Cattle egret

The cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) is a cosmopolitan species of heron (family Ardeidae) found in the tropics, subtropics, and warm-temperate zones. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Bubulcus, although some authorities regard two of its subspecies as full species, the western cattle egret and the eastern cattle egret. Despite the similarities in plumage to the egrets of the genus Egretta, it is more closely related to the herons of Ardea. Originally native to parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe, it has undergone a rapid expansion in its distribution and successfully colonised much of the rest of the world in the last century.

It is a white bird adorned with buff plumes in the breeding season. It nests in colonies, usually near bodies of water and often with other wading birds. The nest is a platform of sticks in trees or shrubs. Cattle egrets exploit drier and open habitats more than other heron species. Their feeding habitats include seasonally inundated grasslands, pastures, farmlands, wetlands, and rice paddies. They often accompany cattle or other large mammals, catching insect and small vertebrate prey disturbed by these animals. Some populations are migratory and others show postbreeding dispersal.

The adult cattle egret has few predators, but birds or mammals may raid its nests, and chicks may be lost to starvation, calcium deficiency, or disturbance from other large birds. This species maintains a special relationship with cattle, which extends to other large grazing mammals; wider human farming is believed to be a major cause of their suddenly expanded range. The cattle egret removes ticks and flies from cattle and consumes them. This benefits both species, but it has been implicated in the spread of tick-borne animal diseases.

Cattle egret
Cattle Egret
Breeding-plumaged adult of nominate subspecies
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Pelecaniformes
Family: Ardeidae
Genus: Bubulcus
Bonaparte, 1855
B. ibis
Binomial name
Bubulcus ibis

B. i. ibis (Linnaeus, 1758)
B. i. coromandus (Boddaert, 1783)
B. i. seychellarum (Salomonsen, 1934)

Bubulcus map
Range of B. ibis      breeding     non-breeding     year-round

Ardea ibis Linnaeus, 1758
Ardeola ibis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Bubulcus bubulcus
Buphus coromandus (Boddaert, 1783)
Cancroma coromanda (Boddaert, 1783)
Egretta ibis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Lepterodatis ibis (Linnaeus, 1758)


The cattle egret was first described in 1758 by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae as Ardea ibis,[2] but was moved to its current genus by Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1855.[3] Its genus name Bubulcus is Latin for herdsman, referring, like the English name, to this species' association with cattle.[4] Ibis is a Latin and Greek word which originally referred to another white wading bird, the sacred ibis,[5] but was applied to this species in error.[6]

The cattle egret has two geographical races, which are sometimes classified as full species, the western cattle egret, B. ibis, and eastern cattle egret, B. coromandus. The two forms were split by McAllan and Bruce,[7] but were regarded as conspecific by almost all other recent authors until the publication of the influential Birds of South Asia.[8] The eastern subspecies B. (i.) coromandus, described by Pieter Boddaert in 1783, breeds in Asia and Australasia, and the western nominate form occupies the rest of the species range, including the Americas.[9] Some authorities recognise a third Seychelles subspecies, B. i. seychellarum, which was first described by Finn Salomonsen in 1934.[10]

Despite superficial similarities in appearance, the cattle egret is more closely related to the genus Ardea, which comprises the great or typical herons and the great egret (A. alba), than to the majority of species termed egrets in the genus Egretta.[11] Rare cases of hybridization with little blue herons Egretta caerulea, little egrets Egretta garzetta and snowy egrets Egretta thula have been recorded.[12]

Cattle Egret Retracted Neck

B. i. ibis breeding adult with neck retracted

Red-flush Cattle Egret

B. i. coromandus adult showing the red flush on the legs and bill, present at the height of the breeding season


Cattle egret1
From Thalassery Beach, Kerala, India
Cattle Egret on Water Buffalo at Buruma near Baucau
Perched on a buffalo in Buruma, East Timor

The cattle egret is a stocky heron with an 88–96 cm (35–38 in) wingspan; it is 46–56 cm (18–22 in) long and weighs 270–512 g (9.5–18.1 oz).[13] It has a relatively short, thick neck, a sturdy bill, and a hunched posture. The nonbreeding adult has mainly white plumage, a yellow bill, and greyish-yellow legs. During the breeding season, adults of the nominate western subspecies develop orange-buff plumes on the back, breast, and crown, and the bill, legs, and irises become bright red for a brief period prior to pairing.[14] The sexes are similar, but the male is marginally larger and has slightly longer breeding plumes than the female; juvenile birds lack coloured plumes and have a black bill.[13][15]

B. i. coromandus differs from the nominate subspecies in breeding plumage, when the buff colour on its head extends to the cheeks and throat, and the plumes are more golden in colour. This subspecies' bill and tarsus are longer on average than in B. i. ibis.[16] B. i. seychellarum is smaller and shorter-winged than the other forms. It has white cheeks and throat, like B. i. ibis, but the nuptial plumes are golden, as with B. i. coromandus.[10] Individuals with abnormally grey, melanistic plumages have been recorded.[17][18]

The positioning of the egret's eyes allows for binocular vision during feeding,[19] and physiological studies suggest that the species may be capable of crepuscular or nocturnal activity.[20] Adapted to foraging on land, they have lost the ability possessed by their wetland relatives to accurately correct for light refraction by water.[21]

This species gives a quiet, throaty rick-rack call at the breeding colony, but is otherwise largely silent.[22]

Distribution and habitat

Cattle Egret with Plough by Dr. Raju Kasambe DSCN1746 (2)
On a farm in Maharashtra, India
Cattle egret spread
Range expansion in the Americas (click to magnify)

The cattle egret has undergone one of the most rapid and wide-reaching natural expansions of any bird species.[22] It was originally native to parts of southern Spain and Portugal, tropical and subtropical Africa, and humid tropical and subtropical Asia. At the end of the 19th century, it began expanding its range into southern Africa, first breeding in the Cape Province in 1908.[23] Cattle egrets were first sighted in the Americas on the boundary of Guiana and Suriname in 1877, having apparently flown across the Atlantic Ocean.[9][13] In the 1930s, the species is thought to have become established in that area.[24]

The species first arrived in North America in 1941 (these early sightings were originally dismissed as escapees), bred in Florida in 1953, and spread rapidly, breeding for the first time in Canada in 1962.[23] It is now commonly seen as far west as California. It was first recorded breeding in Cuba in 1957, in Costa Rica in 1958, and in Mexico in 1963, although it was probably established before then.[24] In Europe, the species had historically declined in Spain and Portugal, but in the latter part of the 20th century, it expanded back through the Iberian Peninsula, and then began to colonise other parts of Europe, southern France in 1958, northern France in 1981, and Italy in 1985.[23] Breeding in the United Kingdom was recorded for the first time in 2008, only a year after an influx seen in the previous year.[25][26] In 2008, cattle egrets were also reported as having moved into Ireland for the first time.[27] This trend has continued and cattle egrets have become more numerous in southern Britain with influxes in some numbers during the nonbreeding seasons of 2007/08 and 2016/17. They bred in Britain again in 2017, following an influx in the previous winter, and may become established there.[28][29]

In Australia, the colonisation began in the 1940s, with the species establishing itself in the north and east of the continent.[30] It began to regularly visit New Zealand in the 1960s. Since 1948, the cattle egret has been permanently resident in Israel. Prior to 1948, it was only a winter visitor.[31]

The massive and rapid expansion of the cattle egret's range is due to its relationship with humans and their domesticated animals. Originally adapted to a commensal relationship with large grazing and browsing animals, it was easily able to switch to domesticated cattle and horses. As the keeping of livestock spread throughout the world, the cattle egret was able to occupy otherwise empty niches.[32] Many populations of cattle egrets are highly migratory and dispersive,[22] and this has helped the species' range expansion. The species has been seen as a vagrant in various sub-Antarctic islands, including South Georgia, Marion Island, the South Sandwich Islands, and the South Orkney Islands.[33] A small flock of eight birds was also seen in Fiji in 2008.[34]

In addition to the natural expansion of its range, cattle egrets have been deliberately introduced into a few areas. The species was introduced to Hawaii in 1959, and to the Chagos Archipelago in 1955. Successful releases were also made in the Seychelles and Rodrigues, but attempts to introduce the species to Mauritius failed. Numerous birds were also released by Whipsnade Zoo in England, but the species was never established.[35]

Although the cattle egret sometimes feeds in shallow water, unlike most herons it is typically found in fields and dry grassy habitats, reflecting its greater dietary reliance on terrestrial insects rather than aquatic prey.[36]

Migration and movements

Some populations of cattle egrets are migratory, others are dispersive, and distinguishing between the two can be difficult.[22] In many areas, populations can be both sedentary and migratory. In the Northern Hemisphere, migration is from cooler climes to warmer areas, but cattle egrets nesting in Australia migrate to cooler Tasmania and New Zealand in the winter and return in the spring.[30] Migration in western Africa is in response to rainfall, and in South America, migrating birds travel south of their breeding range in the nonbreeding season.[22] Populations in southern India appear to show local migrations in response to the monsoons. They move north from Kerala after September.[37][38] During winter, many birds have been seen flying at night with flocks of Indian pond herons (Ardeola grayii) on the south-eastern coast of India[39] and a winter influx has also been noted in Sri Lanka.[8]

Young birds are known to disperse up to 5,000 km (3,100 mi) from their breeding area. Flocks may fly vast distances and have been seen over seas and oceans including in the middle of the Atlantic.[40]

Bubulcus ibis - Cattle egret (flock)
A flock in a tree at Jacutinga, Minas Gerais state, Brazil


This species has a large range, with an estimated global extent of occurrence of 10,000,000 km2 (3,900,000 sq mi). Its global population estimated to be 3.8–6.7 million individuals. For these reasons, the species is evaluated as least concern.[1] The expansion and establishment of the species over large ranges, though, has led it to be classed as an invasive species (although little, if any impact has been noted yet).[41]


The cattle egret nests in colonies, which are often found around bodies of water.[22] The colonies are usually found in woodlands near lakes or rivers, in swamps, or on small inland or coastal islands, and are sometimes shared with other wetland birds, such as herons, egrets, ibises, and cormorants. The breeding season varies within South Asia.[8] Nesting in northern India begins with the onset of monsoons in May.[42] The breeding season in Australia is November to early January, with one brood laid per season.[43] The North American breeding season lasts from April to October.[22] In the Seychelles, the breeding season of B.i. seychellarum is April to October.[44]

The male displays in a tree in the colony, using a range of ritualised behaviours, such as shaking a twig and sky-pointing (raising his bill vertically upwards),[45] and the pair forms over 3–4 days. A new mate is chosen in each season and when renesting following nest failure.[46] The nest is a small, untidy platform of sticks in a tree or shrub constructed by both parents. Sticks are collected by the male and arranged by the female, and stick-stealing is rife.[15] The clutch size can be one to five eggs, although three or four is most common. The pale bluish-white eggs are oval-shaped and measure 45 mm × 53 mm (1.8 in × 2.1 in).[43] Incubation lasts around 23 days, with both sexes sharing incubation duties.[22] The chicks are partly covered with down at hatching, but are not capable of fending for themselves; they become capable of regulating their temperature at 9–12 days and are fully feathered in 13–21 days.[47] They begin to leave the nest and climb around at 2 weeks, fledge at 30 days and become independent at around the 45th day.[46]

The cattle egret engages in low levels of brood parasitism, and a few instances have been reported of cattle egret eggs being laid in the nests of snowy egrets and little blue herons, although these eggs seldom hatch.[22] Also, evidence of low levels of intraspecific brood parasitism has been found, with females laying eggs in the nests of other cattle egrets. As much as 30% extra-pair copulations has been noted.[48][49]

The dominant factor in nesting mortality is starvation. Sibling rivalry can be intense, and in South Africa, third and fourth chicks inevitably starve.[46] In the dryer habitats with fewer amphibians, the diet may lack sufficient vertebrate content and may cause bone abnormalities in growing chicks due to calcium deficiency.[50] In Barbados, nests were sometimes raided by vervet monkeys,[9] and a study in Florida reported the fish crow and black rat as other possible nest raiders. The same study attributed some nestling mortality to brown pelicans nesting in the vicinity, which accidentally, but frequently, dislodged nests or caused nestlings to fall.[51] In Australia, Torresian crows, wedge-tailed eagles, and white-bellied sea eagles take eggs or young, and tick infestation and viral infections may also be causes of mortality.[15]

Héron garde-bœufs MHNT

Cattle egret egg

Unidentified Bubulcus on nest, Apenheul Primate Park, Apeldoorn, Netherlands

Adult feeding a nestling in Apenheul zoo

Starr 030628-0097 Neonotonia wightii

Juvenile on Maui (note black bill)


Bubulcus ibis -Gambia -frog in beak-8
A nonbreeding adult eating a frog in the Gambia

The cattle egret feeds on a wide range of prey, particularly insects, especially grasshoppers, crickets, flies (adults and maggots[52]), and moths, as well as spiders, frogs, and earthworms.[53][54] In a rare instance, they have been observed foraging along the branches of a banyan tree for ripe figs.[55] The species is usually found with cattle and other large grazing and browsing animals, and catches small creatures disturbed by the mammals. Studies have shown that cattle egret foraging success is much higher when foraging near a large animal than when feeding singly.[56] When foraging with cattle, it has been shown to be 3.6 times more successful in capturing prey than when foraging alone. Its performance is similar when it follows farm machinery, but it is forced to move more.[57] In urban situations, cattle egrets have also been observed foraging in peculiar situations such as railway lines.[58]

A cattle egret will weakly defend the area around a grazing animal against others of the same species, but if the area is swamped by egrets, it will give up and continue foraging elsewhere. Where numerous large animals are present, cattle egrets selectively forage around species that move at around 5–15 steps per minute, avoiding faster and slower moving herds; in Africa, cattle egrets selectively forage behind plains zebras, waterbuck, blue wildebeest and Cape buffalo.[59] Dominant birds feed nearest to the host, and thus obtain more food.[15]

The cattle egret sometimes shows versatility in its diet. On islands with seabird colonies, it will prey on the eggs and chicks of terns and other seabirds.[35] During migration, it has also been reported to eat exhausted migrating landbirds.[60] Birds of the Seychelles race also indulge in some kleptoparasitism, chasing the chicks of sooty terns and forcing them to disgorge food.[61]

Relationship with humans

Bubulcus ibis Victoria 2
B. i. seychellarum waiting for scraps at the fish market of Victoria, Seychelles.

A conspicuous species, the cattle egret has attracted many common names. These mostly relate to its habit of following cattle and other large animals, and it is known variously as cow crane, cow bird or cow heron, or even elephant bird or rhinoceros egret.[22] Its Arabic name, abu qerdan, means "father of ticks", a name derived from the huge number of parasites such as avian ticks found in its breeding colonies.[22][62] The Maasai people consider the presence of large numbers of cattle egrets as an indicator of impending drought and use it to decide on moving their cattle herds.[63]

The cattle egret is a popular bird with cattle ranchers for its perceived role as a biocontrol of cattle parasites such as ticks and flies.[22] A study in Australia found that cattle egrets reduced the number of flies that bothered cattle by pecking them directly off the skin.[64] It was the benefit to stock that prompted ranchers and the Hawaiian Board of Agriculture and Forestry to release the species in Hawaii.[35][65][66]

Not all interactions between humans and cattle egrets are beneficial. The cattle egret can be a safety hazard to aircraft due to its habit of feeding in large groups in the grassy verges of airports,[67] and it has been implicated in the spread of animal infections such as heartwater, infectious bursal disease,[68] and possibly Newcastle disease.[69][70]


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  62. ^ McAtee, Waldo Lee (October 1925). "The Buff-backed Egret (Ardea ibis L., Arabic Abu Qerdan) as a Factor in Egyptian Agriculture" (PDF). The Auk. 42 (4): 603–604. doi:10.2307/4075029. JSTOR 4075029.
  63. ^ Tidemann, Sonia; Gosler, Andrew, eds. (2010). Ethno-ornithology: Birds, Indigenous Peoples, Culture and Society. Routledge. p. 288.
  64. ^ McKilligan, N.G. (1984). "The food and feeding ecology of the Cattle Egret Ardeola ibis when nesting in south-east Queensland". Australian Wildlife Research. 11 (1): 133–144. doi:10.1071/WR9840133.
  65. ^ Berger, A.J. (1972). Hawaiian Birdlife. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-0213-6.
  66. ^ Breese, P.L. (1959). "Information on Cattle Egret, a Bird New to Hawaii". Elepaio. Hawaii Audubon Society. 20: 33–34.
  67. ^ Paton, P.; Fellows, D.; Tomich, P. (1986). "Distribution of Cattle Egret Roosts in Hawaii With Notes on the Problems Egrets Pose to Airports". Elepaio. 46 (13): 143–147.
  68. ^ Fagbohun, O.A.; Owoade, A.A.; Oluwayelu, D.O.; Olayemi, F.O. (2000). "Serological survey of infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in cattle egrets, pigeons and Nigerian laughing doves". African Journal of Biomedical Research. 3 (3): 191–192.
  69. ^ "Heartwater" (PDF). Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 May 2006. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
  70. ^ Fagbohun, O.A.; Oluwayelu, D.O.; Owoade, A.A.; Olayemi, F.O. (2000). "Survey for antibodies to Newcastle Disease virus in cattle egrets, pigeons and Nigerian laughing doves" (PDF). African Journal of Biomedical Research. 3: 193–194.

External links

Adventive species

An adventive species is a species that has arrived in a new locality. It may have had help from humans as an introduced species or it may not.

The term is now used by some writers in a more restricted sense than its initial usage. The earliest and most widespread concept among biologists is that of a species that has arrived in a specific geographic area from a different region (without further caveats). This is the forerunner of the term 'non-indigenous species', although it lacks the frequently invoked basis of the word 'introduced', which means different things to different writers. In this sense, the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), which arrived in North America by natural range expansion, the black rat (Rattus rattus), which is believed to have arrived as a hitchhiker aboard ships, and the kudzu vine (Pueraria lobata), which was introduced deliberately by humans, are all adventive species and have established populations. Common adventive species include herbivorous insects.The later and more limited concept is that of a species that has arrived in a specific geographic area from a different region, but its population is not self-sustaining. Population numbers are only increased through re-introduction. After some time, an adventive species may become naturalized; or, some populations do not sustain themselves reproductively, but exist because of continued influx from elsewhere. Such a non-sustaining population, or the individuals within it, are said to be adventive. Cultivated plants are a major source of adventive populations. It is estimated that 10-20% of adventive species used in biological control programs eventually become naturalized.We can readily see how this second (later) concept applies to cultivated plants. Those that grow within the confines of culture are ‘adventive’; those that grow outside those confines are ‘naturalized’. But the concept falls apart when applied to the far more numerous species of invertebrate animals and microorganisms: extremely few of these are cultured, and by the time they are detected in nature they tend to be established (‘naturalized’).

Attiveri Bird Sanctuary

Attiveri Bird Sanctuary (Kannada: ಅತ್ತಿವೇರಿ ಪಕ್ಷಿಧಾಮ) is a village in the Mundgod taluk of Uttara Kannada district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It lies 15 km from Mundgod and 43 km from Hubli-Dharwad.

Spread over an area of about 2.23 km2, the sanctuary is located in and around the Attiveri reservoir. The part of the sanctuary surrounding the reservoir has riverine and deciduous forests.

Birds inhabiting this area include cattle egret, Indian and little cormorants, black-headed ibis, Eurasian spoonbill, pied and white-throated kingfishers, Indian grey hornbill and barn swallow. The agricultural fields surrounding the sanctuary attract a variety of aquatic creatures.

The best time to visit the sanctuary is between November and March.

Chard Reservoir

Chard Reservoir is a 36.97-hectare (91.4-acre) reservoir north east of Chard Somerset, England. It is owned and managed by South Somerset District Council and is a recipient of the Green Flag Award.It was built on the river Isle in 1842 to provide water for the Chard Canal.It is a Local Nature Reserve. It is used for dog walking, fishing and birdwatching, with a bird hide having been installed. Birds which are spotted regularly include herons, egrets, kingfishers, cormorants, grebes, gulls, ducks and also a wide range of woodland birds such as nuthatch, treecreeper and woodpeckers. Rarities have included ring-necked duck, great white egret, cattle egret and yellow-browed warbler.The water is stocked with carp.

Doxey Marshes

Doxey Marshes is a 150 hectares (370 acres) nature reserve located within two miles of Stafford town centre, and is managed by Staffordshire Wildlife Trust. Designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest for its wet grassland habitat and its breeding wading birds and wildfowl, it is particularly noted for its populations of breeding snipe. The habitat is one of the most threatened nationally, along with related wildlife such as snipe, lapwing, little ringed plover, otter and water shrew.

Doxey Marshes lies within the floodplain of the River Sow and periodically it breaches its banks and subjects the marshes to flooding. Wading birds love the shallow pools and muddy edges this flooding leaves behind as a source of food. In the autumn and spring during the migration period, Doxey can attract a variety of rare birds. Rarities recorded in recent years include river warbler, marsh warbler, purple heron, cattle egret, spoonbill, European bee-eater and bluethroat.Fishing permits are available for Doxey Marshes Nature Reserve from the Staffordshire Wildlife Trust.

Eastern cattle egret

The eastern cattle egret (Bubulcus coromandus) is a species of heron (family Ardeidae) found in the tropics, subtropics and warm temperate zones. Most taxonomic authorities lump this species and the western cattle egret together as subspecies of the cattle egret, but some (including the International Ornithologists' Union) separate them. Despite the similarities in plumage to the egrets of the genus Egretta, it is more closely related to the herons of Ardea. It is native to southern and eastern Asia, and Australasia.

It is a white bird adorned with buff plumes in the breeding season. It nests in colonies, usually near bodies of water and often with other wading birds. The nest is a platform of sticks in trees or shrubs. Eastern cattle egrets exploit drier and open habitats more than other heron species. Their feeding habitats include seasonally inundated grasslands, pastures, farmlands, wetlands and rice paddies. They often accompany cattle or other large mammals, catching insect and small vertebrate prey disturbed by these animals. Some populations of the cattle egret are migratory and others show post-breeding dispersal.

The adult eastern cattle egret has few predators, but birds or mammals may raid its nests, and chicks may be lost to starvation, calcium deficiency or disturbance from other large birds. This species maintains a special relationship with cattle, which extends to other large grazing mammals; wider human farming is believed to be a major cause of their suddenly expanded range. The cattle egret removes ticks and flies from cattle and consumes them. This benefits both species, but it has been implicated in the spread of tick-borne animal diseases.


Egrets are herons which have white or buff plumage, and develop fine plumes (usually milky white) during the breeding season. Egrets are not a biologically distinct group from the herons and have the same build.

Ehrlichia ruminantium

Heartwater (also known as cowdriosis, nintas, and ehrlichiosis) is a tick-borne rickettsial disease of domestic and wild ruminants. It is caused by Ehrlichia ruminantium (formerly Cowdria ruminantium) - an intracellular Gram-negative coccal bacterium (also referred to as Rickettsia ruminantium). The disease is spread by bont ticks, which are members of the genus Amblyomma. Affected mammals include cattle, sheep, goats, antelope, and buffalo, but the disease has the biggest economic impact on cattle production in affected areas. The disease's name is derived from the fact that fluid can collect around the heart or in the lungs of infected animals.The disease is common in sub-Saharan Africa and some of the West Indian islands. It was first identified in sheep in South Africa in the 1830s, and had reached the Caribbean by 1980. The ticks that carry the disease occur in Africa and the Caribbean, and feed on a wide variety of vertebrate hosts. In the Caribbean, at least, the cattle egret has been implicated in the spread of heartwater, since it colonized the islands in the 1950s. Animals often acquire the disease when moved onto pastures where infected ticks are found.

Cowdriosis is notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health.


The ibises () (collective plural ibis; classical plurals ibides and ibes) are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae, that inhabit wetlands, forests and plains. "Ibis" derives from the Latin and Ancient Greek word for this group of birds. It also occurs in the scientific name of the cattle egret, (Bubulcus ibis), mistakenly identified in 1757 as being the sacred ibis.

Kualoa Regional Park

Kualoa Regional Park is located at Kāneʻohe Bay, on the island of Oahu in the U.S. state of Hawaii. The park covers 153 acres (61.92 ha; 0.24 sq mi) across the road from the Pali-ku (cliffs) of the Koʻolau Range. The beach front is white sand and 1/3 mile offshore is the small basalt island of Mokoliʻi (or Chinaman's Hat).

The site is popular with watchers of wetland birds, such as the Japanese white-eye, Red-crested cardinal, White-rumped shama, Black-crowned night heron, Black-necked stilt, Nutmeg mannikin, Black noddy, Wedge-tailed shearwater, White-tailed tropicbird, Red-tailed tropicbird, Common myna, Common waxbill, Cattle egret and a variety of others.

List of bird species introduced to the Hawaiian Islands

This list of bird species introduced to the Hawaiian Islands includes only those species known to have established self-sustaining breeding populations as a direct or indirect result of human intervention. A complete list of all non-native species ever imported to the islands, including those that never became established, would be much longer. In the following list, ^ indicates a species indigenous to the Hawaiian Islands but introduced to an area or areas outside its known native range, * indicates a formerly established population that is now extirpated, and parenthetical notes describe the specific islands where each species is known to be established.

Cedar Waxwing (Maui)

List of birds of Islamabad

This is a list of birds found in Islamabad, Pakistan. Seventy-two species of birds have been found in this area. The best places to watch are Margalla Hills and Rawal Lake.

Little grebe, Tachybaptus ruficollis

Little cormorant, Microcarbo niger

Great cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo

Black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax

Indian pond heron (Paddybird), Ardeola grayii

Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis

Little egret, Egretta garzetta

Intermediate egret, Egretta intermedia

Grey heron, Ardea cinerea

Purple heron, Ardea purpurea

Common teal, Anas crecca

Black kite, Milvus migrans

Shikra, Accipiter badius

Long-legged buzzard, Buteo rufinus

Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus

Grey francolin, Francolinus pondicerianus

Common quail, Coturnix coturnix

Brown waterhen, Amaurornis akool

White-breasted waterhen, Amaurornis phoenicurus

Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus

Eurasian coot, Fulica atra

Red-wattled lapwing, Hoplopterus indicus

Common sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos

Black-headed gull, Larus ridibundus

Feral pigeon, Columba livia

Wood pigeon, Columba palumbus

Collared dove, Streptopelia decaocto

Palm dove, Spilopelia senegalensis

Spotted dove, Spilopelia chinensis

Rose-ringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri

Common koel, Eudynamys scolopacea

Greater coucal, Centropus sinensis

House swift, Apus affinis

White-throated kingfisher, Halcyon smyrnensis

Pied kingfisher, Ceryle rudis

Hoopoe, Upupa epops

Lesser golden-backed woodpecker, Dinopium benghalense

Brown-fronted woodpecker, Dendrocopos auriceps

Crested lark, Galerida cristata

Small skylark, Alauda gulgula

Brown-throated sand martin, Riparia paludicola

Pale sand martin, Riparia diluta

Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica

Red-rumped swallow, Hirundo daurica

Paddyfield pipit, Anthus rufulus

Grey wagtail, Motacilla cinerea

White wagtail, Motacilla alba

Large pied wagtail, Motacilla maderaspatensis

Himalayan bulbul, Pycnonotus leucogenys

Red-vented bulbul, Pycnonotus cafer

Dark-grey bushchat, Saxicola ferrea

Blue rock thrush, Monticola solitarius

Blue whistling thrush, Myophonus caeruleus

Fan-tailed warbler, Cisticola juncidis

Tawny prinia, Prinia inornata

Yellow-bellied prinia, Prinia flaviventris

Hume's leaf warbler, Phylloscopus humei

White-throated fantail, Rhipidura albicollis

Black-chinned babbler, Stachyris pyrrhops

Common babbler, Turdoides caudatus

Jungle babbler, Turdoides striatus

Great tit, Parus major

Bar-tailed treecreeper, Certhia himalayana

Oriental white-eye, Zosterops palpebrosus

Rufous-backed shrike, Lanius schach

Black drongo, Dicrurus macrocercus

House crow, Corvus splendens

Brahminy starling, Sturnus pagodarum

Common myna, Acridotheres tristis

Bank myna, Acridotheres ginginianus

House sparrow, Passer domesticus

Alexandrine parakeet, Psittacula eupatria

Green bee-eater, Merops orientalis

Rufous treepie, Dendrocitta vagabunda

Indian robin, Saxicoloides fulicatus

List of birds of Jinja

This list of birds found in the area around the town of Jinja, Uganda, the area is on the edge of the fresh water Lake Victoria and fast flowing water of the Nile.

African darter - Anhinga rufa

Common bulbul - Pycnonotus barbatus

Pink-backed pelican - Pelecanus rufescens

Yellow-billed kite - Milvus aegyptius

Red bishop - Euplectes orixCormorant

Reed cormorant - Microcarbo africanus

White-breasted cormorant - Phalacrocorax lucidus


Grey crowned crane - Balearica regulorumCrow

Pied crow - Corvus albusDucks and geese

Egyptian goose - Alopochen aegyptiacuHamerkop

Hamerkop - Scopus umbrettaHerons and egrets

Grey heron - Ardea cinerea

Great egret - Ardea alba

Cattle egret - Bubulcus ibis

Little egret - Egretta garzettaHornbill

African grey hornbill - Tockus nasutus

Black-and-white-casqued hornbill - Bycanistes subcylindricus

Abyssinian ground hornbill - Bucorvus abyssinicusIbis

African sacred ibis - Threskiornis aethiopicus

Hadeda ibis - Bostrychia hagedashKingfisher

Pied kingfisher - Ceryle rudis

Woodland kingfisher - Halcyon senegalensis

Old World flycatchers

White-browed robin-chat - Cossypha heugliniPelicans

Great white pelican - PelecanusStorks

African openbill - Anastomus lamelligerus

Marabou stork - Leptoptilos crumeniferShrikes

Crimson-breasted shrike - Laniarius atrococcineusSunbirds

Northern double-collared sunbird - Cinnyris reichenowiTuraco

Eastern plantain-eater - Crinifer zonurus

Ross's turaco - Musophaga rossaeWagtail

African pied wagtail - Motacilla aguimp

Cape wagtail - Motacilla capensisWeavers

Yellow-mantled weaver - Ploceus tricolor


Nagdaha is a lake in the Dhapakhel Village Development Committee (VDC) of Lalitpur District, in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.Like many other water bodies and physical features of Kathmandu, the Nagdaha is also steeped in legends. According to one, a male serpent resides in Taudaha and the resident serpent of Nagdaha is female. During the rainy season the male serpent, widely spoken of in ancient scriptures and oral history of Kathmandu as a serpent king, makes a journey to the town of Panauti in order to participate in a festival. It is said that he stays with the female serpent of Nagdaha on his way to and back from Panauti. This union of the nagas, mythical half serpent, half human beings, is followed by heavy rain.There is a statue of Nag at the north-western side of the lake.

Nagdaha is rich in aquatic wildlife. Many species of native fishes such as barbs and snakeheads are abundant. Unlike in Taudaha, there are no non-native carps. This is also home to several bird species. Black kite, Black drongo, Cattle egret, Oriental magpie robin, Common myna, Jungle crow, Rose-ringed parakeet and Red-vented bulbul are some of the resident birds. Migrants include cuckoos and Eurasian coot.

Patna Bird Sanctuary

Patna Bird Sanctuary is a protected area in Uttar Pradesh's Etah district encompassing a lentic lake that is an important wintering ground for migrating birds. It was founded in 1991 and covers an area of 1.09 km2 (0.42 sq mi). With a lake area of only 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi), it is the smallest bird sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh.

The water quality of the lake supports a wide range of avifauna during winter season. The entire lake area gets covered by profuse growth of macrophytic vegetation of water hyacinth and Potamogeton species during summers.

About 200,000 birds of 300 different bird species frequent the sanctuary. More than 106 species of migratory and resident birds are known to have their resting habitats around the lake. The important aquatic birds inhabiting lake are:

Lesser whistling-duck

Graylag goose

Comb duck

Ruddy shelduck


Eurasian wigeon

Indian spot-billed duck

Northern shoveler

Northern pintail

Green-winged teal

Common pochard

Ferruginous duck

Baer's pochard

Tufted duck

Indian peafowl

Common quail

Black francolin

Gray francolin

Little grebe

Asian openbill

Woolly-necked stork

Black-necked stork

Little cormorant

Great cormorant

Purple heron

Cattle egret

Indian pond-heron

Black-headed ibis

Red-naped ibis

Eurasian spoonbill

Black-shouldered kite

Egyptian vulture

Booted eagle

Bonelli's eagle


Black kite

Eurasian coot

Sarus crane

Black-winged stilt

Black-tailed godwit

Laughing dove

Greater coucal

Rose-ringed parakeet

Plum-headed parakeet

Long-tailed shrike

Black drongo

Rufous treepie

Ashy-crowned sparrow-lark

Bengal bushlark

Red-vented bulbul

Plain leaf warbler

Ashy prinia

Plain prinia

Common babbler

Oriental magpie-robin

Brahminy starling

Common myna

Bank myna

Purple sunbird

Indian silverbill

Scaly-breasted munia


Steinish (Scottish Gaelic: Steinnis) is a village in the Scottish Outer Hebrides, on the Isle of Lewis, near Plasterfield and Stornoway Airport. Steinish is situated within the parish of Stornoway, and is also situated adjacent to the Laxdale estuary. A treasure trove was discovered in Steinish, in 1876, containing coins from the era of Francis and Mary, Mary, and James VI.Wildlife in the area includes the Arctic tern, the corn crake, the blackpoll warbler and the knot, as well as a sighting of the cattle egret.

Vaduvoor Bird Sanctuary

Vaduvoor Bird Sanctuary is a bird sanctuary located in the town of Vaduvur in Tiruvarur District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Vaduvur was located 22 KM away from Thanjavur on the Thanjavur-Mannargudi state highway. The irrigation tank receives water from November to April every year which attracts a numerous foreign birds from Europe and America. The main attraction is the fertile wetlands in the region. There are also numerous lakes which provides the most required variety of fishes for the birds. The sanctuary is free for Visitors and the government has provided basic facilities for an overnight stay. There are two towers located in the sanctuary for the ease of visitors. More than 38 species of water birds are found here.

Bird migration is a seasonal phenomenon and when the temperature escalates in Europe and in the North America, the birds starts seeing for a location that will be suitable for survival. The wetlands in this region is quite suitable for the migratory birds as it provides suitable environment for food, shelter and reproduction. The farmers of this region also love the arrival of migratory birds as the irrigation water becomes fertile once it was enriched with the excretory of the birds. The state government had appointed officers for prevention of both hunting and poaching. Poaching and hunting is illegal and a punishable offence. The villagers were aware of this and a friendly environment for the shelter of the birds prevails. The small town is a good agricultural land and rice is grown in plenty.

The state government has provided facilities for sight seeing and relaxation. Public transport is also available 24X7 from both Thanjavur and Mannargudi. The entire sanctuary was a protected area and the birds can be seen only from towers or from the nearby location. The pleasant sound that arises from the variety of birds is pleasant and warming.

There is also a famous Ramar Kovil (Ram Temple) in the small town. Kothandaramaswamy is the name of the god in the temple.

20,000 birds from 38 different species visit the sanctuary every year. They include Open bill stork, Cattle egret, Little egret, Pelicans, Grey Pelicans, Darter, Little Cormorants, Common coots, Little tern, Pond heron, Night heron, Painted stork, Common keat, Kingfisher among others. The ideal time to visit the sanctuary is in the early morning before 6.30 p.m or in the late evening after 05.30 p.m. However, a large group of bird can be seen throughout the day.

Waña Quta (Oruro)

Waña Quta (Aymara waña dry, quta lake, "dry lake", hispanicized spellings Huañakota, Huaña Kota, Huaña Khota, Huaña Kkota, Huayñakota, Huaña Q'ota) is a small lake in Bolivia located in the Oruro Department, Sajama Province. It is in the Sajama National Park northwest of the Sajama volcano at a height of about 4,350 metres (14,270 ft).

The lake is a place to discover birds like Andean avocet, Andean lapwing, cattle egret, horned coot, Puna teal, ruddy duck and yellow-billed pintail.

Western cattle egret

The western cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) is a species of heron (family Ardeidae) found in the tropics, subtropics and warm temperate zones. Most taxonomic authorities lump this species and the eastern cattle egret together (called the cattle egret), but some (including the International Ornithologists' Union separate them. Despite the similarities in plumage to the egrets of the genus Egretta, it is more closely related to the herons of Ardea. Originally native to parts of Asia, Africa and Europe, it has undergone a rapid expansion in its distribution and successfully colonised much of the rest of the world in the last century.

It is a white bird adorned with buff plumes in the breeding season. It nests in colonies, usually near bodies of water and often with other wading birds. The nest is a platform of sticks in trees or shrubs. Western cattle egrets exploit drier and open habitats more than other heron species. Their feeding habitats include seasonally inundated grasslands, pastures, farmlands, wetlands and rice paddies. They often accompany cattle or other large mammals, catching insect and small vertebrate prey disturbed by these animals. Some populations of the cattle egret are migratory and others show post-breeding dispersal.

The adult cattle egret has few predators, but birds or mammals may raid its nests, and chicks may be lost to starvation, calcium deficiency or disturbance from other large birds. This species maintains a special relationship with cattle, which extends to other large grazing mammals; wider human farming is believed to be a major cause of their suddenly expanded range. The cattle egret removes ticks and flies from cattle and consumes them. This benefits both species, but it has been implicated in the spread of tick-borne animal diseases.

Birds (class: Aves)
Fossil birds
Human interaction


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