  4. ^ Raymond J Gagné , 2004 A catalog of the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) of the world Entomological Society of Washington Issue 25
  5. ^ Hebert PDN, Ratnasingham S, Zakharov EV, et al. (2016) Counting animal species with DNA barcodes: Canadian insects. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2016;371(1702):2015.0333, doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0333
  6. ^ Gagné, R. J. 1981. Cecidomyiidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. et al. (eds.), Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 1. Research Branch, Agriculture, Canada, Ottawa. pp. 257–292. download here Archived 2013-12-01 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Mamaev, B.M. Family Cecidomyiidae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision.
  8. ^ Darvas, B., Skuhravá, M., Andersen, A., 2000, Agricultural dipteran pests of the Palaearctic Region. In: Papp, L., Darvas, B. (Eds.). Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera with Special Reference to Flies of Economic Importance. Science Herald, Budapest, 565–649.
  9. ^ Dennis S. Hill, 1987 Agricultural insect pests of temperate regions and their control Cambridge [Cambridgeshire] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1987.ISBN 0521240131
  10. ^ Dennis S Hill 1987 Agricultural Insect Pests of tropics and their control Cambridge. University Press , New York ISBN 9780521294416
  11. ^ Wyatt, I.J. 1961. Pupal paedogenesis in the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera).–I. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (A) 36: 133–143.

Further reading

Economic

  • Barnes, H.F. 1946a. Gall midges of economic importance. Vol. I: gall midges of root and vegetable crops. Crosby Lockwood & Son Ltd., London.
  • Barnes, H.F. 1946b. Gall midges of economic importance. Vol. II: gall midges of fodder crops. Crosby Lockwood & Son Ltd., London.
  • Barnes, H.F. 1948a. Gall midges of economic importance. Vol. III: gall midges of fruit. Crosby Lockwood & Son Ltd., London.
  • Barnes, H.F. 1948b. Gall midges of economic importance. Vol. IV: gall midges of ornamental plants and shrubs. Crosby Lockwood & Son Ltd., London.
  • Barnes, H.F. 1949. Gall midges of economic importance. Vol. VI: gall midges of miscellaneous crops. Crosby Lockwood & Son Ltd., London.
  • Barnes, H.F. 1951. Gall midges of economic importance. Vol. V: gall midges of trees. Crosby Lockwood & Son Ltd., London.
  • Barnes, H.F. 1956. Gall midges of economic importance. Vol. VII: gall midges of cereal crops. Crosby Lockwood & Son Ltd., London. 261 p.
  • Nijveldt, W. 1969. Gall midges of economic importance. VIII: gall midges—miscellaneous. Crosby, Lockwood & Son Ltd., London
  • Jahn, GC and B. Khiev. 2004. Gall midge in Cambodian lowland rice. pp. 71–76. In J. Benett, JS Bentur, IC Pasula, K. Krishnaiah, [eds]. New approaches to gall midge resistance in rice. Proceedings of the International Workshop, 22–24 November 1998, Hyderabad, India.
  • Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute and Indian Council of Agricultural Research. 195 p. ISBN 971-22-0198-8
  • Heong, KL, YH Chen, DE Johnson, GC Jahn, M Hossain, RS Hamilton. 2005. Debate Over a GM Rice Trial in China. Letters. Science, Vol 310, Issue 5746, 231–233, 14 October 2005.
  • Huang, J., Ruifa Hu, Scott Rozelle, Carl Pray. 2005. Insect-Resistant GM Rice in Farmers' Fields: Assessing Productivity and Health Effects in China. Science (29 April 2005) Vol. 308. no. 5722, pp. 688 – 690. doi:10.1126/science.1108972

Taxonomy

  • Mohn, E. 1966–1971. Cecidomyiidae (=Itonididae). Cecidomyiinae (part). In: Lindner, E. (Ed.) Die Fliegen der Palaearktischen Region 2(2): 1–248.
  • Yukawa, J. (1971) A Revision of the Japanese Gall Midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University 8: 1–203.pdf
  • Kolesik, P. (2014) A review of gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: Cecidomyiinae) of Australia and Papua New Guinea: Morphology, biology, classification and key to adults. https://doi.org/10.1111/aen.12100: 1–22. Subsequent hard copy: 2015. Austral Entomology, 54, 127–148.

External links

Data related to Cecidomyiidae at Wikispecies

Aprionus

Aprionus is a genus of wood midges in the family Cecidomyiidae. There are at least 130 described species in Aprionus.

Asphondylia

Asphondylia is a genus of gall midges in the family Cecidomyiidae. There are at least 60 described species in Asphondylia.

Bibionomorpha

The Bibionomorpha are an infraorder of the suborder Nematocera. One of its constituent families, the Anisopodidae, is the presumed sister taxon to the entire suborder Brachycera. Several of the remaining families in the infraorder (those shown without common names) are former subfamilies of the Mycetophilidae, which has been recently subdivided. The family Axymyiidae has recently been removed from the Bibionomorpha to its own infraorder Axymyiomorpha.

Most representatives of the Bibionomorpha are saprophages or fungivores as larvae with the Cecidomyiidae being predominantly gall-formers. Some Sciarids are common indoor pests, developing large populations in potting soil that has become moldy from overwatering. The larvae of the Bibionidae sometimes migrate in large, snake-like masses to minimize dehydration while seeking a new feeding site.

Caryomyia

Caryomyia is a genus of hickory gall midges in the family Cecidomyiidae. There are at least 30 described species in Caryomyia.

Cecidomyia

Cecidomyia is a genus of gall midges in the tribe Cecidomyiini.

Cecidomyiini

Cecidomyiini is a tribe of gall midges in the family Cecidomyiidae. There are at least 220 described species in Cecidomyiini.

Contarinia

Contarinia is a genus of midges, small flies in the family Cecidomyiidae.

Cystiphora

Cystiphora is a genus of gall midges in the family Cecidomyiidae. There are about seven described species in Cystiphora.

Dasineura

Dasineura is a genus of midges in the family Cecidomyiidae, some of which cause galls on plants such as Dasineura crataegi on hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) and Dasineura fraxinea on ash (Fraxinus excelsior).

Lasiopteridi

The Lasiopteridi is a supertribe of flies from the family Cecidomyiidae. They are often called gall midges or gall gnats.

Mayetiola

Mayetiola are a genus of flies from the family Cecidomyiidae. Most species are pests of cereal crops

Midge

Midge is a term used to refer to many species of small flies. The term "midge" does not define any particular taxonomic group, but includes species in several families of non-mosquito Nematoceran Diptera. They are found (seasonally or otherwise) on practically every land area outside permanently arid deserts and the frigid zones. Some midges, such as many Phlebotominae (sand fly) and Simuliidae (black fly), are vectors of various diseases. Many others play useful roles as prey items for insectivores, such as various frogs and swallows. Others are important as detritivores, participating in various nutrient cycles. The habits of midges vary greatly from species to species, though within any particular family, midges commonly have similar ecological roles.

Examples of families that include species of midges include:

Blephariceridae, net-winged midges

Cecidomyiidae, gall midges

Ceratopogonidae, biting midges (also known as no-see-ums or punkies in North America, and sandflies in Australia)

Chaoboridae, phantom midges

Chironomidae, non-biting midges (also known as muckleheads or muffleheads in the Great Lakes region of North America)

Deuterophlebiidae, mountain midges

Dixidae, meniscus midges

Scatopsidae, dung midges

Theumaleidae, solitary midges

Monardia

Monardia is a genus of wood midges, insects in the family Cecidomyiidae. There are at least 40 described species in Monardia.

Neolasioptera

Neolasioptera is a genus of gall midges, insects in the family Cecidomyiidae. There are at least 130 described species in Neolasioptera.

Rabdophaga

Rabdophaga is genus of flies in the family of gall midges Cecidomyiidae. There are 105 species distributed through Africa, Asia, Europe and North America. Most species of Rabdophaga gall willows (Salix sp.); one exception is R. giraudiana which galls the stems of poplars (Populus sp.).

Rhopalomyia

Rhopalomyia is a genus of gall midges, insects in the family Cecidomyiidae. There are at least 220 described species in Rhopalomyia.

Sackenomyia

Sackenomyia is a genus of gall midges, insects in the family Cecidomyiidae. There are about five described species in Sackenomyia.

Schizomyia

Schizomyia is a genus of gall midges. It has a cosmopolitan distribution.This genus is in the tribe Schizomyiina of the tribe Asphondyliini of the fsmily Cecidomyiinae.

Sciaroidea

Sciaroidea is a superfamily in the infraorder Bibionomorpha. There are about 16 families and more than 15,000 described species in Sciaroidea. Most of its constituent families are various gnats.

Extant Diptera families

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