Cato the Younger

Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (/ˈkeɪtoʊ/; 95 BC – April 46 BC), commonly known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather (Cato the Elder), was a statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. A noted orator, he is remembered for his stubbornness and tenacity (especially in his lengthy conflict with Julius Caesar), as well as his immunity to bribes, his moral integrity, and his famous distaste for the ubiquitous corruption of the period.

Cato the Younger
Cato Volubilis bronze bust
Inscribed bronze bust from Volubilis
Military tribune of the Roman Republic in Macedon
In office
67 BC
Quaestor of the Roman Republic
In office
65 BC
Tribune of the Plebs of the Roman Republic
In office
63 BC
Governor of Cyprus
In office
Late 58 BC - March 56 BC
Praetor of the Roman Republic
In office
54 BC
Personal details
Born95 BC
Rome, Italia, Roman Republic
Died46 BC, Utica, Africa Proconsularis, Roman Republic
Cause of deathSuicide
NationalityRoman
Political partyOptimates
OccupationPolitician

Early life

Cato was born in 95 BC in Rome, the son of Marcus Porcius Cato and his wife, Livia. His parents died when he was young, and he was cared for by his maternal uncle, Marcus Livius Drusus, who also looked after Cato's sister Porcia, half-brother Quintus Servilius Caepio, and two half-sisters Servilia Major, and Servilia Minor. Cato was four when his uncle was assassinated in 91 BC, an event which helped to spark the Social War.

Cato's stubbornness began in his early years. Sarpedon, his teacher, reports a very obedient and questioning child, although slow in being persuaded of things and sometimes very difficult to retrain. A story told by Plutarch tells of Quintus Poppaedius Silo, leader of the Marsi and involved in controversial business in the Roman Forum, who made a visit to his friend Marcus Livius and met the children of the house. In a playful mood, he asked the children's support for his cause. All of them nodded and smiled except Cato, who stared at the guest suspiciously. Silo demanded an answer from him and, seeing no response, took Cato and hung him by the feet out of the window. Even then, Cato would not say anything.

Plutarch recounts a few other stories as well. One night, as some children were playing a game in a side room of a house during a social event, they were having a mock trial with judges and accusers as well as a defendant. One of the children, supposedly a good-natured and pleasant child, was convicted by the mock accusers and was being carried out of the room when he cried out desperately for Cato. Cato became very angry at the other children and, saying nothing, grabbed the child away from the "guards" and carried him away from the others.

Plutarch also tells a story about Cato's peers' immense respect for him, even at a young age, during the Roman ritual military game, called "Troy," in which all aristocratic teenagers participated as a sort of "coming of age" ceremony, involving a mock battle with wooden weapons performed on horseback. When one of the adult organisers "appointed two leaders for them, the boys accepted one of them for his mother's sake (he was a son of Metella, Sulla's wife), but would not tolerate the other, who was a nephew of Pompey, named Sextus, and refused to rehearse under him or obey him. When Sulla asked them whom they would have, they all cried "Cato," and Sextus himself gave way and yielded the honour to a confessed superior."

Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the Roman dictator, liked to talk with Cato and his brother Caepio, and often requested the child's presence even when the boy openly defied his opinions and policies in public. Sulla's daughter Cornelia Sulla was married to the boys' uncle Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus. According to Plutarch, at one point during the height of the civil strife, as respected Roman nobles were being led to execution from Sulla's villa, Cato, aged about 14, asked his tutor why no one had yet killed the dictator. Sarpedon's answer was thus: "They fear him, my child, more than they hate him." Cato replied to this, "Give me a sword, that I might free my country from slavery." After this, Sarpedon was careful not to leave the boy unattended around the capital, seeing how firm he was in his republican beliefs.[1]

Political development

Marcus Porcius Cato
Statue of Cato the Younger in the Louvre Museum. He is about to kill himself while reading the Phaedo, a dialogue of Plato which describes the death of Socrates. The statue was begun by Jean-Baptiste Roman (Paris, 1792–1835) using white Carrara marble. It was finished by François Rude (Dijon, 1784 – Paris, 1855).

After receiving his inheritance, Cato moved from his uncle's house and began to study Stoic philosophy and politics. He began to live in a very modest way, as his great-grandfather Marcus Porcius Cato the Elder had famously done. Cato subjected himself to violent exercise, and learned to endure cold and rain with a minimum of clothes. He ate only what was necessary and drank the cheapest wine on the market. This was entirely for philosophical reasons; his inheritance would have permitted him to live comfortably. He remained in private life for a long time, rarely seen in public. But when he did appear in the forum, his speeches and rhetorical skills were most admired. Cato was known to drink wine generously.[2]

Cato was first engaged to Aemilia Lepida, a patrician woman, but she was married instead to Quintus Caecilius Metellus Scipio, to whom she had been betrothed. Incensed, Cato threatened to sue for her hand, but his friends mollified him, and Cato was contented to compose Archilochian iambics against Scipio in consolation. Later, Cato was married to a woman called Atilia. By her, he had a son, Marcus Porcius Cato, and a daughter, Porcia, who would become the second wife of Marcus Junius Brutus. Cato later divorced Atilia for unseemly behavior.

In 72 BC, Cato volunteered to fight in the war against Spartacus, presumably to support his brother Caepio, who was serving as a military tribune in the consular army of Lucius Gellius Publicola. Gellius is often remembered as an indifferent commander, but his army inflicted the only defeat on Spartacus before Crassus raised his six legions and ultimately defeated the slave uprising.

As a military tribune, Cato was sent to Macedon in 67 BC at the age of 28 and given command of a legion. He led his men from the front, sharing their work, food, and sleeping quarters. He was strict in discipline and punishment but was nonetheless loved by his legionaries. While Cato was in service in Macedon, he received the news that his beloved brother Caepio, from whom he was nearly inseparable, was dying in Thrace. He immediately went to see him but was unable to arrive before his brother died. Cato was overwhelmed by grief, and for once in his life, he spared no expense to organize, as his brother had wished, lavish funeral ceremonies.

At the end of his military commission in Macedon, Cato went on a private journey through the Roman provinces of the Near East.

The Optimates

On his return to Rome in 65 BC, Cato was elected to the position of quaestor. Like everything else in his life, Cato took unusual care to study the background necessary for the post, especially the laws relating to taxes. One of his first moves was to prosecute former quaestors for illegal appropriation of funds and dishonesty. Cato also prosecuted Sulla's informers, who had acted as head-hunters during Sulla's dictatorship, despite their political connections among Cato's own party and despite the power of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, who had been known as the "teenage butcher" for his service under Sulla. Sulla's informers were accused first of illegal appropriation of treasury money, and then of homicide. At the end of the year, Cato stepped down from his quaestorship amid popular acclaim, but he never ceased to keep an eye on the treasury, always looking for irregularities.

As senator, Cato was scrupulous and determined. He never missed a session of the senate and publicly criticized those who did so. From the beginning, he aligned himself with the Optimates, the conservative faction of the senate. Many of the Optimates at this time had been Sulla's personal friends, whom Cato had despised since his youth, yet Cato attempted to make his name by returning his faction to its pure republican roots.

Cato and Catilina propaganda cups
Propaganda cup of Cato (the cup to the left, the one to the right being dedicated to Catilina), for his election campaign for Tribune of the Plebs of 62 BC (left cup). These cups, filled with food or drinks, were distributed in the streets to the people, and bore an inscription supporting the candidate to the election.

In 63 BC, he was elected tribune of the plebs for the following year, and assisted the consul, Marcus Tullius Cicero, in dealing with the Catiline conspiracy. Lucius Sergius Catilina, a noble patrician, led a rebellion against the state, raising an army in Etruria. Upon discovery of an associated plot against the persons of the consuls and other magistrates within Rome, Cicero arrested the conspirators, proposing to execute them without trial, an unconstitutional act. In the senate's discussion on the subject, Gaius Julius Caesar agreed that the conspirators were guilty, but argued for distributing them among Italian cities "for safekeeping." In contrast, Cato argued that capital punishment was necessary to deter treason and that it was folly to await the ultimate test of the conspirators' guilt—the overthrow of the state—because the very proof of their guilt would make it impossible to enforce the laws. Convinced by Cato's argument, the Senate approved Cicero's proposal, and after the conspirators had been executed, the greater portion of Catiline's army quit the field, much as Cato had predicted.

Cato's political and personal differences with Caesar appear to date from this time. In a meeting of the senate dedicated to the Catilina affair, Cato harshly reproached Caesar for reading personal messages while the senate was in session to discuss a matter of treason. Cato accused Caesar of involvement in the conspiracy and suggested that he was working on Catilina's behalf, which might explain Caesar's otherwise odd position—that the conspirators should receive no public hearing yet be shown clemency. Caesar offered it up to Cato to read. Cato took the paper from his hands and read it, discovering that it was a love letter from Caesar's mistress Servilia, Cato's half-sister.

After divorcing Atilia, Cato married Marcia, daughter of Lucius Marcius Philippus, who bore him two or three children. While Cato was married to Marcia, the renowned orator Quintus Hortensius Hortalus, who was Cato's admirer and friend, desired a connection to Cato's family and asked for the hand of Porcia, Cato's eldest daughter. Cato refused because the potential match made little sense: Porcia was already married to Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, who was unwilling to let her go; and Hortensius, being nearly 60 years old, was almost 30 years Porcia's senior. Denied the hand of Porcia, Hortensius then suggested that he marry Cato's wife Marcia, on the grounds that she had already given Cato heirs. On the condition that Marcia's father consented to the match, Cato agreed to divorce Marcia, who then married Hortensius. Between Hortensius' death in 50 BC and Cato's leaving Italy with Pompey in 49 BC, Cato took Marcia and her children into his household again. Ancient sources differ on whether they were remarried. [3][4]

The First Triumvirate

After the Catilinian conspiracy, Cato turned all of his political skills to oppose the designs of Caesar and his triumvirate allies, Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus, who had among them held the reins of power in a finely balanced near-monopoly. Caesar gained influence over the senate through Pompey and Crassus. Pompey gained influence over the legions of Rome through Crassus and Caesar. Crassus enjoyed the support of the tax-farmers and was able to gain a fortune by exploitation of the provinces controlled by Caesar and Pompey.

Cato's opposition took two forms. First, in 61 BC, Pompey returned from his Asian campaign with two ambitions: to celebrate a Triumph and to become consul for the second time. In order to achieve both goals, he asked the senate to postpone consular elections until after his Triumph. Due to Pompey's enormous popularity, the senate was willing to oblige Pompey at first, but Cato intervened and convinced the senate to force Pompey to choose. In opposition to this action, Quintus Metellus Celer, Pompey's brother-in-law, attempted to repeal the act, but he was unsuccessful. Pompey did not run for the consulship that year, choosing instead to hold his third Triumph, one of the most magnificent ever seen in Rome.

When faced with the same request from Caesar, Cato used the device of filibuster, speaking continuously until nightfall, to prevent the senate from voting on the issue of whether or not Caesar would be allowed to stand for consul in absentia. Thus Caesar was forced to choose between a Triumph or a run for the consulship. Caesar chose to forgo the Triumph and entered Rome in time to register as a candidate in the 59 BC election, which he won. Caesar's consular colleague was Marcus Bibulus, the husband of Cato's daughter Porcia.

The next year, in 60 BC, Cato attempted to obstruct the syndicate tax contractors seeking to collect taxes in the province of Asia. The syndicate's winning bid was far greater than the syndicate was able to recoup through the tax collection. Because the bid was paid in advance, the heavy losses prompted them to ask the senate to renegotiate and thus refund a fraction of the bid. Crassus gave strong support to the plea, but Cato then promptly succeeded in vetoing it, regardless of the likelihood of a backlash from other equites with business interests the Roman government could affect.

When Caesar became consul, Cato opposed the agrarian laws that established farmlands for Pompey's veterans on public lands in Campania, from which the republic derived a quarter of its income. Caesar responded by having Cato dragged out by lictors while Cato was making a speech against him at the rostra. Many senators protested this extraordinary and unprecedented use of force by leaving the forum, one senator proclaiming he'd rather be in jail with Cato than in the senate with Caesar.[5] Caesar was forced to relent but countered by taking the vote directly to the people, bypassing the senate. Bibulus and Cato attempted to oppose Caesar in the public votes but were harassed and publicly assaulted by Caesar's retainers. Eventually, Bibulus confined himself to his home and pronounced unfavorable omens in an attempt to lay the legal groundwork for the later repeal of Caesar’s consular acts.

Cato did not relent in his opposition to the triumvirs, unsuccessfully attempting to prevent Caesar's 5-year appointment as governor of Illyria and Cisalpine Gaul or the appointment of Crassus to an Eastern command.

Cyprus

Clodius, who worked closely with the triumvirate, desired to exile Cicero, and felt that Cato's presence would complicate his efforts. He, with the support of the triumvirs, proposed to send Cato to annex Cyprus. Plutarch recounts that Cato saw the commission as an attempt to be rid of him, and initially refused the assignment. When Clodius passed legislation conferring the commission on Cato "though ever so unwillingly," Cato accepted the position in compliance with the law. His official office while in Cyprus was Quaestor pro Praetore, an extraordinary quaestorship with praetorian powers.

Cato appeared to have two major goals in Cyprus. The first was to enact his foreign policy ideals, which, as expressed in a letter to Cicero, called for a policy of "mildness" and "uprightness" for governors of Roman-controlled territories. The second was to implement his reforms of the quaestorship on a larger scale. This second goal also provided Cato with an opportunity to burnish his Stoic credentials: the province was rich both in gold and opportunities for extortion. Thus, against common practice, Cato took none, and he prepared immaculate accounts for the senate, much as he had done earlier in his career as quaestor. According to Plutarch, Cato ultimately raised the enormous sum of 7,000 talents of silver for the Roman treasury. He thought about every unexpected event, even to tying ropes to the coffers with a big piece of cork on the other end, so they could be located in the event of a shipwreck. Unfortunately, luck played him a trick. Of his perfect accounting books, none survived: the one he had was burnt, the other was lost at sea with the freedman carrying it. Only Cato's untainted reputation saved him from charges of embezzlement.

The senate of Rome recognized the effort made in Cyprus and offered him a reception in the city, an extraordinary praetorship, and other privileges, all of which he stubbornly refused as unlawful honours.

The Civil War

The triumvirate of Caesar, Pompey and Crassus was broken in 54 BC at the same time as Cato's election as praetor. Judging their enemy in trouble, Cato and the Optimates faction of the senate spent the coming years trying to force a break between Pompey and Caesar. It was a time of political turmoil, when popular figures like Publius Clodius Pulcher tried to advance the cause of the common people of Rome, going so far as abandoning his patrician status to become a plebeian. As a leading spokesman for the Optimate cause, Cato stood against them all in defense of the traditional privileges of the aristocracy.

The following year, in 52 BC, Cato unsuccessfully ran for the office of consul. Cato accepted the loss, but refused to run a second time.

In 49 BC, Cato called for the senate to formally relieve Caesar of his proconsular command, which he viewed as having expired, and to order Caesar's return to Rome as a civilian and thus without proconsular legal immunity. Pompey had blocked all previous attempts at ordering Caesar back to Rome but had grown concerned with Caesar's growing political influence and popularity with the plebs. With the tacit support of Pompey, Cato successfully passed a resolution ending Caesar's proconsular command. Caesar made numerous attempts to negotiate, at one point even conceding to give up all but one of his provinces and legions, allowing him to retain his immunity while diminishing his authority. This concession satisfied Pompey, but Cato, along with the consul Lentulus, refused to back down. Faced with the alternatives of returning to Rome for the inevitable trial and retiring into voluntary exile, Caesar crossed into Italy with only one legion, implicitly declaring war on the senate.[6]

Caesar crossed the Rubicon accompanied by the XIII Legion to take power from the senate in the same way that Sulla had done in the past. Formally declared an enemy of the state, Caesar pursued the Senatorial party, now led by Pompey, who abandoned the city to raise arms in Greece, with Cato among his companions. After first reducing Caesar's army at the siege battle of Dyrrhachium, where Cato commanded the port, the army led by Pompey was ultimately defeated by Caesar in the Battle of Pharsalus (Cato wasn't present during at the battle, Pompey had left him in command of Dyrrhachium[7]). Cato and Metellus Scipio, however, did not concede defeat and escaped to the province of Africa with fifteen cohorts to continue resistance from Utica. Caesar pursued Cato and Metellus Scipio after installing the queen Cleopatra VII on the throne of Egypt, and in February 46 BC the outnumbered Caesarian legions defeated the army led by Metellus Scipio at the Battle of Thapsus. Acting against his usual strategy of clemency, Caesar did not accept surrender of Scipio's troops, but had them all slaughtered.

Death

In Utica, Cato did not participate in the battle and, unwilling to live in a world led by Caesar and refusing even implicitly to grant Caesar the power to pardon him, he committed suicide in April 46 BC. According to Plutarch, Cato attempted to kill himself by stabbing himself with his own sword, but failed to do so due to an injured hand. Plutarch wrote:

Cato did not immediately die of the wound; but struggling, fell off the bed, and throwing down a little mathematical table that stood by, made such a noise that the servants, hearing it, cried out. And immediately his son and all his friends came into the chamber, where, seeing him lie weltering in his own blood, great part of his bowels out of his body, but himself still alive and able to look at them, they all stood in horror. The physician went to him, and would have put in his bowels, which were not pierced, and sewed up the wound; but Cato, recovering himself, and understanding the intention, thrust away the physician, plucked out his own bowels, and tearing open the wound, immediately expired.[8]

On hearing of his death in Utica, Plutarch wrote that Caesar commented, "Cato, I grudge you your death, as you would have grudged me the preservation of your life."[9]

Starting with Pliny the Elder, later writers sometimes refer to Cato the Younger as "Cato Uticensis" ("the Utican"). In doing so they apply to him a type of cognomen that was normally awarded to generals who earned a triumph in a foreign war and brought a large territory under Roman influence (e.g., Scipio Africanus). Such names were honorific titles that the senate only granted for the most spectacular victories. Reference to Cato as "Uticensis" is presumably meant to glorify him by portraying his suicide at Utica as a great victory over Caesar's tyranny.[3][4]

After Cato

Romans

Cato, who upheld the strong traditional Roman principles, was remembered particularly well. His suicide was seen as a symbol for those who followed the conservative, Optimate principles of the traditional Roman. Cato is remembered as a follower of Stoicism and was one of the most active defenders of the Republic. The Stoics, from at least the time of Chrysippus onward, taught that the wise man should engage in politics if nothing prevents him.[10] Cato's high moral standards and incorruptible virtue gained him several followers—of whom Marcus Favonius was the most well known—as well as praise even from his political enemies, such as Sallust—one of our sources for the anecdote about Caesar and Cato's sister. Sallust also wrote a comparison between Cato and Caesar. Caesar, Cato's long-time rival, was praised for his mercy, compassion, and generosity, and Cato, for his discipline, rigidity, and moral integrity. One should, however, consider which of these men Sallust found the more appealing. After Cato's death, both pro- and anti-Cato treatises appeared; among them Cicero wrote a panegyric, entitled Cato, to which Caesar, who never forgave him for all the obstructions, answered with his Anti-Cato. Caesar's pamphlet has not survived, but some of its contents may be inferred from Plutarch's Life of Cato, which repeats many of the stories that Caesar put forward in his Anti-Cato. Plutarch specifically mentions the accounts of Cato's close friend Munatius Rufus and the later Neronian senator Thrasea Paetus as references used for parts of his biography of Cato. While Caesar proclaimed clemency towards all, he never forgave Cato. This stance was something that others in the anti-Caesarian camp would remember, including Cato's nephew and posthumous son-in-law Brutus.

Republicans under the Empire remembered him fondly, and the poet Virgil, writing under Augustus, made Cato a hero in his Aeneid. Whilst it was not particularly safe to praise Cato, Augustus did tolerate and appreciate Cato. Whilst one might argue that heaping posthumous praise on Cato highlights one's opposition to the new shape of Rome without directly challenging Augustus, it was actually later generations who were more able to embrace the role model of Cato without the fear of prosecution. Certainly under Nero, the resurgence of republican ambitions with Cato as their ideal, ended in death for such figures as Seneca and Lucan, but Cato continued nevertheless as a righteous ideal for generations to come.

Lucan, writing under Nero, also made Cato the hero of the later books of his epic Pharsalia. From the latter work originates the epigram "Victrix causa deis placuit sed victa Catoni" ("The conquering cause pleased the gods, but the conquered cause pleased Cato," Lucan 1.128). Other Imperial authors, such as Horace, the Tiberian authors Velleius Paterculus and Valerius Maximus along with Lucan and Seneca in the 1st century AD, and later authors, such as Appian and Dio, celebrated the historical importance of Cato the Younger in their own writings.

Silver denarius of Cato 47 46 BCE
Silver denarius of Cato (47–46 BC)

Medieval

In Dante's The Divine Comedy, Cato is portrayed as the guardian of the mount of purgatory. In Canto I, Dante writes of Cato:

I saw close by me a solitary old man, worthy, by
his appearance, of so much reverence that never
son owed father more.
Long was his beard and mixed with white hair,
similar to the hairs of his head, which fell to his
breast in two strands.
The rays of the four holy lights so adorned his
face with brightness that I saw him as if the sun
had been before him.

He is one of the two pagans presented by Dante as saved souls encountered in Purgatorio, the other being Statius (Cantos XX-XXII). Cato appears in the Purgatorio not as a "saved" soul, but as one who will receive special compensation on the Day of Judgment. He is not "in" Purgatory, but on the shores of "The High Mount," or part of ante-purgatory. Statius, on the other hand, was baptised in a secretive ceremony and remained a "closet-Christian," for which lukewarmness he remained in ante-Purgatory for a prescribed time before he could enter Purgatory proper: As he made God wait, so God made him wait.

Enlightenment

Cato was lionized during the republican revolutions of the Enlightenment. Joseph Addison's play Cato, a Tragedy, first staged on April 14, 1713, celebrated Cato as a martyr to the republican cause. The play was a popular and critical success: it was staged more than 20 times in London alone, and it was published across 26 editions before the end of the century. George Washington often quoted Addison's Cato and had it performed during the winter at Valley Forge in spite of a Congressional ban on such performances. The death of Cato (La mort de Caton d'Utique) was a popular theme in revolutionary France, being sculpted by Philippe-Laurent Roland (1782) and painted by Bouchet Louis André Gabriel, Bouillon Pierre, and Guérin Pierre Narcisse in 1797. The title-page of the third Book of David Hume's 'A Treatise of Human Nature' ("Of Morals') features an epigraph from Lucan's 'Pharsalia' (Bk. IX) which serves as the prelude to Cato's celebrated speech at the oracle of Jupiter Ammon - a speech that was taken by Hume and other thinkers of the Enlightenment to be an exemplar of freethinking. [11] The sculpture of Cato by Jean-Baptiste Roman and François Rude (1832) stands in the Musée du Louvre.

Chronology

  • 95 BC: Birth in Rome
  • 67 BC: Military tribune in Macedon
  • 65 BC: Quaestor in Rome (some scholars date this to 64 BC)
  • 63 BC: Catiline's conspiracy; Cato speaks for the death penalty
  • 63 BC: Tribune of the Plebs; Cato passes corn dole
  • 60 BC: Forces Caesar to choose between consulship and triumph
  • 59 BC: Opposes Caesar's laws
  • 58 BC: Governorship of Cyprus (leaves at the end of 58/returns March 56)
  • 55 BC: unsuccessful 1st run for praetorship
  • 54 BC: Praetor
  • 51 BC: Runs (unsuccessfully) for consul
  • 49 BC: Caesar crosses the Rubicon and invades Italy; Cato goes with Pompey to Greece
  • 48 BC: Battle of Pharsalus, Pompey defeated; Cato goes to Africa
  • 46 BC: Scipio defeated in the Battle of Thapsus; Cato kills himself in Utica (April)

Cato's descendants and marriages

Family tree

In literature, music and drama

Novels: Cato is a major character in several novels of Colleen McCullough's Masters of Rome series. He is portrayed as a stubborn alcoholic with strong moral values, though he is prepared to transgress these beliefs if it means the destruction of his mortal enemy, Caesar. Cato appears in Thornton Wilder's highly fictionalized Ides of March, where Cato is described by Caesar as one of "four men whom I most respect in Rome" but who "regard me with mortal enmity." Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick refers to Cato in the first paragraph: "With a philosophical flourish Cato throws himself upon his sword; I quietly take to the ship." He appears as a major character in Robert Harris' Imperium and Lustrum novels, appearing as a heroic guardian of republican virtues, foreseeing Caesar's aggregation of power as perilous for the long-term stability of Rome. In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein Clerval, in an attempt to comfort his friend dismayed over the recent news of his young brother William's murder, remarks to Frankenstein that, "even Cato wept over the dead body of his brother."

Plays: In 1712, Joseph Addison wrote his most famous work of fiction, a play titled Cato, a Tragedy. Based on the last days of Cato the Younger, it deals with such themes as individual liberty vs. government tyranny, republicanism vs. monarchism, logic vs. emotion and Cato's personal struggle to cleave to his beliefs in the face of death. It had a great influence on George Washington, who arranged to have it performed at Valley Forge in the winter of 1777–1778. Portuguese Romantic poet Almeida Garrett wrote a tragedy titled Catão (Cato), featuring the last days of Cato's life and his struggle against Julius Caesar, a fight between virtue (Cato) and vice (Caesar), democracy (Cato) and tyranny (Caesar).

Poetry: Cato appears as a character in Dante's Purgatorio. He is in charge of the souls that arrive in purgatory.

Television: In the television series Rome, Cato, played by actor Karl Johnson, is a significant character, although he is shown as quite older than his actual age (mid-40s) at the time. In the 2002 miniseries Julius Caesar, Cato as played by Christopher Walken is depicted as much older than he was, seen as a major figure in the senate when Caesar is just a young man, although Caesar was five years older than Cato. Cato was featured in the BBC docudrama Ancient Rome: The Rise and Fall of an Empire.

Opera: In the 17th century, several distinguished composers set to music the Metastasio libretto, Catone in Utica, among them, Leonardo Leo, Leonardo Vinci, J.C. Bach, Antonio Vivaldi, Handel, Paisiello, Jommelli, Johann Adolf Hasse and Piccinni, in two versions.

Naming legacy

Cato's Letters were written in the early 18th century on the topic of republicanism, using Cato as a pseudonym. The libertarian Cato Institute think tank was named after the letters.

See also

References and sources

References
  1. ^ Plutarch, Cato Younger 3.3
  2. ^ Cato the Younger. W. Heinemann, 1919. p. 249.
  3. ^ a b http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Lives/Cato_Minor*.html
  4. ^ a b antiquitatis.com/rome/biographies/bio_catoyounger.html
  5. ^ Cassius Dio 38.3, http://lexundria.com/dio/38.3/cy
  6. ^ Plutarch, Pompey [1], 59.4
  7. ^ John Leach, Pompey the Great, p.200
  8. ^ Plutarch, Life of Cato: Plut. Cat. Mi. 70.6
  9. ^ Plutarch, Life of Cato: Plut. Cat. Mi. 72.2
  10. ^ Diogenes Laertius, Lives and Opinions, 7.1.121
  11. ^ Cato's Speech at the Oracle of Ammon {in Lucan's Pharsalia', IX.>https://donaldrobertson.name/2012/11/17/catos-speech-on-stoic-philosophy-from-lucans-the-civil-war/>
Sources
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  • Badian, E. "M. Porcius Cato and the Annexation and Early Administration of Cyprus", JRS, 55 (1965): 110–121.
  • Bellemore, J., "Cato the Younger in the East in 66 BC", Historia, 44.3 (1995): 376–9
  • Earl, D.C. The Political Thought of Sallust, Cambridge, 1961.
  • Fantham, E., "Three Wise Men and the End of the Roman Republic", "Caesar Against Liberty?", ARCA (43), 2003: 96–117.
  • Fehrle, R. Cato Uticensis, Darmstadt, 1983.
  • Goar, R. The Legend of Cato Uticensis from the First Century BC to the Fifth Century AD, Bruxelles, 1987.
  • Gordon, H. L. "The Eternal Triangle, First Century B.C.", The Classical Journal, Vol. 28, No. 8. (May, 1933), pp. 574–578
  • Hughes-Hallett, Lucy. Heroes: A History of Hero Worship, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, New York, 2004. ISBN 1-4000-4399-9.
  • Marin, P. "Cato the Younger: Myth and Reality", Ph.D (unpublished), UCD, 2005
  • Marin, P. Blood in the Forum: The Struggle for the Roman Republic, London: Hambledon Continuum, (April) 2009 ISBN 1-84725-167-6 ISBN 978-1847251671
  • Marin, P. The Myth of Cato from Cicero to the Enlightenment (forthcoming)
  • Nadig, Peter. "Der jüngere Cato und ambitus", in: Peter Nadig, Ardet Ambitus, Untersuchungen zum Phänomen der Wahlbestechungen in der römischen Republik, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1997 (Prismata VI), S. 85–94, ISBN 3-631-31295-4
  • Plutarch. Cato the Younger.
  • Syme, R., "A Roman Post-Mortem", Roman Papers I, Oxford, 1979
  • Taylor, Lily Ross. Party Politics in the Age of Caesar, University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 1971, ISBN 0-520-01257-7.

Further reading

  • Gruen, Erich S. (1974). The Last Generation of the Roman Republic. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0520201531.
  • Oman, C. W. (1902). Seven Roman Statesmen of the Late Republic. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Syme, Ronald (1939). The Roman Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192803204.
  • Goodman, Rob; Soni, Jimmy (2012). Rome's Last Citizen: The Life and Legacy of Cato, Mortal Enemy of Caesar. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 0312681232.

External links

Anticato

The Anticato (sometimes Anti-Cato; Latin: Anticatones) was a polemic written by Julius Caesar in hostile reply to Cicero's pamphlet praising Cato the Younger. The text is lost and survives only in fragments. Brutus, dissatisfied with Cicero's work, wrote a second pamphlet in praise of Cato and called, simply, "Cato," which provoked a reply from Octavian. Octavian's work is not known to have been called Anticato but must have been modeled on Caesar's reply to Cicero.

Antipater of Tyre

Antipater of Tyre (Greek: Ἀντίπατρος ὁ Τύριος; fl. 1st century BC) was a Stoic philosopher and a friend of Cato the Younger and Cicero.

Battle of Thapsus

The Battle of Thapsus was an engagement in Caesar's Civil War that took place on April 6, 46 BC near Thapsus (in modern Tunisia). The Republican forces of the Optimates, led by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Scipio, were decisively defeated by the veteran forces loyal to Julius Caesar. It was followed shortly by the suicides of Scipio and his ally, Cato the Younger.

Cato the Younger (Rome character)

Cato the Younger is a historical figure who features as a character in the HBO/BBC2 original television series Rome, played by actor Karl Johnson. He is depicted as an extreme traditionalist, against political and social decay, and a staunch defender of the Roman Republic. The real Cato the Younger was a Roman orator and politician.

Karl Johnson (actor)

Karl Johnson (born 1 March 1948) is a Welsh actor, who has worked on stage, film and television. His notable roles to date include the title role in Derek Jarman's 1993 film Wittgenstein, and those of Cato the Younger in the television drama series Rome and of Twister Turrill in the BBC costume drama Lark Rise to Candleford.Johnson is the recipient of an honorary doctorate from Birmingham City University.

Livia (mother of Cato)

Livia (c. 120 BC – c. 92 BC) was a Roman matron. She was the daughter of Marcus Livius Drusus, consul in 112 BC, and sister of Marcus Livius Drusus, tribune of the plebs in 91 BC. She was the mother of Cato the Younger, and grandmother of Marcus Junius Brutus, one of Caesar's assassins.

Marcia (wife of Cato)

Marcia was the second wife of Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (Cato the Younger) and the daughter of Lucius Marcius Philippus. She was born about 80 BC.

Marcus Porcius Cato (father of Cato the Younger)

Marcus Porcius M. f. M. n. Cato was the father of Cato the Younger. His promising political career was cut short by his sudden death, early in the first century BC.

Marcus Porcius Cato (son of Cato the Younger)

Marcus Porcius Cato (c. 73-42 BC), son of Cato the Younger by his first marriage to Atilia, was a Roman soldier and in his earlier years spent some time in politics with his father. Although he never achieved greatness, he was admired by close friends and relatives, and also served his father most loyally and shared his ideals. Marcus was renowned for being a man of gallantry and warm temperament.

Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus

Marcus Porcius M. f. M. n. Cato Salonianus (born c. 154 BC) was the younger son of Cato the Elder, and grandfather of Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis, also known as "Cato the Younger".

Salonianus' father was Marcus Porcius Cato, consul in 195 BC, and censor in 184. Celebrated for his courage, austerity, and strict moral code, the elder Cato, who already had a grown son by his first wife, Licinia, took a second wife at an advanced age, choosing the daughter of his client and scribe, Salonius. He was eighty years old when his younger son was born, and since both sons bore the praenomen Marcus, they later came to be referred to as Cato Licinianus and Cato Salonianus, after their mothers.Licinianus died soon after the birth of his younger brother, and Cato the Elder died in 149, when Salonianus was five years old. The younger Cato lived to attain the praetorship, but died during his year of office, leaving two sons, Marcus and Lucius. Both would pursue public careers, like their father and grandfather, and also like Saloninus and his brother, neither were long-lived. Marcus was tribune of the plebs, and a candidate for the praetorship at the time of his death, some time before the outbreak of the Social War, in 91 BC, while Lucius would achieve the consulship in 89 BC, only to fall in the course of the war.By his son Marcus, Salonianus was the grandfather of Cato the Younger, a notable adherent of Stoicism, whose lifestyle emulated that of Cato the Elder. Famed for his conservative views, austerity, and stubbornness, the younger Cato served as praetor, and became a staunch supporter of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus during the Civil War, choosing to take his own life rather than be captured by Caesar, even though he would almost certainly have been pardoned.

Optimates

The Optimates (; Latin: optimates, "best ones", singular optimas; also known as boni, "good men") were a conservative political faction in the late Roman Republic.

They formed in reaction against the reforms of the Gracchi brothers—two tribunes of the plebs between 133 and 121 BC who tried to pass an agrarian law to help the urban poor, and a political reform that would have diminished the influence of the senatorial class. As the Optimates were senators and large landowners, they violently opposed the Gracchi, and finally murdered them, but their program was upheld by several politicians, called the Populares ("favouring the people"). For about 80 years, Roman politics was marked by the confrontation of these two factions. The Optimates favoured the ancestral Roman laws and customs, as well as the supremacy of the Senate over the popular assemblies and the tribunes of the plebs. They also rejected the massive extension of Roman citizenship to Rome's Italian allies advocated by the Populares. Although suspicious of powerful generals, they sided with Pompey when they came to believe that Julius Caesar—himself a Popularis—planned a coup against the Republic. They disappeared with their defeat in the subsequent Civil War.

While several leaders of the Optimates were patricians—belonging to the oldest noble families—such as Sulla or Scipio Nasica Serapio, many were plebeians: the Caecilii Metelli, Pompey, Cato the Younger, Titus Annius Milo, etc. Cicero—the most famous Optimas—was even a novus homo (the first of his gens to be senator).

Porcia

Porcia may refer to:

Porcia (70 BC - 43 BC/42 BC), daughter of Cato the Younger, and wife of Marcus Junius Brutus.

Porcia the Elder (before 95 BC - 46 BC), aunt of the above and sister of Cato the Younger.

Valerian and Porcian laws, Roman laws

Porcia, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, a municipality in Italy

Schloss Porcia, a castle in Spittal an der Drau, Austria

Porcia (gens)

The gens Porcia, rarely written Portia, was a plebeian family at Ancient Rome. Its members first appear in history during the third century BC. The first of the gens to achieve the consulship was Marcus Porcius Cato in 195 BC, and from then until imperial times, the Porcii regularly occupied the highest offices of the Roman state.

Porcia (sister of Cato the Younger)

Porcia, also known Porcia the Elder (before 95 BC – 46/45 BC) was the daughter of Marcus Porcius Cato and Livia. She was the elder sister of Cato the Younger and the younger half-sister of Servilia, the younger Servilia and Quintus Servilius Caepio. She was the aunt of Marcus Junius Brutus, one of the more famous of Julius Caesar's assassins. She was also the aunt of Porcia Catonis and Junia Tertia. After her parents died, she lived with all her siblings in the household of their uncle Marcus Livius Drusus until his assassination in 91 BC.

She married Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who was consul in 54 BC and an ally of her brother Cato. Marcus Tullius Cicero claims that Porcia and her husband were in Naples in 49 BC, when her husband was besieged at Corfinium by Julius Caesar. In 48 BC, Porcia lost her husband in the Battle of Pharsalus. Porcia died towards the end of 46 BC to the beginning of 45 BC, her funeral elegy was pronounced by Cicero, who greatly commended her virtues.

Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos Iunior

Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos Iunior (c. 100 BC – 55 BC) was a son of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos. He was a plebeian tribune in 62 BC, a praetor in 60 BC, a consul in 57 BC and the governor of Hispania Citerior in 56 BC.

Metellus Nepos was a lieutenant of Pompey in the campaign and against the pirates in the Mediterranean in 67 BC and, like his brother Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer, in the Third Mithridatic War (73–63 BC) against Mithridates VI of Pontus and Tigranes the Great of Armenia. In the war against the pirates he was assigned the command of Lycia and Pamphylia (both on the south coast of modern Turkey). Josephus mentioned that in 65 BC Pompey sent Metellus and Lollius to capture Damascus, in Syria. It is generally assumed that this refers to Metellus Nepos.

In 63 BC, Metellus Nepos was elected plebeian tribune for 62 BC, along with Cato the Younger. Inaugurated on 10 December 63 BC, he began a vitriolic campaign against Cicero, whom he accused before the people of having illegally executed some of the accomplices of Catiline without trial during the Catilinarian Conspiracy. Metellus Nepos, together with his colleague Bestia and Julius Caesar, a praetor at the time, prevented Cicero from making a speech on the last day of his consulship, 29 December 63 BC, restricting him to the customary oath on giving up office. Cicero instead pronounced an oath of his own, "swearing that in very truth he had saved his country and maintained her supremacy," which the people confirmed. Metellus Nepos proposed a bill which provided for Pompey, recently victorious in the war against Mithridates, to be recalled to Rome with his army to restore order. The proposal was strongly opposed by Cato the Younger, who was a staunch optimate. The dispute came close to violence, and Metellus Nepos armed some of his men. According to Plutarch, the senate announced the intention to issue a final decree to remove Nepos from his office but Cato the Younger opposed it, but he does not mention whether the decree was enforced or not. Metellus Nepos went to Asia to inform Pompey about the events, even though, as a plebeian tribune, he had no right to be absent from the city. Tatum maintains that Metellus Nepos leaving the city even though plebeian tribunes were not allowed to do so was 'a gesture demonstrating the senate's violation of the tribunate.' Julius Caesar also proposed a measure to recall Pompey to Rome for the same reason. Caesar was suspended from his office by a final decree of the senate. In the end, both men dropped their proposals.

When Metellus Nepos was a praetor in 60 BC, he passed a law which abolished import duties in Rome and Italy. The senate was angry and wished to erase his name for the law and replace it with another one, but, for whatever reason, this was not carried out.In 57 BC, when Metellus Nepos was one of the consuls, Pompey sponsored a vote to recall Cicero to Rome from his exile. The other consul, Publius Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, supported this cause in the senate partly as a favour to Pompey and partly because he bore a grudge against Publius Clodius Pulcher, the man who had had Cicero expelled. Metellus Nepos supported Clodius, setting up a factional struggle. Knowing that the people were in favour of Cicero's return, Clodius had some gladiators attack the public assembly during the vote to recall Cicero, and the measure was not passed. The opposing faction hit back with their own gladiators. Pressured by Spinther and Pompey, Nepos changed his mind, and Spinther then presented a motion for Cicero's return, which the senate decreed. Both consuls then proposed the motion to the people, who passed it. Cicero wrote him a letter prompted by his making a speech which was favourable to him in the senate and said that he had conquered himself and lay aside his enmity for the sake of the Republic. He also said that if he helped him he would be at his service.In 56 BC Metellus Nepos was nominated Governor of Hispania Citerior, dominating La Coruña, where the Vaccaei had defeated his father.

Quintus Servilius Caepio (uncle of Brutus)

Quintus Servilius Caepio (died 59 BC), was the son of Quintus Servilius Caepio and Livia, and a full brother of Servilia Major and Servilia Minor. He was a half-brother of Marcus Porcius Cato the Younger who was very fond of him. In 71 BC, during the Third Servile War, Caepio served as a tribune in the army of Marcus Licinius Crassus. In his will he adopted Marcus Junius Brutus, the son of his sister Servilia Major. For a period of time, Brutus used the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus to honor his uncle.

Servilia (mother of Brutus)

Servilia (b. circa 104 BC, d. after 42 BC) was a Roman matron from a distinguished family, the Servilii Caepiones, and the half-sister of Cato the Younger. She was the wife of Marcus Junius Brutus, and then of Decimus Junius Silanus. But she is more famous as the mistress of Caesar, the mother of the younger Marcus Junius Brutus, and the mother-in-law of Gaius Cassius Longinus, the leaders of the conspiracy to assassinate Caesar in 44 BC.

Tironian notes

Tironian notes (Latin: notae Tironianae; or Tironian shorthand) is a system of shorthand invented by Tiro (94 – 4 BC), Marcus Tullius Cicero's slave and personal secretary, and later a freedman. Tiro's system consisted of about 4,000 symbols that were extended in classical times to 5,000 signs. During the medieval period, Tiro's notation system was taught in European monasteries and was extended to about 13,000 signs. Tironian notes declined after 1100 but were still in some use in the 17th century, and a very few are still used today.

Brutus family tree
Salonia (2)
 
Cato the Elder
 
Licinia (1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus
 
 
 
Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus
 
Marcus Livius Drusus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marcus Porcius Cato (2)
 
Livia
 
Quintus Servilius Caepio the Younger (1)
 
Marcus Livius Drusus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Atilia (1)
 
Cato the Younger
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus, adopted son
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marcus Junius Brutus the Elder (1)
 
Servilia
 
Decimus Junius Silanus (2)
 
 
Servilia the Younger
 
Quintus Servilius Caepio
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Porcia
 
Marcus Junius Brutus x
 
Junia Prima
 
 
 
Junia Tertia
 
Gaius Cassius Longinus x
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marcus Porcius Cato (III)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Junia Secunda
 
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Descendant of Pompey and Lucius Cornelius Sulla
 
Lepidus the Younger
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Manius Aemilius Lepidus
 
 
Aemilia Lepida II
(1)=1st spouse
(2)=2nd spouse
x=assassin of Caesar

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