The Cave of the Patriarchs massacre, also known as the Ibrahimi Mosque massacre or Hebron massacre, was a shooting massacre carried out by American-Israeli Baruch Goldstein. Goldstein was a member of the far-right Israeli Kach movement. On February 25, 1994, during the overlapping religious holidays of both Jewish Purim and Muslim Ramadan, Goldstein opened fire on a large number of Palestinian Muslims who had gathered to pray inside the Ibrahimi Mosque at the Cave of the Patriarchs compound in Hebron, West Bank. The attack left 29 people dead, several as young as twelve, and 125 wounded. Goldstein was overpowered, disarmed and then beaten to death by survivors.
The massacre immediately set off mass Palestinian protests throughout the West Bank, and during the ensuing clashes a further 20 to 26 Palestinians were killed, and 120 injured in confrontations with the IDF, while 9 Jews were killed.
Goldstein was widely denounced in Israel and by communities in the Jewish diaspora, with many attributing his act to insanity. Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin condemned the attack, describing Goldstein as a "degenerate murderer", "a shame on Zionism and an embarrassment to Judaism". Some Jewish settlers in Hebron lauded him as a hero and viewed his attack as a preemptive strike and his subsequent death as an act of martyrdom. Following statements in support of Goldstein's actions, the Kach movement was banned by the Israeli cabinet.
|Cave of the Patriarchs massacre|
Cave of the Patriarchs in 2009
Hebron (the Palestinian territories)
|Location||Hebron, West Bank|
|Date||February 25, 1994|
|Jewish terrorism, Mass murder|
|Deaths||30 (including the perpetrator)|
In the 1970s, Baruch Goldstein, who was born and lived in Brooklyn, New York, was a charter member of the Jewish Defense League. After emigrating to Israel in 1983, he served as a physician in the Israeli Defense Force, first as a conscript, then in the reserve forces. Following the end of his active duty, Goldstein worked as a physician and lived in the Kiryat Arba settlement near Hebron, where he served as an emergency doctor. Goldstein became involved with Kach, and maintained a strong personal relationship with Kahane, whose views, regarded by the Israeli government as racist, had caused his party to be banned from the Knesset in 1988. Kahane was assassinated in 1990 by Arab terrorist El Sayyid Nosair in New York City, and Goldstein reportedly swore to take revenge for the killing. Goldstein was elected to Kiryat Arba city council and in this capacity assisted in establishing a memorial park dedicated to Kahane.
In 1981, Goldstein wrote a letter, published in The New York Times, which said that Israel "must act decisively to remove the Arab minority from within its borders", which "could be accomplished by initially offering encouragement and incentives to Arabs to leave of their own accord". In October 1993, inside the Ibrahimi mosque, acid was poured over the floor, leaving giant holes in the carpets, and six worshippers were assaulted. From the evidence of the sanctuary guards, Goldstein was identified as the culprit. A letter was written to Yitzhak Rabin, the then Israeli Prime Minister, by the Muslim authorities "regarding the dangers" of Goldstein and asking for action to be taken to prevent daily violations of the mosque. Four years before the massacre, an agent of Shin Bet, the Israeli internal security service, who had infiltrated Kach, passed a warning to his superiors about the danger posed by Goldstein. The agent ascribed to Goldstein the statement, "There will be a day when one Jew will take revenge on the Arabs."
In Hebron, as elsewhere in the West Bank, tensions ran high after the Oslo Accords were signed in 1993. On December 6, 1993, Goldstein's close friend Mordechai Lapid and his son Shalom Lapid were killed in Hebron. As the settlement's emergency responder, Goldstein was present at the murder scene, where he referred to the terrorists as "nazis".
As the settlement's main emergency doctor, Goldstein was involved in treating victims of Arab-Israeli violence prior to that incident as well. He expressed anti-Arab feelings far before the massacre. Israeli press reports stated that Goldstein refused to treat Arabs, even those serving in the IDF; this was also reflected in comments by his acquaintances. He was known to refuse to treat Druze soldiers who served in the West Bank, claiming that it was against Jewish laws to treat non-Jews. However, these anonymous claims were refuted by a number of sources, including Dr. Manfred Lehman and Dr. Chaim Simons, quoting the Shamgar Commission report.
February 25, 1994 coincided with the Jewish festival of Purim, and fell during the Muslim Ramadan. On the eve of the massacre, Goldstein listened to a reading in the Hall of Abraham of the Scroll of Esther, and spoke to others of the need to behave like Esther. Some consider it not coincidental that he then carried out the execution as Purim was celebrated. In this context the festival of Purim was associated with a reading that concerns Amalek, with whom, in Israeli extremist rhetoric, Palestinians are often identified. Joseph Tuman has conjectured he saw himself as Mordecai. Ian Lustick thinks it likely Goldstein thought of Yasser Arafat as a modern-day Haman.
Both Jews and Muslims were permitted to access their respective parts of the compound. At 5:00 a.m. on February 25, 800 Palestinian Muslims passed through the east gate of the cave to participate in Fajr, the first of the five daily Islamic prayers. The cave was under Israeli Army guard, but of the nine soldiers supposed to have been on duty, four were late turning up, and only one officer was there.
Shortly afterwards, passing through the Hall of Abraham, Goldstein entered the Hall of Isaac, where some 800 Muslims were at prayer. He was dressed in his army uniform and carried an IMI Galil assault rifle and four magazines of ammunition, which held a total of 140 rounds in 35 rounds per magazine. He was not stopped by the guards, who assumed that he was an officer entering the tomb to pray in an adjacent chamber reserved for Jews. Standing in front of the only exit from the hall and positioned to the rear of the Muslim worshippers, he is reported as having thrown a grenade into the middle of the hall before opening fire, killing 29 people and wounding another 125, among them children. Several people were left with paralyzing wounds. According to survivors, Goldstein bided his time until sujūd, the part of the prayer where worshippers prostrate themselves with their heads on the floor. After someone in the crowd hurled a fire extinguisher, which struck him on the head, he was overcome, disarmed and then beaten to death. No criminal charges were filed in connection with his killing.
Reports after the massacre were often contradictory. There was initial uncertainty about whether Goldstein had acted alone; it was reported that eyewitnesses had seen "another man, also dressed as a soldier, handing him ammunition".
There were many testimonies that made mention of Israeli guards outside the cave having opened fire. Israeli military officials claim that no Israeli troops fired on the Palestinian worshipers. However, The New York Times interviewed over 40 Palestinian eyewitnesses, many of whom were confined to hospital beds with gunshot wounds, and thus "unable to compare notes". All witnesses corroborated that three Israeli guards opened fire, likely in panic amid the confusion, as the Muslims fled the shrine, with at least one soldier firing into the crowd. During the inquiry, an Israeli Army official said three worshipers died in the stampede following the attack and five Palestinians were killed in street riots within Hebron later that day. The testimony of various Israeli military officials was often contradictory. For instance, Danny Yatom asserted that two of the guards had fired six or seven shots in the confusion "but only in the air," while the two guards themselves, Sgt. Kobi Yosef and Sgt. Niv Drori, later testified to firing four shots "chest high". The guards' testimony was also at odds with the testimony of their ranking officer in claiming they had seen another Jewish settler enter the cave bearing arms. Tikva Honig-Parnass wrote that 10 Palestinians were killed and more than 100 injured by Israeli soldiers who continued to shoot at those who were trying to flee the mosque, at those who were evacuating the wounded, and at people who were rioting at the Ahli hospital. Arafat Baya’at, for one, is reported as having been shot dead by Israeli troops outside the hospital when he picked up a stone to throw at soldiers after seeing a friend of his being carried out of an ambulance.
As word of the incident spread throughout the occupied territories, confrontations broke out in which a further 20 Palestinians were killed and 120 injured. In the first 6 days following the massacre, 21 Palestinians were killed by live ammunition from the IDF.
Two separate suicide bombings took place in April 1994, carried out by Palestinian militants inside Israel and launched by Hamas' Izzedine al-Qassam Brigades in retaliation for the massacre carried out by Goldstein.[i] A total of 8 Israeli civilians were killed and 55 wounded in the attack, which took place in Afula on April 6, at the end of the forty-day mourning period for Goldstein's victims. Six more were killed and 30 injured in Hadera bus station suicide bombing a week later. Those were the first suicide bombings carried out by Palestinian militants inside Israel. According to Matti Steinberg, then Shin Bet head's advisor on Palestinian affairs, Hamas had until then refused to attack civilian targets inside Israel, and the change in Hamas' policy was a result of Goldstein's massacre.
Four days after the massacre, on March 1, 1994, on the Brooklyn Bridge in New York City, Lebanese-born immigrant Rashid Baz shot at a van of 15 Chabad-Lubavitch Orthodox Jewish students, killing one and injuring three others. During the shooting spree, the gunman reportedly shouted in Arabic "Kill the Jews," expressing revenge for the massacre of 29 Muslim worshipers at the Cave of the Patriarchs four days prior.
List provided by the Palestine Human Rights Information Center.
Killed in the mosque
Several people were left with paralyzing wounds. Palestinians count the number of murdered to include those who later expired or were shot outside the mosque in the immediate aftermath.
The Kach movement, with which Goldstein was affiliated, was outlawed as a terrorist organization. The cabinet decided to confiscate the weapons of some they regarded as right-wing extremists and put them in administrative detention. The Israeli government also took extreme measures against Palestinians following the massacre, banning them from certain streets in Hebron, such as Al-Shuhada Street, where many Palestinians have homes and businesses, and opening them to the exclusive access of Jewish Israelis and foreign tourists.
In an address to the Knesset, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin denounced Goldstein. Rabin, addressing not just Goldstein and his legacy, but also other settlers he regarded as militant, declared,
You are not part of the community of Israel... You are not part of the national democratic camp which we all belong to in this house, and many of the people despise you. You are not partners in the Zionist enterprise. You are a foreign implant. You are an errant weed. Sensible Judaism spits you out. You placed yourself outside the wall of Jewish law... We say to this horrible man and those like him: you are a shame on Zionism and an embarrassment to Judaism.
Rabin considered that his failure to close down the Jewish settlements in Hebron after the massacre one of his greatest political mistakes.
The Israeli government appointed a commission of inquiry headed by then president of the Supreme Court, Judge Meir Shamgar. The commission in the epilogue to its report called the massacre "a base and murderous act, in which innocent people bending in prayer to their maker were killed". Among its specific conclusions were:
- 8.2a "... warnings were issued regarding an expected attack by Hamas following the distribution of its leaflets in Hebron."
- 8.7a "Following an incident in Abu-Dis, which ended in the deaths of a number of members of Az-A-Din Al-Qassam [of Hamas], emotions ran high among the Moslem worshipers (about two hundred), who shouted hostile slogans ("Qassam", "kill the Jews"), [at the Jewish worshipers], making it necessary to call in army and Border Police forces. According to one of the Moslem witnesses, the Jews also shouted hostile slogans." (This is in reference to persons present on the previous evening.)
- 8.8a "Those in charge of security at the Tomb were given no intelligence reports that an attack by a Jew against Moslem worshipers could be expected, particularly since intelligence reports warned of the opposite: an attack by Hamas. Therefore, there was concern about an attack by Arabs against Jews."
Critics of the commission have suggested that Shamgar's judicial record has "consistently displayed his leniency toward the settlers, including those convicted of crimes against the Palestinians, but especially toward the soldiers who had fired at the Palestinians" and that his career reflected a history of pro-settler activism by promoting expropriation of Palestinian land to Jewish settlement that are against international law.
There was widespread condemnation of the massacre in Israel. A poll found that 78.8% of Israeli adults condemned the Hebron massacre, while 3.6% praised Goldstein. The Jewish Settler Council declared that the act was "not Jewish, not humane".
Most religious leaders denounced the attack. The Sephardi Chief Rabbi said "I am simply ashamed that a Jew carried out such a villainous and irresponsible act", and suggested that he be buried outside the cemetery. His Ashkenazi counterpart, Yisrael Meir Lau, called it "a desecration of God's name". Rabbi Yehuda Amital of Gush Etzion said Goldstein had "besmirched the Jewish nation and the Torah". Some rabbis reacted with ambivalence to the massacre, and a few praised Goldstein and called his undertaking "an act of martyrdom". In eulogizing Goldstein, Rabbi Israel Ariel called him a "holy martyr", and questioned the innocence of the victims by claiming they were responsible for the massacre of Hebron's Jews in 1929. Rabbi Dov Lior of Kiryat Arba said he was a saint whose "hands are innocent, his heart pure", and compared him to the martyrs of the Holocaust. At the time, settler rabbi Yitzhak Ginzburgh was the only prominent Orthodox rabbi who praised the massacre. He has since been detained several times for espousing extremist views.
In the weeks following the massacre, hundreds of Israelis traveled to Goldstein's grave to celebrate Goldstein's actions. Some Hasidim danced and sang around his grave. Although the government has said that those who celebrated the massacre represented only a tiny minority of Israelis, a New York Times report states that Israeli government claims may understate the phenomenon.
In a pamphlet titled Baruch HaGever[Note 1] published in 1994, and a book of the same name in 1995, various rabbis praised Goldstein's action as a pre-emptive strike in response to Hamas threats of a pogrom, and wrote that it is possible to view his act as following five Halachic principles.
The phenomenon of the adoration of Goldstein's tomb persisted for years, despite Israeli government efforts to crack down on those making pilgrimage to Goldstein's grave site. The grave's epitaph said that Goldstein "gave his life for the people of Israel, its Torah and land". In 1999, after the passing of Israeli legislation outlawing monuments to terrorists, the Israeli army acted to dismantle the shrine that had been built to Goldstein at the site of his interment. In the years after the dismantling of the shrine, radical Jewish settlers would celebrate Purim by invoking the memory of the massacre, sometimes even dressing up themselves or their children to look like Goldstein.
Such an act is an obscenity and a travesty of Jewish values. That it should have been perpetrated against worshippers in a house of prayer at a holy time makes it a blasphemy as well... Violence is evil. Violence committed in the name of God is doubly evil. Violence against those engaged in worshipping God is unspeakably evil.
An editorial in The Jewish Chronicle written by Chaim Bermant denounced the Kach organisation to which Goldstein belonged as "Neo-Nazis" and a U.S. creation, funded by American money and a product of American gun culture. The same edition also reported that some Liberal synagogues in the UK had begun fundraising for Goldstein's victims.
Palestinian protesters took to the streets in the aftermath of the massacre. There were widespread protests and clashes in both the occupied territories and within Israel itself, in Nazareth and Jaffa.
As a reaction to the trauma induced in children in Hebron, the Palestinian Child Arts Center (PCAC), a non-governmental, nonprofit organization was founded. The activities of the centre primarily involve the intellectual development of Palestinian children, and to reinforce a positive role for the child within Palestinian society and culture.
Rabbi Arthur Hertzberg is correct when he asserts that in annexing Judea and Samaria (which he refers to as the West Bank), with its large Arab population, Israel would be endangering its Jewish character. According to statistics published by the Israeli Government in 1980, the Arabs of Israel have an average of eight children per household, as compared with an average of 2.9 children per Jewish home in Israel. However, Rabbi Hertzberg fails to note that even within the pre-1967 borders of Israel this same disparity of birth rates, associated with a declining Aliyah, assures Israel of an Arab majority in Israel (70 years?) unless steps are taken to prevent this from occurring. Ceding the "West Bank" to the "Palestinians" would, therefore, not solve the problem which Rabbi Hertzberg raises; it would serve only to further jeopardize Israel's security and betray a Biblical trust.
The harsh reality is: if Israel is to avert facing the kinds of problems found in Northern Ireland today, it must act decisively to remove the Arab minority from within its borders. This could be accomplished by initially offering encouragement and incentives to Arabs to leave of their own accord, just as the Jewish population of many Arab countries has been persuaded to leave, one way or another. Before instinctively defending democracy as inviolate, Israelis should consider whether the prospect of an Arab majority electing 61 Arab Knesset members is acceptable to them. Israelis will soon have to choose between a Jewish state and a democratic one.
Baruch Goldstein Brooklyn, June 30, 1981.
Although Goldstein did not say anything during his attack to explain his actions, it is known that the night before his assault he had attended a service at the Jewish side of the Cave of the Patriarchs where after listening to the traditional reading from the Scroll of Esther, he told others there that they should all behave like Esther. The timing of his attack the next day at the same site hardly seems the product of happenstance or coincidence. It was the day of Purim. Moreover, although his actions seemed to be the product of a mind that had snapped or become depraved, there did not seem to be any sign that he was suffering from a mental disorder. His actions were deliberate and intentional. Goldstein was troubled by the ongoing peace negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians in Oslo and openly concerned that a Palestinian state was about to be created. His attack on Muslim worshippers at the same site, while Purim coincided with Ramadan, was an attempt to cast himself symbolically in the story as Mordecai. Indeed that was exactly the way his actions were interpreted by other settlers at Kiryat Arba, and in the years to come after 1994, there would be numerous instances in which the settlers would celebrate Purim by also invoking Goldstein's memory and image in a provocative manner.
Events in the year 1994 in Israel.Abdel Rahman Zuabi
Abdel Rahman Zuabi (Arabic: عبدالرحمن زعبي, Hebrew: עבד אל-רחמן זועבי; November 19, 1932 – September 12, 2014) (also Abd-er-Rahman Zoabi) was an Israeli Arab judge. In 1999, he served as an Israeli Supreme Court justice.Agreement on Movement and Access
The Agreement on Movement and Access (AMA) is an agreement between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA), signed on 15 November 2005. The treaty aimed improvement of Palestinian freedom of movement and economic activity within the Palestinian territories, and open the Gaza–Egypt border.Al-Shuhada Street
Al-Shuhada Street or Shuhada Street (Arabic: شارع الشهداء) (Martyr's Street), (Hebrew: רחוב המלך דוד) (King David Street) also spelled (in accordance with the pronunciation) a-Shuhada Street or ash-Shuhada Street, is a street in Hebron.
Shuhada Street, the main road leading to the Tomb of the Patriarchs, used to be the central wholesale market of the Hebron region, as its central location to the tomb, and the location of the bus station and police station, made it a natural gathering place. After riots following the February 1994 Cave of the Patriarchs massacre, Israel closed the street for Palestinians. In the early 2000s, in accordance with the Hebron Protocol, the street was completely reopened to Arab vehicular traffic. The shops, however, remained closed. Parts of the street were closed again to Palestinians after violence in the Second Intifada.
After the closure of all Palestinian shops, the Palestinian municipal and governmental offices, and the central bus station, which became an Israeli army base, al-Shuhada Street became virtually a ghost town. The Vegetable and Wholesale Markets next to the Avraham Avinu settlement are a closed area for Palestinians now. An annual international "Open Shuhada Street" demonstration has been organized since 2010.Baruch Goldstein
Baruch Kopel Goldstein (Hebrew: ברוך קופל גולדשטיין; December 9, 1956 – February 25, 1994) was an American-Israeli physician, religious extremist, and mass murderer who perpetrated the 1994 Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in Hebron, killing 29 Palestinian Muslim worshippers and wounding another 125. He was beaten to death by survivors of the massacre.
The Israeli government condemned the massacre, and responded by arresting followers of Meir Kahane, criminalizing the Kach movement and affiliated movements as terrorist, forbidding certain Israeli settlers from entering Palestinian towns, and demanding that those settlers turn in their army-issued rifles, although rejecting a PLO demand that all settlers in the West Bank be disarmed and that an international force be created to protect Palestinians. Jewish Israelis were barred from entering major Arab communities in Hebron. The Israeli government also took extreme measures against Palestinians following the deadly riots after the massacre, expelling them from certain streets near Jewish settlements in Hebron, such as Al-Shuhada Street, where many Palestinians had homes and businesses, and allowing access exclusively to Jewish Israelis and foreign tourists.Goldstein's gravesite became a pilgrimage site for Jewish extremists. The following words are inscribed on the tomb: "He gave his life for the people of Israel, its Torah and land." In 1999, after the passing of Israeli legislation outlawing monuments to terrorists, the Israeli Army dismantled the shrine that had been built to Goldstein at the site of his interment. The tombstone and its epitaph, calling Goldstein a martyr with clean hands and a pure heart, was left untouched. After the flagstones around it were pried away under the eye of a military chaplain, the ground was covered with gravel.Danny Yatom
Danny Yatom (Hebrew: דני יתום, born 15 March 1945) is a former Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset for Labor. In 1996–1998, Yatom was head of the Mossad security service and between 1999 and 2001, he served as Prime Minister Ehud Barak's Chief Of Staff and security advisor.David Libai
David Libai (Hebrew: דוד ליבאי, born 22 October 1934) is an Israeli jurist and former politician. He was a member of the Knesset and served as Minister of Justice from 1992 to 1996.Eliezer Goldberg
Eliezer Goldberg (Hebrew: אליעזר גולדברג) (born May 24, 1931) is a former Israeli Supreme Court judge, and former State Comptroller of Israel.FrontPage Magazine
FrontPage Magazine (also known as FrontPageMag.com) is an online right-wing political website, edited by David Horowitz and published by the David Horowitz Freedom Center.Hadera bus station suicide bombing
The Hadera bus station suicide bombing was a 1994 Hamas suicide attack on a passenger bus departing from the central bus station in Hadera for Tel Aviv, Israel. Six were killed and 30 injured. The attack came exactly one week after another Hamas attack, the Afula Bus suicide bombing. Both attacks were motivated officially by Hamas as retribution for the Cave of the Patriarchs massacre conducted against Muslim worshippers in February by Baruch Goldstein. The attack took place on the Israeli Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day.
Hamas bombmaker Yahya Ayyash built a bomb using two kilograms of home-made acetone peroxide explosive. Twenty-one-year-old Amar Salah Diab Amarna, a native of Ya'bad in the West Bank, was selected for the mission.On the morning of April 13, 1994, Amarna boarded the 9:30 AM bus to Tel Aviv. At 9:40 AM, as the bus was pulling out of the station, Amarna placed the bag containing the bomb on the floor of the bus, "where shrapnel could rip through vital arteries in the groin area," and detonated it.As Israeli rescue workers converged on the scene of the explosion, a second pipe bomb exploded. Hamas later claimed responsibility for the attack. FatalitiesHebron massacre (disambiguation)
The Hebron massacre was a massacre of Jews at Hebron that occurred during the 1929 Palestine riots.
Hebron massacre may also refer to:
1517 Hebron attacks
Battle of Hebron in 1834
Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in 1994
Hebron Massacre, a 1994 album by MuslimgauzeIslamophobia in Germany
Islamophobia in Germany refers to the set of discourses, behaviours and structures which express feelings of anxiety, fear, hostility and rejection towards Islam and/or Muslims in Germany. Islamophobia can manifest itself through discrimination in the workforce, negative coverage in the media, and violence against Muslims. Various German Islamic groups have expressed concerns over the attacks targeting mosques.Kiryat Arba
This article is mainly about the modern Israeli settlement, not the biblical town
Kiryat Arba or Qiryat Arba (Hebrew: קִרְיַת־אַרְבַּע), lit. "Town of the Four," is an urban Israeli settlement on the outskirts of Hebron, in the Judean Mountains region of the West Bank. Founded in 1968, in 2017 it had a population of 7,339.
The international community considers Israeli settlements illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this. According to a classified 1970 document “The method for establishing Kiryat Arba" released in 2016, the establishment of Kiryat Arba used a system of annexing land to a military base for the purpose of civilian settlement, the first time this happened in the West Bank according to Shlomo Gazit.List of Israeli attacks on Palestine
The following are a List of Israeli attacks on Palestinians:
List of Israeli strikes and Palestinian casualties in the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict
Al-Fakhura school incident
Cave of the Patriarchs massacre
Israeli targeted killings
2009 Ibrahim al-Maqadna Mosque strikeList of massacres in the Palestinian territories
The following is a list of massacres that have occurred in the Palestinian territories since 1994.
For massacres that have occurred in Roman Judea prior to the establishment of the Roman province of Syria Palæstina, see List of massacres in Roman Judea.
For massacres that took place prior to the British Mandate, see List of massacres in Ottoman Syria.
For massacres that took place in Mandatory Palestine, see List of killings and massacres in Mandatory Palestine.
For massacres that took place during the 1948 Palestine War, see Killings and massacres during the 1948 Palestine War.
For massacres in Israel see List of massacres in IsraelList of terrorist incidents in 1994
This is a timeline of incidents in 1994 that have been labelled as "terrorism" and are not believed to have been carried out by a government or its forces (see state terrorism and state-sponsored terrorism).Operation Determined Path
Operation "Determined Path" (Hebrew: מבצע דרך נחושה Mivtza Derekh Nehosha) was a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces, starting June 22, 2002, following Operation "Defensive Shield", with the goal of reaching some of the unreached objectives set forth for Defensive Shield, especially in the northern West Bank.Santorini affair
The Santorini was a fishing boat used for weapons-smuggling, which was captured in May 2001 by the Israeli Shayetet 13 Naval Commando Unit. This was the first ship caught in an attempt to smuggle weapons to Palestinian-controlled territories. In May 2002, three of the Santorini's crew members were convicted of attempting to smuggle weapons into the Gaza Strip.Stop Islamisation of Denmark
Stop Islamisation of Denmark (Danish: Stop Islamiseringen af Danmark) is a Danish anti-Islamic organisation founded in 2005. The group has been active in campaigning against the building of mosques in Denmark and has staged free speech demonstrations in relation to the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy. In 2007 the group protested outside of the European Union headquarters . In 2013 the group protested discrimination against Jews. The group was founded by Danish anti-Islamic activist Anders Gravers Pedersen.
Massacres against Palestinians