Cavalier

Cavalier (/ˌkævəˈlɪər/) was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679). It was later adopted by the Royalists themselves. Although it referred originally to political and social attitudes and behaviour, of which clothing was a very small part, it has subsequently become strongly identified with the fashionable clothing of the court at the time. Prince Rupert, commander of much of Charles I's cavalry, is often considered to be an archetypal Cavalier.[1]

Anthonis van Dyck 058
Prince Rupert of the Rhine, often considered to be an archetypal Cavalier.
Cavaliers
Dissolved1678
Succeeded byTories
IdeologyMonarchism

Etymology

Cavalier derives from the same Latin root as the French word chevalier (as well as the Spanish word caballero), the Vulgar Latin word caballarius, meaning "horseman". Shakespeare used the word cavaleros to describe an overbearing swashbuckler or swaggering gallant in Henry IV, Part 2, in which Shallow says "I'll drink to Master Bardolph, and to all the cavaleros about London".[2]

English Civil War

King Charles I and his adherents
An engraving depicting Charles I and his adherents.

"Cavalier" is chiefly associated with the Royalist supporters of King Charles I in his struggle with Parliament in the English Civil War. It first appears as a term of reproach and contempt, applied to the followers of King Charles I in June 1642:

1642 (June 10) Propositions of Parlt. in Clarendon v. (1702) I. 504 Several sorts of malignant Men, who were about the King; some whereof, under the name of Cavaliers, without having respect to the Laws of the Land, or any fear either of God or Man, were ready to commit all manner of Outrage and Violence. 1642 Petition Lords & Com. 17 June in Rushw. Coll. III. (1721) I. 631 That your Majesty..would please to dismiss your extraordinary Guards, and the Cavaliers and others of that Quality, who seem to have little Interest or Affection to the publick Good, their Language and Behaviour speaking nothing but Division and War.[2]

Charles, in the Answer to the Petition 13 June 1642 speaks of Cavaliers as a "word by what mistake soever it seemes much in disfavour".[3] It was soon reappropriated (as a title of honour) by the king's party, who in return applied Roundhead to their opponents, and at the Restoration the court party preserved the name, which survived until the rise of the term Tory.[3]

Social perceptions

Cavalier was not understood at the time as primarily a term describing a style of dress, but a whole political and social attitude. However, in modern times the word has become more particularly associated with the court fashions of the period, which included long flowing hair in ringlets, brightly coloured clothing with elaborate trimmings and lace collars and cuffs, and plumed hats.[4] This contrasted with the dress of at least the most extreme Roundhead supporters of Parliament, with their preference for shorter hair and plainer dress, although neither side conformed to the stereotypical images entirely.

Sir-Anthony-van-Dyck-Lord-John-Stuart-and-His-Brother-Lord-Bernard-Stuart
Lord John Stewart, c. 1638 (left), pictured with his younger brother Lord Bernard Stewart (1623–1645), by Sir Anthony van Dyck.

Most Parliamentarian generals wore their hair at much the same length as their Royalist counterparts, though Cromwell was something of an exception. The best patrons in the nobility of Charles I's court painter Sir Anthony van Dyck, the archetypal recorder of the Cavalier image, all took the Parliamentary side in the Civil War. Probably the most famous image identified as of a "cavalier", Frans Hals' Laughing Cavalier, shows a gentleman from the strongly Calvinist Dutch town of Haarlem, and is dated 1624. These derogatory terms (for at the time they were so intended) also showed what the typical Parliamentarian thought of the Royalist side – capricious men who cared more for vanity than the nation at large.

The chaplain to King Charles I, Edward Simmons described a Cavalier as "a Child of Honour, a Gentleman well borne and bred, that loves his king for conscience sake, of a clearer countenance, and bolder look than other men, because of a more loyal Heart".[5] There were many men in the Royalist armies who fit this description since most of the Royalist field officers were typically in their early thirties, married with rural estates which had to be managed.

Although they did not share the same outlook on how to worship God as the English Independents of the New Model Army, God was often central to their lives.[6] This type of Cavalier was personified by Jacob Astley, 1st Baron Astley of Reading, whose prayer at the start of the Battle of Edgehill has become famous "O Lord, Thou knowest how busy I must be this day. If I forget Thee, do not forget me".[7] At the end of the First Civil War Astley gave his word that he would not take up arms again against Parliament and having given his word he felt duty bound to refuse to help the Royalist cause in the Second Civil War.

However, the word was coined by the Roundheads as a pejorative propaganda image of a licentious, hard drinking and frivolous man, who rarely, if ever, thought of God. It is this image which has survived and many Royalists, for example Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester, fitted this description to a tee.[8] Of another Cavalier, George Goring, Lord Goring, a general in the Royalist army,[9] the principal advisor to Charles II, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, said:

[He] would, without hesitation, have broken any trust, or done any act of treachery to have satisfied an ordinary passion or appetite; and in truth wanted nothing but industry (for he had wit, and courage, and understanding and ambition, uncontrolled by any fear of God or man) to have been as eminent and successful in the highest attempt of wickedness as any man in the age he lived in or before. Of all his qualifications dissimulation was his masterpiece; in which he so much excelled, that men were not ordinarily ashamed, or out of countenance, with being deceived but twice by him".[10][11]

This sense has developed into the modern English use of "cavalier" to describe a recklessly nonchalant attitude, although still with a suggestion of stylishness.

Cavalier remained in use as a description for members of the party that supported the monarchy up until the Exclusion Crisis of 1678–1681 when the term was superseded by "Tory" which was another term initially with pejorative connotations. Likewise, during Exclusion Bill crisis the term Roundhead was replaced with "Whig", a term introduced by the opponents of the Whigs and also was initially a pejorative term.[12]

Cavaliers in the arts

Sir Anthony Van Dyck - Charles I (1600-49) - Google Art Project
Charles I in Three Positions, the triple portrait of Charles I by Anthony van Dyck

An example of the Cavalier style can be seen in the painting "Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles" by Anthony van Dyck.

Notes

  1. ^ Manganiello 2004, p. 476.
  2. ^ a b OED 1989, "Cavalier".
  3. ^ a b Chisholm 1911, p. 562.
  4. ^ OED 1989, "Cavalier", Meaning 4. attrib., First quotation "1666 EVELYN Dairy 13 Sept., The Queene was now in her cavalier riding habite, hat and feather, and horseman's coate".
  5. ^ Carlton 2002, p. 52.
  6. ^ Woolrych 2002, p. 249.
  7. ^ Hume 1841, p. 216 See footnote r. cites Warwick 229.
  8. ^ Barratt 2005, p. 177.
  9. ^ Memegalos 2007.
  10. ^ Clarendon 1839, p. 3.
  11. ^ Chisholm 1911a, p. 259.
  12. ^ Worden 2009, p. 4.

References

  • Barratt, John (2005). Cavalier Generals: King Charles I and His Commanders in the English Civil War, 1642–46. Pen & Sword Military.
  • Carlton, Charles (2002). Going to the Wars: The Experience of the British Civil Wars 1638-1651. Taylor & Francis. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-203-42558-9.
  • Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911a). "Goring, George Goring, Lord" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 258–259.
  • Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st earl of (1839). The history of the rebellion and civil wars in England. 5 (seven volumes ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 3.
  • Hume, David (1841). The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution 1688. V. .T. Cadell.
  • Manganiello, Stephen C. (2004). The Concise Encyclopedia of the Revolutions and Wars of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 1639-1660. Scarecrow Press. p. 476. ISBN 978-0-8108-5100-9.
  • Memegalos, Florene S. (2007). George Goring (1608–1657): Caroline Courtier and Royalist General. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-5299-8.
  • OED (1989). "Cavalier". Oxford English Dictionary (Second ed.).
  • Woolrych, Austin (2002). Britain in Revolution : 1625-1660: 1625-1660. Oxford University Press. p. 249. ISBN 9780191542008.
  • Worden, Blair (2009). The English Civil Wars 1640–1660. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-100694-3.
Attribution

Further reading

Alveolate

The alveolates (meaning "with cavities") are a group of protists, considered a major clade and superphylum within Eukarya, and are also called Alveolata.

Amoebozoa

Amoebozoa is a major taxonomic group containing about 2,400 described species of amoeboid protists, often possessing blunt, fingerlike, lobose pseudopods and tubular mitochondrial cristae. In most classification schemes, Amoebozoa is ranked as a phylum within either the kingdom Protista or the kingdom Protozoa. In the classification favored by the International Society of Protistologists, it is retained as an unranked "supergroup" within Eukaryota. Molecular genetic analysis supports Amoebozoa as a monophyletic clade. Most phylogenetic trees identify it as the sister group to Opisthokonta, another major clade which contains both fungi and animals as well as some 300 species of unicellular protists. Amoebozoa and Opisthokonta are sometimes grouped together in a high-level taxon, variously named Unikonta, Amorphea or Opimoda.Amoebozoa includes many of the best-known amoeboid organisms, such as Chaos, Entamoeba, Pelomyxa and the genus Amoeba itself. Species of Amoebozoa may be either shelled (testate), or naked, and cells may possess flagella. Free-living species are common in both salt and freshwater as well as soil, moss and leaf litter. Some live as parasites or symbiotes of other organisms, and some are known to cause disease in humans and other organisms.

While the majority of amoebozoan species are unicellular, the group also includes several varieties of slime molds, which have a macroscopic, multicellular stage of life during which individual amoeboid cells aggregate to produce spores.

Amoebozoa vary greatly in size. Some are only 10–20 μm in diameter, while others are among the largest protozoa. The well-known species Amoeba proteus, which may reach 800 μm in length, is often studied in schools and laboratories as a representative cell or model organism, partly because of its convenient size. Multinucleate amoebae like Chaos and Pelomyxa (the so-called "giant amoebae") may be several millimetres in length, and some multicellular amoebozoa, such as the "dog vomit" slime mold Fuligo septica, can cover an area of several square meters.

Cavalier (fortification)

A cavalier is a fortification which is built within a larger fortification, and which is higher than the rest of the work. It usually consists of a raised platform within a fort or bastion, so as to be able to fire over the main parapet without interfering with the fire of the latter. Through the use of cavaliers, a greater volume of fire can be obtained, but its great height also makes it an easy target for a besieger's guns.There are two types of cavaliers:

Common cavalier – a raised gun platform without any additional defensive features

Defensible cavalier – a raised gun platform surrounded by a ditch. If the ditch cuts across the bastion's terreplein and is supported by cuts, the cavalier can also be considered as a retrenchment.

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a small spaniel classed as a toy dog by The Kennel Club and the American Kennel Club, that originated in the United Kingdom. Since 2000, it has grown in popularity in the United States and ranks as the 19th most popular pure-breed in the United States. It has a silky, smooth coat and commonly a smooth undocked tail. The breed standard recognises four colours: Blenheim (chestnut and white), Tricolour (black/white/tan), Black and Tan, and Ruby. The breed is generally friendly, affectionate and good with both children and other animals; however, they require a lot of human interaction. Since they are a family dog, it is recommended to not leave them alone for long periods at a time. The expected average lifespan of a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is under ten years.The Cavalier King Charles changed dramatically in the late 17th century, when it was interbred with flat-nosed breeds. Until the 1920s, the Cavalier shared the same history as the smaller King Charles Spaniel. Breeders attempted to recreate what they considered to be the original configuration of the breed, a dog resembling Charles II's King Charles Spaniel of the Restoration. Various health issues affect this particular breed.

Cavalier hat

A cavalier hat is a variety of wide-brimmed hat popular in the seventeenth century. These hats were often made from felt, and usually trimmed with an ostrich plume. They were often cocked up or had one side of the brim pinned to the side of the crown of the hat (similar to the slouch hat) which was then decorated with feathers.

Cavalier hats get their name from supporters of King Charles I during the English Civil War, known as cavaliers, noted for wearing extravagant clothing. It was a common hat style throughout Europe during the seventeenth century, until it was later replaced in fashion by the tricorne.

Cavalier poet

The cavalier poets was a school of English poets of the 17th century, that came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the English Civil War (1642–1651). Charles, a connoisseur of the fine arts, supported poets who created the art he craved. These poets in turn grouped themselves with the King and his service, thus becoming Cavalier Poets.A cavalier was traditionally a mounted soldier or knight, but when the term was applied to those who supported Charles, it was meant to portray them as roistering gallants. The term was thus meant to belittle and insult. They were separate in their lifestyle and divided on religion from the Roundheads, who supported Parliament, consisting often of Puritans (either Presbyterians or Independents).

The best known of the cavalier poets are Robert Herrick, Richard Lovelace, Thomas Carew, and Sir John Suckling. Most of the cavalier poets were courtiers, with notable exceptions. For example, Robert Herrick was not a courtier, but his style marks him as a cavalier poet.

Cercozoa

The Cercozoa are a group of single-celled eukaryotes. They lack shared morphological characteristics at the microscopic level, being defined by molecular phylogenies of rRNA and actin or polyubiquitin.

Chevrolet Cavalier

The Chevrolet Cavalier is a line of small cars produced for the model years 1982 through 2005 by Chevrolet. As a rebadged variant of General Motors' J-cars, the Cavalier was manufactured alongside the Cadillac Cimarron, Buick Skyhawk, Oldsmobile Firenza, and Pontiac J2000/2000/Sunbird at GM's South Gate Assembly and Janesville Assembly plants, achieving its highest sales in 1984.

Euglenozoa

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HMS Cavalier (R73)

HMS Cavalier is a retired C-class destroyer of the Royal Navy. She was laid down by J. Samuel White and Company at East Cowes on 28 March 1943, launched on 7 April 1944, and commissioned on 22 November 1944. She served in World War II and in various commissions in the Far East until she was decommissioned in 1972. After decommissioning she was preserved as a museum ship and currently resides at Chatham Historic Dockyard.

Kingdom (biology)

In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain. Kingdoms are divided into smaller groups called phyla.

Traditionally, some textbooks from the United States used a system of six kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea/Archaebacteria, and Bacteria/Eubacteria) while textbooks in countries like Great Britain, India, Greece, Australia, Latin America and other countries used five kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista and Monera).

Some recent classifications based on modern cladistics have explicitly abandoned the term "kingdom", noting that the traditional kingdoms are not monophyletic, i.e., do not consist of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

Percolozoa

The Percolozoa are a group of colourless, non-photosynthetic excavates, including many that can transform between amoeboid, flagellate, and cyst stages.

René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle

René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (November 22, 1643 – March 19, 1687) was a 17th century French explorer and fur trader in North America. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico. He is best known for an early 1682 expedition in which he canoed the lower Mississippi River from the mouth of the Illinois River to the Gulf of Mexico and claimed the entire Mississippi River basin for France.

La Salle is often credited with being the first European to traverse the Ohio River, and sometimes the Mississippi as well. It has now been established that Joliet and Marquette preceded him on the Mississippi in their journey of 1673-74, and the existing historical evidence does not indicate that La Salle ever reached the Ohio/Allegheny Valley.

SAR supergroup

Sar or Harosa (informally the SAR supergroup) is a clade that includes stramenopiles (heterokonts), alveolates, and Rhizaria. The first letter of each group provides the "SAR" in the name (alternatively spelled "RAS").The term "Harosa" (at the subkingdom level) has also been used for this grouping by Cavalier-Smith (2010). Adl et al. (2012) formalized the SAR supergroup as the node-based taxon Sar. They defined it as:

Sar: the least inclusive clade containing Bigelowiella natans Moestrup & Sengco 2001 (Rhizaria), Tetrahymena thermophila Nanney & McCoy 1976 (Alveolata), and Thalassiosira pseudonana Cleve 1873 (Stramenopiles). This is a node-based definition in which all of the specifiers are extant.

Members of the SAR supergroup were once included under the separate supergroups Chromalveolata and Rhizaria, until phylogenetic studies confirmed that stramenopiles and alveolates diverged with Rhizaria. This apparently excluded haptophytes and cryptomonads, leading Okamoto et al. (2009) to propose the clade Hacrobia to accommodate them.

Sphingobacteria (phylum)

Sphingobacteria is a division (phylum), created by Cavalier-Smith, which contains the classes Chlorobea, Fibrobacteres, Bacteroidetes and Flavobacteria.It is however not followed by the larger scientific community. The group is commonly referred to as the "FCB group" with the rank of superphylum and the subdivisions are of the rank phylum and are referred to as:

Chlorobi (Chlorobea in Cavalier-Smith megaclassification)

Bacteroidetes, which differs from Cavalier-Smith megaclassification as it is composed of the classes Bacteroidia (equivalent to Cavalier-Smith's Bacteroidetes), Cytophagia and Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria

FibrobacteresAn analogous situation is seen with the PVC group/Planctobacteria.

The Cavalier Song

"The Cavalier Song" is the University of Virginia's fight song. The song was a result of a contest held in 1923 by College Topics, the University's student newspaper. "The Cavalier Song," with lyrics by Lawrence Haywood Lee, Jr., and music by Virginia Glee Club member Fulton Lewis, Jr., was chosen as best fight song while John A. Morrow's "Virginia, Hail, All Hail" was chosen as the best alma mater song.Generally the second half of the song is played during sporting events while the entire song used to be part of the Cavalier Marching Band's entrance during home football games. The song has been recorded by both the Cavalier Marching Band and the Virginia Glee Club.

Unikont

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The second generation of Cavalier, launched in 1981 and produced until 1988, was launched simultaneously with the identical new generation of Opel Ascona, which was sold across the world in various guises on the General Motors "J-car". The third and final generation of Cavalier, launched in 1988 and produced until 1995, was based on the first generation of Opel Vectra with the same production span.

Whiskey Cavalier

Whiskey Cavalier is an American action comedy-drama television series, created by David Hemingson, that premiered on February 27, 2019. A short preview of the first episode aired on February 24, 2019, on ABC.

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