Catoira is a municipality in Galicia, Spain, located in the province of Pontevedra. Catoira is famous for its ruins of the Torres do Oeste (Towers of the West).

Official seal of Catoira

Catoira is located in Spain
Location in Spain
Coordinates: 42°40′0″N 8°43′18″W / 42.66667°N 8.72167°WCoordinates: 42°40′0″N 8°43′18″W / 42.66667°N 8.72167°W
Autonomous communityGalicia
 • MayorAlberto García García (PSOE)
 • Total29.1 km2 (11.2 sq mi)
 • Total3,349
 • Density120/km2 (300/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CET)


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
YearPop.±% p.a.
Source: From: INE Archiv

Local festivals

The most important celebrations include:

  • the Viking Festival of Catoira, held on the first Sunday in August (Declared of International Tourist Interest),
  • the Supervisory Celebrations
  • Feast day of Saint Anthony of Padua, held on the second Sunday in July, during which the famous Gastronomical Celebration "da Solla" is celebrated. The local parishes have (during the summer) their own celebrations.
  • The most important of these is the Festa da parroquia de Oeste, or Festas de Santabaia, on the second weekend in August. There are also very important celebrations in honor of San Antonio de Dimo (the first Sunday in July)

External links

  1. ^ "Municipal Register of Spain 2018". National Statistics Institute. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
1979 Bolivian general election

General elections were held in Bolivia on 1 July 1979. As no candidate in the presidential elections received a majority of the vote, the National Congress was required to elect a President. However, the Congress failed to elect a candidate after three ballots, and instead selected Senate leader Wálter Guevara to serve as Interim President for a year on 8 August. Guevara was later overthrown by a military coup led by Alberto Natusch on 31 October. Fresh elections were held in June 1980.

Although the Democratic and Popular Union received the most votes in the Congressional elections, the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement-Alliance (A–MNR) won the most seats, largely as a result of the electoral system giving more seats to sparsely populated rural areas where the A–MNR was more popular.

Barbanza e Iria

Barbanza e Iria is a Spanish geographical indication for Vino de la Tierra wines located in the autonomous region of Galicia. Vino de la Tierra is one step below the mainstream Denominación de Origen indication on the Spanish wine quality ladder.

The area covered by this geographical indication comprises the municipalities of Catoira, Valga, Pontecesures, Padrón, Dodro, Rianxo, Boiro, A Pobra do Caramiñal, Ribeira and some parts of Porto do Son and Lousame, located in the provinces of A Coruña and Pontevedra, in Galicia, Spain.

It acquired its Vino de la Tierra status in 2007.

Caldas (comarca)

Caldas is a comarca in the Galician Province of Pontevedra. It covers an area of 288.7, and the overall population of this comarca was 35,176 at the 2011 Census; the latest official estimate (as at the start of 2018) was 34,067.

Calvary (sculpture)

A calvary (calvaire in French) is a type of monumental public crucifix, sometimes encased in an open shrine, most commonly found across northern France from Brittany east, through Belgium and Portugal and Galicia (North West of Spain), where they are called "cruzeiro", "cruceiro" or "crucero". They are equally familiar as wayside structures provided with minimal sheltering roofs in Italy and Spain. The Breton calvaire is distinguished from a simple crucifix cross by the inclusion of three-dimensional figures surrounding the Crucifixion itself, typically representing Mary and the apostles of Jesus, though later saints and symbolic figures may also be depicted.

In northern France and Belgium, such wayside calvaries erected at the junction of routes and tracks "function both as navigation devices and objects of veneration", Nicholas J. Saunders has observed "Since medieval times they have fixed the landscape, symbolically acquiring it for the Christian faith, in the same way that, previously, Megalithic monuments marked prehistoric landscapes according to presumed religious and ideological imperatives".

The oldest surviving calvaire, dating to between 1450 and 1460, is at the Chapelle Notre-Dame-de-Tronoën in the town of Saint-Jean-Trolimon, in south Finistère, near the Pointe de la Torche. This is raised on a large base which also includes carved representations of the Last Supper and scenes from the passion. Calvaires played an important role in Breton pilgrimages known as Pardons, forming a focal point for public festivals. In some instances the Calvary forms part of an outdoor pulpit or throne.

Calvaires are to be found in large numbers throughout Brittany, and come in many varied forms.A 16th-century calvaire from Louargat, Brittany, transplanted to serve as a World War I memorial, stands at the Carrefour de la Rose near the Belgian town of Boezinge north of Ypres. The most notable Calvary monument outside Brittany is at Lourdes. This was specifically intended to represent Breton Catholicism. It was created by the sculptor Yves Hernot in 1900 as a gift to Lourdes from the main Breton dioceses: Rennes, Vannes, Quimper and Saint-Brieuc. The monument comprises a single central cross set within a raised square base at each corner of which a statue of one of the witnesses to the crucifixion is placed.

Cresconius (bishop of Iria)

Cresconius (Spanish: Cresconio) (c. 1036 – 1066) was an 11th-century bishop of Iria Flavia and Santiago de Compostela in Spain who succeeded Vistruarius.Cresconius was a supporter of King Ferdinand I of Castile and educated Ferdinand's son, García II of Galicia and Portugal, who would later be crowned by Cresconius himself as king of the newly reestablished Kingdom of Galicia.

Like his contemporary Odo of Bayeux, Cresconius was a "warrior bishop" and during a Viking invasion of Galicia, he gathered an army and defeated the invaders. He fortified Castellum Honesti ‒ a castle known today as Torres do Oeste which once stood in Catoira, Spain ‒ with the goal of blocking future invasions via the estuary, Ría de Arousa, and also built the city walls of Santiago de Compostela.


Dhogs is an independent Galician film in the Galician language directed by Andrés Goteira (Meira, 1983), which was released in 2017. This was the director's debut film, and starred Carlos Blanco Vila, Antonio Durán "Morris", Miguel de Lira, Melania Cruz, Iván Marcos and María Costas. It premiered at the Buenos Aires International Festival of Independent Cinema (BAFICI) on April 19, 2017, and was nominated for the Best Feature Film in the Avant-Garde and Genre section. This is the first film shot in Galicia to premiere at the Sitges Film Festival, on October 9, 2017. In Galicia, the premiere took place at the Ourense International Film Festival on October 21, 2017.

Diego Gelmírez

Diego Gelmírez or Xelmírez (Latin Didacus Gelmirici) (ca 1069 – ca 1140) was the second bishop (from 1100) and first archbishop (from 1120) of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, modern Spain. He is a prominent figure in the history of Galicia and an important historiographer of the Iberia of his day. Diego involved himself in many quarrels, ecclesiastical and secular, which were recounted in the Historia Compostelana, which covered his episcopacy from 1100 to 1139 and serves as a sort of gesta of the bishop's life.He was probably born at Catoira, where his father, Gelmiro or Xelmirio, was the custodian of the castle. He received an education at the court of Alfonso VI of Castile. In 1092, Raymond, count of Galicia, named him his notary and secretary and in 1093 he was the administrator of the Compostelan church. In 1094, Dalmatius was appointed the first bishop of Compostela. Dalmatius died the next year (1095) and the people of the see requested the king nominate Diego administrator again during the vacancy. In 1099, the pope authorised a new episcopal election and Diego was chosen the next year. He was anointed the second bishop of Compostela in 1101. During his tenure, he was given secular rule of the city by Alfonso and he strove to make Compostela a major pilgrimage destination, which he did. He increased the prestige of his see and the volume of pilgrims on the road to Compostela.

In 1107 Pedro Fróilaz de Traba, the guardian of the heir, Alfonso Raimúndez, rebelled against Queen Urraca and her new husband, Alfonso the Battler. According to the Historia, he was opposed by a "brotherhood" (germanitas) led by the knight Arias Pérez and Diego Gelmírez, who had known each other since childhood. Diego Gelmírez had accepted the leadership of the brotherhood late in 1109 or early in 1110. In 1110 a truce between Pedro and the brotherhood was broken when the former took over the south Galician fortress of Castrelo de Miño and installed a garrison there under his wife Urraca and the young Alfonso. Arias promptly besieged it, and Pedro came to defend it. The besieged called on Diego to negotiate terms of surrender, which he did, but the brotherhood had grown suspicious of him and when a deal was struck Arias had Diego, Pedro, and Alfonso all arrested. In exchange for the castles of Oeste and Lanzada, they were all soon released and Diego went over to the separatists. In 1111, Diego crowned Alfonso Raimúndez King of Galicia in opposition to Urraca and her husband.

Late in 1113, when the royal court was in Galicia, Arias was inciting Urraca against Diego. Urraca deprived him of his secular authority at the request of the people, who agitated for communal rights, but she reinstated him in his temporal powers within a year and even exempted him from all military service to the crown and extended his charge over the whole diocese.

In 1120, Pope Callixtus II elevated Diego and his see to archiepiscopal rank and appointed him papal legate to Spain. That same year, according to the Historia, Urraca ordered the leading men (principes) of Galicia, including Arias Pérez, to do homage (hominium) to Diego Gelmírez as "their lord, their patron, their king and their prince, saving their fealty to the queen" and recognise his rule (dominio). In 1121, however, after Diego had renewed his alliance with the Pedro Fróilaz de Traba, his power appeared to threaten that of the queen. In the summer of 1121 she had Diego arrested at Castrelo in collaboration with Arias Pérez. Diego was imprisoned for a while, but the support of the people, which he had been cultivating, compelled his release. Sometime in 1121 Munio Peláez built an "adulterine" (i.e. illegal) castle on the river Iso near Compostela. The Historia Compostelana calls it a "den of robbers and bandits", and Diego managed to raze it to the ground soon after it was built.In the spring of 1126, shortly after Urraca's death and the accession of Alfonso, Arias led a rebellion in Galicia. Diego Gelmírez and Gómez Núñez of Toroño or perhaps Gutierre Vermúdez were charged per litteras ("by letter") with putting it down. Diego besieged Arias in Lobeiro and, with siege engines, in Tabeirós, forcing him to surrender. Diego's opinion of Arias was such that he said to him: "I fear, therefore, that if such that you are you leave this world, you will lose eternal life and incur the perpetual condemnation of your soul."

Fiestas of International Tourist Interest of Spain

The title of Fiesta of International Tourist Interest is an honorary distinction of being given in Spain by the General Secretariat of Tourism of the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade of the Government of Spain, granted to the fiestas or events involving manifestations of cultural and popular tradition, with particular regard to their ethnic characteristics and special importance as tourist attractions. This honorary title is held by 30 fiestas in Spain.

The requirements include:

Antiquity of the celebration and continuity over time (at least should be held each five years).

Popular roots and participation, especially value the existence of associations that support it.

Originality, diversity that are relevant in terms of promoting tourism of Spain abroad.

Impact on international media, at least ten performances in one or more foreign media.

Possess the declaration of National Tourist Interest for at least five years.

That its development involve no mistreatment of people or animals, and care for the city, architecture and landscape.

Existence in the town or within 50 km (30 mi) of suitable accommodation and tourist services.

Full Town Council agreement and a favorable report from the Autonomous Community.


Frederikssund is a Danish town, seat of the Frederikssund Municipality, in the Region Hovedstaden with a population of 16,268 (1 January 2019). It received the status of market town in 1810. The town is famous for its annual Viking Games as well as for the J.F. Willumsen museum. Since 1935, it has been connected to Hornsherred via the Kronprins Frederik Bridge.

Galician culture

The culture of Galicia is the patterns of human activity and symbolism associated with the Galicia region of Spain and the Galician people.

Iker Losada

Iker Losada Aragunde (born 1 August 2001) is a Spanish professional footballer who plays as a forward for Celta de Vigo B.

List of municipalities in Pontevedra

This is a list of the 61 municipalities in the province of Pontevedra in the autonomous community of Galicia, Spain.

The Galician name is the sole official form of the name;

older or informal texts may use Castillan forms or spellings.


Padrón (Galician pronunciation: [paˈðɾoŋ]) is a concello (Galician for municipality) in the Province of A Coruña, in Galicia (Spain) within the comarca of O Sar. It covers an area of 48.4 km², is 95 km from A Coruña and 23km from Santiago de Compostela. As of 2009, had a population of 8968 according to the INE.

Padrón is divided into five parishes:

(San Pedro de) Carcacía

(Santa María de) Cruces

(Santa María de) Herbón

(Santa María de) Iria Flavia (or Iría Flavia)

(Santiago de) Padrón

Sergio Álvarez (footballer, born 1986)

Sergio Álvarez Conde (born 3 August 1986), known simply as Sergio, is a Spanish professional footballer who plays for Celta de Vigo as a goalkeeper.

Torres de Oeste

Torres de Oeste is a castle in Catoira, Galicia, Spain. It is located at the head of the Ría de Arousa. It is in the region of Caldas (Pontevedra), in the river Ulla estuary. The towers remaining today are the ruins of Castellum Honesti. Torres del Oeste has been declared a national monument.

In the 9th century, King Alfonso III of Leon built the castle as a defense against Viking attacks. The two remaining towers are from this period, and have a pre-Roman style. Pre-Roman ceramics and bronze tools have been discovered at the site. Two centuries later, King Alfonso V of Leon donates the fortress to the bishopric of Iria-Compostela, held at that moment by bishop Vestruarius. Subsequent bishops Cresconio, Diego Pelaez and Diego Gelmirez undertook the commitment to strengthen the Castle in order to protect the holy site of Santiago de Compostela. The structure of the Castle was defined in the 12th century. At that time, the enclosure of the Castle was formed by seven towers, and it was surrounded by marshes. The Castle has a 12th-century chapel built by Gelmirez to honor the apostle Saint James. The Castellum Honesti began its decline in the 15th century.

Each summer, the first Sunday of August, a celebration recalls the repulse of a Viking invasion.

Viking Festival of Catoira

Viking Festival of Catoira (Galician: Romaría viquinga de Catoira) is a secular festival which has been celebrated in Catoira, Spain, every first Sunday in August since 1961, in the surroundings of Castellum Honesti, currently known as Torres de Oeste (West Towers) fortress. It is held to commemorate Catoira’s role in defending Galicia against the Vikings, who attempted to plunder the treasure held in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, and also to reenact the Viking invasions that took place there a thousand years ago.

Vilagarcía de Arousa

Vilagarcía de Arousa is a Spanish municipality in the province of Pontevedra, Galicia. As of 2014 it has a population of 37,712, being ninth largest town in Galicia.

Wayside cross

A wayside cross is a cross by a footpath, track or road, at an intersection, along the edge of a field or in a forest. It can be made of wood, stone or metal. Most wayside crosses are designed as crucifixes. Stone crosses may also be conciliation crosses. Often they serve as waymarks for walkers and pilgrims or designate dangerous places. They are particularly common in Europe, for example in Germany, Galicia, Ireland and the Alps.

Workers' Vanguard Party

The Workers' Vanguard Party (Spanish: Vanguardia Obrera, VO) was a small Trotskyist political party in Bolivia.

The Workers' Vanguard Party was established by a dissident fraction which broke away from the Communist Vanguard of the Revolutionary Workers' Party in 1978.

It was led by Filemón Escóbar Escóbar and Ricardo Catoira Marín.

The VO took part in elections in 1978 and presented as its presidential candidate Ricardo Catoira Marín and Filemón Escobar as vice-presidential candidate.

In 1980 the VO took part in an electoral coalition Democratic and Popular Union backing Hernán Siles Zuazo.

In 1984, the Workers' Vanguard Party merged with the Revolutionary Workers' Party-Struggle to form the new Revolutionary Workers' Party-Unified.


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