Catholic school

Catholic schools are parochial schools or education ministries of the Roman Catholic Church. As of 2011, the Church operates the world's largest non-governmental school system.[1] In 2016, the church supported 43,800 secondary schools, and 95,200 primary schools.[2] Catholic schools participate in the evangelizing mission of the Church, integrating religious education as a core subject within their curriculum.

Background

Irish immigration provides the main contribution to the increases in Catholic communities across the globe. The Irish immigration established the revival of Catholicism through movement to countries across North America, Europe, United Kingdom and Australia. Historically, the establishment of Catholic schools in Europe encountered various struggles following the creation of the Church of England in the Elizabethan Religious settlements of 1558-63. Anti-Catholicism in this period encouraged Catholics to create modern Catholic education systems to preserve their traditions. The Relief Acts of 1782 and the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 later increased the possibility to openly practice Catholicism in England and to create charitable institutions by the Church.[3] This led to the development of numerous native religious congregations which established schools, hospitals, orphanages, reformatories, and workhouses.[3]

Traditionally, Catholic schools originated as single sex schools. Catholic schools were previously required to depend on school fees and endowments. Endowments dropped off sharply causing fees to rise. This prevented some students from enrolling due to their inability to pay.

Purpose

Catholic schools are distinct from their public school counterparts in focusing on the development of individuals as practitioners of the Catholic faith. The leaders, teachers and students are required to focus on four fundamental rules initiated by the Church and school. This includes the Catholic identity of the school, education in regards to life and faith, celebration of life and faith, and action and social justice.[4]

Like other Christian-affiliated institutions, Catholic schools are generally nondenominational, in that they accept anyone regardless of religion or denominational affiliation, race or ethnicity, or nationality, provided the admission or enrollment requirements and legal documents are submitted, and rules & regulations are obeyed for a fruitful school life. However, non-Catholics, whether Christian or not, may need to participate in or be exempted from required activities, particularly those of a religious nature. These are in keeping with the spirit of social inclusiveness.[5][6]

Religious education

The religious education as a core subject is a vital element of the curriculum where individuals are to develop themselves: “intellectually, physically, socially, emotionally and of course, spiritually.”[7] The education also involves: “the distinct but complementary aspect of the school's religious dimension of liturgical and prayer life of the school community.”[7] In Catholic schools, teachers teach a Religious Education Program provided by the Bishop. Both teacher and Bishop therefore, contribute to the planning and teaching Religious Education Lessons.

Catholic education has been identified as a positive fertility factor; Catholic education at college level and, to lesser degree, at secondary school level is associated with a higher number of children, even when accounting for the confounding effect that higher religiosity leads to a higher probability of attending religious education.[8]

Asia

Malaysia

Catholic schools in Malaysia have been the backbone of formal education in the country. Catholic schools have undergone many changes since independence in the late 50s and early 60s. The education policy in Malaysia is very centralized. In 1988, all Catholic religious brothers older than 55 were asked to retire with immediate effect, creating vacancies for lay teachers to take over. Any new brother wanting to join the teaching profession in Malaysia have to be in the civil service and share the same status as lay teachers. Many of the Lasallian traditions such as inter-La Salle games or sports are now integrated into other larger government funded programmes. With Islam being the state religion, compulsory or elective Bible lessons today are limited only to those of the Catholic faith. The missionaries who opened schools in Malaysia gave a solid education framework. Today, there are 68 Sisters of the Infant Jesus,11 Parish Convents and 46 La Salle Brothers schools in the country.

Pakistan

The Catholic Church in Pakistan is active in education, managing leading schools in addition to its spiritual work. The Catholic Church runs 534 schools, 53 hostels, 8 colleges, and 7 technical institutes, according to 2008 statistics.[9]

The Catholic Board of Education is the arm of the Catholic Church in Pakistan, responsible for education.[10] Each diocese has its own board.[11]

The Government of Pakistan nationalised most church schools and colleges in Punjab and Sindh in 1972. Leading schools such as St Patrick's High School, Karachi, St Joseph's Convent School (Karachi) and St Michael's Convent School were never nationalised.

The Government of Sindh oversaw a denationalization program from 1985 to 1995, and the Government of Punjab began a similar program in 1996. In 2001, the Federal Government and the courts ordered the provincial governments to complete the denationalization process.[12]

Philippines

In the Philippines, private schools have been operated by the Catholic Church since the time of Spanish colonization. The Philippines is currently one of two predominantly Roman Catholic nations in Southeast Asia, the other being East Timor, with a 2004 study by UNESCO indicating that 83% of the population as identifying themselves as Catholics.[13] The oldest existing university in Asia, University of Santo Tomas, is located in the Philippines. It is the largest single Catholic university in the world. The university was established by the Order of Preachers, also known as the Dominican Order, on April 28, 1611.[13]

Europe

Slovakia

Education gained in these schools is equal to education gained in public schools. The purpose of catholic schools is beside quality education and upbringing to give alternative content of education and upbringing, new methods and forms.[14]

Ireland

Catholic schools in Ireland are state-aided, rather than state owned. Not all costs of operating, building and maintenance is provided by the central government. Local communities raise funds, as well.

Church groups in Ireland privately own most primary and secondary schools. Evidence indicates that approximately 60% of secondary schools pupils attend schools owned by religious congregations.[3]

United Kingdom

England and Wales

Our Lady's Catholic Primary School Oxford
A sign for a Catholic school in Oxford, with the coat-of-arms of the Archdiocese of Birmingham and the logo of the Oxfordshire County Council.

In England and Wales, Catholic schools are either independent, and therefore funded privately through students' fees, or maintained by the state. Maintained Catholic schools are either Voluntary Aided, where 10% of the capital funding is provided by the Church, or Academies, which are fully state funded. The Catholic Education Service (CES) oversees education for approximately 840,000 pupils each year through its 2,300 maintained schools. In addition, some 130 independent schools have a Catholic character.[15][16]

The CES interact on behalf of all bishops with the government, and other national bodies on legal, administrative, and religious education matters to: “promote Catholic interests in education; safeguard Catholic interests in education; and, contribute to Christian perspectives within educational debate at national level.”[17] They have refused to open any schools under the Free School programme due to the 50% Rule, which limits the number of places that can be reserved for Catholics.

In 2009, Catholic schools in England comprised two-thirds of all religious secondary schools.[18]

Northern Ireland

The Council for Catholic Maintained Schools (CCMS) is the advocate for the Catholic Maintained Schools sector in Northern Ireland. CCMS represents trustees, schools and governors on issues such as raising and maintaining standards, the schools estate and teacher employment. As the largest employer of teachers in Northern Ireland (8500 teachers), CCMS plays a central role in supporting teachers whether it is through its welfare service or, for example, in working parties such as the Independent Inquiry into Teacher Pay and Conditions of Service. According to the latest figures from Department of Education, N.I. Statistics Branch 2006/2007, the number of pupils registered at school in Northern Ireland is 329,583. The number of pupils attending Catholic managed schools is 148,225.[19][19]

Scotland

Like in England and Wales, Catholic schools in Scotland are either independent or state-run and overseen by the Scottish Catholic Education Service,[20] established in 1972 as part of the Catholic Education Commission to assist the Bishops' Conference of Scotland in matters pertaining to education. The Education Act 1918 guaranteed the rights of Scottish Catholics to educate their children in local Catholic schools and protected the rights of Catholic schools to preserve their religious character.[21] During the 1920s, ownership of most Catholic schools transferred from the Dioceses or the resident order to the state sector. Today they are known as "denominational schools" and are open to pupils who meet the specified prerequisites regardless of financial situation. A select few, most notably St Aloysius' College and Kilgraston School, remain independent.

North America

Canada

Ursulines Quebec 02
École des Ursulines is a private Catholic school. Founded in 1639, its is one of North America's oldest schools still operating

The existence of Catholic schools in Canada can be traced to the year 1620, when the first school was founded by the Catholic Recollet Order in Quebec. Most schools in Canada were operated under the auspices of one Christian body or another until the 19th century. Currently publicly-supported Catholic schools operate in three provinces (Alberta, Ontario, and Saskatchewan), as well as all three federal territories (Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon (to grade 9 only). Publicly-funded Catholic schools operate as separate schools in Canada, meaning they are constitutionally protected. The constitutional protection enjoyed by separate schools in Canadian provinces is enshrined in Section 93 of the Constitution. It gives the provinces power over education, but with significant restrictions designed to protect minority religious rights. These restrictions was a result of significant debate between Protestants and Catholics in Canada over whether schools should be parochial or non-denominational. As opposed to the provinces, the right to separate schools is protected in the three federal territories by the federal Acts of Parliament which establish those territories.

QuebecConvention1864
Delegates of the Quebec Conference of 1864. Retention of separate school boards with public funding was a major issue towards Canadian Confederation.

Section 93 was the result of constitutional negotiations in the 1860s. Pre-existing rights for tax-funded minority Catholic, and Protestant schools had become a major point for negotiations surrounding Canadian Confederation. Retention of separate school boards with public funding was a major issue, chiefly as a result of ethnic and religious tension between the (largely French-speaking) Roman Catholic population in Canada and the (largely English-speaking) Protestant majority. The issue was a subject of debate at the 1864 Quebec Conference and was finally resolved at the London Conference of 1866 with a proposal to preserve the separate school systems in Quebec and Ontario. The way in which this agreement was written into the Constitution, was to the effect that the condition of education in each colony (or territory) at the time it entered Confederation would be constitutionally protected thereafter.

Despite the compromise, the debate over separate Catholic schools continued to be an issue in the new country. Manitoba's adoption of a single, secular school system in 1890 resulted in a national political crisis. The Manitoba Schools Question was a political crisis in the 1880s and 1890s, revolving around publicly funded separate schools for Roman Catholics and Protestants in Manitoba. The crisis eventually spread to the national level, becoming one of the key issues in the federal election of 1896. Due to the close link between religion and language during this period in Canada, the Schools Question represented a deeper issue of French survival as a language and a culture in Western Canada. The secular system was upheld, with the guarantee of French instruction later being revoked in 1916, leaving English as the only official language in use in the province until it was reinstated in 1985.

In the province of Quebec, publicly funded Catholic and Protestant schools were maintained until 1997, when the system was replaced by linguistic-based secular school system, after passing a constitutional amendment that exempted Quebec from certain conditions of Section 93. Newfoundland and Labrador also operated separate schools for several Christian denominations, including Catholics, prior to 1997. This school system emerged prior to Newfoundland's entry into Confederation in 1949, and continued until 1997, when the province established a secular public system. The absence of Catholic-Protestant tensions in the provinces of British Columbia, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island resulted in no separate school systems emerging in these provinces.

West Toronto Collegiate
École secondaire catholique Saint-Frère-André in Toronto, is one of many publicly-funded French Catholic schools in the province of Ontario.

Presently, the Ontario Ministry of Education funds 29 English-language Catholic school boards and 8 French-language Catholic school boards (in addition to 31 English-language secular school boards, 4 French-language secular school boards, and 1 English-language Protestant school board). Originally, most of the province's secular school boards were Protestant-based, although it was gradually transformed into a secular public system. Public funding of Catholic schools was initially provided only to Grade 10 in Ontario. However, in 1985, it was extended to cover the final three years of secondary education (Grade 11 to Grade 13/OAC). Publicly funded Catholic separate schools are also present in the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, although they are not as prevalent as in the province of Ontario.

The near-exclusive public funding for a single religious denomination in the province of Ontario has garnered controversy in the last few decades. The controversy led to a Supreme Court decision in 1996 that held that the provincial education power under section 93 of the Constitution Act, 1867 is plenary, and is not subject to Charter attack. They also noted it was the product of a historical compromise crucial to Confederation and forms a comprehensive code with respect to denominational school rights which cannot be enlarged through the operation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The issue has garnered criticism internationally. On November 5, 1999, the United Nations Human Rights Committee condemned Canada and Ontario for having violated the equality provisions (Article 26) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The Committee restated its concerns on November 2, 2005, when it published its Concluding Observations regarding Canada's fifth periodic report under the Covenant. The Committee observed that Canada had failed to "adopt steps in order to eliminate discrimination on the basis of religion in the funding of schools in Ontario."

United States

Catholic schools are the largest non-public school system in the USA. In 2010, 2 million students attended 6,980 schools. 331 of these are private.[22] Catholicism of schools in the United States was first established during the 19th century with the arrival of English immigrants. Catholic schools in the USA are significant in that Catholicism is seen to have been critical in developing the American culture. The development and enrollment of Americans into Catholic schools increased after World War II, Post-war development and Cold War in the battle against anti-religious Communism.[23] By the time of 1964-1965, Catholic schools accounted for nearly 89% of all private school attendance and 12% of all school-age children in school (K-12) in the USA. The number of religious (priests, brothers, and sisters) was at its highest, allowing schools to offer qualified teachers at minimal costs, meaning that most children in the 1940s and 1950s attended their parish school free of charge.[23] Since then, there has been a large decline in enrollment predominantly believed to be due to suburbanization, liberalization of education and the rise of the Catholic middle-class.”[23] In the United States, Catholic schools are accredited by independent and/or state agencies, and teachers are generally certified. Schools are supported through tuition payments, donations, and fund raising charities.

In contrast to its public school counterpart, Catholic urbanization has made more significant achievements in poor areas than wealthier areas. Holy Angels, for example has become one of the strongest academic institutions in the country; it serves the Kenwood, Oakland neighborhoods of South Side Chicago, Illinois, where 3 out of 4 people live in poverty and violent crime is frequent.[23]

The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops listed six key responsibilities of Catholic Schools.[24] They are

  1. Encouraging and supporting efforts in Catholic education by fostering the distribution and implementation of both universal Church documents on education as well as related documents developed by the bishops of the United States
  2. Supporting educational efforts in the Church in the United States by developing policies, guidelines, and resources for use by bishops in their dioceses
  3. Providing consultation on educational issues when requested, including advising and representing the bishops
  4. Collaborating with the Committee on Evangelization and Catechesis regarding evangelization and catechesis in Catholic schools and universities
  5. Providing support and advocacy in federal public policy on behalf of Catholic educational institutions from pre-school through high school levels
  6. Bringing to Catholic education the perspectives and concerns of other cultures and people with special pastoral needs through collaboration with other committees/offices

In 2015, the Inner-city Scholarship Fund run by the Archdiocese of New York announced the largest-ever gift of private money to Catholic schooling. Christine and Stephen Schwarzmann gave $40 million to an endowment that will provide 2,900 children per year with scholarships.[25]

Oceania

Australia

In Australia, Catholic schools have been operating for over 175 years.The arrival of the first European fleet brought the first Irish Catholics to Australia, predominantly by the transport of convicts. Catholics consisted one-tenth of the convicts settling in Australia, mostly Irish whilst the rest were English and Scottish. By 1803, 2,086 convicts of Irish descent and majority being Catholics had been transported to Botany Bay.[26]

Catholic schools are the largest group of non-government schools in Australia accounting for some 18% of institutions (1,705 of 9,529 as of 2009), compared to 11% for independent schools (1022).[27] Catholic schools are those run by the diocesan Catholic Department of Education; some independent schools are owned and run by Catholic religious orders. In addition, there is at least one school operating within the Society of St Pius X, Catholic traditionalists in irregular canonical status with Rome (Their current canonical status is being resolved in Rome presently): St Thomas Aquinas College in Tynong, Victoria.

As with other classes of non-government schools in Australia, Catholic schools receive funding from the Commonwealth Government. As this does not constitute the establishment of a church, nor the restriction of the free exercise of religion, nor does it create a religious test for public office, it is not considered to breach the separation of Church and State in Australia. This was the decision of the High Court in the Defence of Government Schools (DOGS) case of 1981, in which the judges selectively interpreted s.116 of the Australian Constitution, and is controversial.[28]

New Zealand

Catholic education in New Zealand was first introduced following the arrival of the first Catholic Bishop, Jean Baptiste Pompallier in 1838. A year after signing the Treaty of Waitangi, the first Catholic school in New Zealand was developed in Auckland on 1841.[29]

The schools were originally managed by seven sisters from Ireland and aimed to assist the Maori population and the new settlers. From 1853 to 1875, the provincial governments financed grants for the Catholic schools. The Education Act 1877 however, allowed all schools to be free, compulsory and secular, and therefore disallowing funding of Catholic schools. In the early 1970s, increasing rolls and funding constraints saw Catholic schools accumulating large amounts of debt or being run down. The Government, fearing the state system was unable to cope with an influx of students if the Catholic schools folded, enacted the Private Schools Conditional Integration Act 1975. The Act allowed Catholic schools and other private schools to 'integrate' with the state system, receiving public funding and keeping their Catholic character, in exchange for being subject to the conditions of being a state school, such as having to teach the nationally set curriculum. The first Catholic schools integrated in August 1979, and by 1984, all Catholic schools in New Zealand had integrated.[29]

As of July 2013, 65,700 students attended Catholic schools in New Zealand, making up 8.6 percent of the total student population.[30] The majority are New Zealand Europeans.

The Catholic schools are owned by a proprietor, typically by the Bishop of the diocese. Currently, Catholic schools in New Zealand are termed 'state-integrated schools' for funding purposes, meaning that teachers' salaries, learning materials, and operations of the school (e.g. power and gas) are publicly funded, but the school property is not. New Zealand Catholic schools are built on land owned by the diocese; if the government were to fund Catholic school property maintenance and capital works above the entitlement of any other private property owner, it would be transferring wealth to the bishop, breaking the separation of church and state. Instead, parents of students at Catholic schools pay "attendance dues" to the proprietors to fund property costs: these are typically NZ$390 to $430 per year for primary school students (ages 5–12), and NZ$730 to $860 per year for secondary school students (ages 13–18).[31]

South America

The vast majority of South Americans are Christians, mostly Roman Catholics. Over 80% in Hispanic countries and some 65%-70% in Brazil consider themselves Catholic. Catholic educational practices were brought to the indigenous population of the Inca by Spaniards, Portuguese and European cultures. Anticlericalism was established in the 19th century resulting to a temporary alienation between church and state.

Funding

State funding

In some countries, Catholic schools are funded by the state. These are institutions that requires assistance from the government. This is the same in public schools where government who mandate schools pay for the needs of schools whether in whole or in part, by taxes of the population. Australian catholic schools fall under this category, where the Australian government fund Catholic schools as well as state schools.[32] Non-independent catholic schools in Scotland is another example where the institutions are fully funded by the Scottish Government.

Private schools

Private schools, also known as independent schools are not managed by local, state or national governments. They instead may select their students and are funded in whole or in part by the tuition fees charged to students, rather than relying on the government as public schools do. Students may also get scholarships to enter into a private school depending on the student’s talent.

Voluntary aided schools

Voluntary aided schools are a kind of "maintained school", meaning that they receive the majority of their running costs from central government via the local authority, and do not charge fees to students. In contrast to other types of maintained school, only 90% of the capital costs of a voluntary aided school are met by government. The foundation contributes the rest of the capital costs, owns the school's land and buildings and appoints a majority of the school governors. The governing body runs the school, employs the staff and decides the school's admission arrangements, subject to rules imposed by central government. Pupils follow the National Curriculum, except that faith schools may teach Religious Education according to their own faith. Within the maintained sector in England, approximately 22% of primary schools and 17% of secondary schools are voluntary aided, including all of the Roman Catholic schools and the schools of non-Christian faiths.

International benefits

Preference for the poor

Catholic schools have experienced changes heralded by the Second Vatican Council in regards to Catholic social teaching cantered on the poor: “First and foremost, the Church offers its educational services to the poor, or those who are deprived of family help and affection or those who are far from faith....”[33] These changes have led to instances in Brazil, Peru and Chile where the contributions has led to “a new way of being in school” by including the disadvantaged and people in poor areas to education.

High attendance and performance

Empirical evidence in the United States and Australia indicates that education performance and attendance are greater in Catholic schools in contrasts to its public counterparts. Evans and Schwab (1998) in their experiment found that attendance at Catholic schools in the United States increases the probability of completing high school or commencing college by 13%.[34] Similarly, an experiment conducted by Williams and Carpenter (1990) of Australia through comparing previous examination by private and public schools concluded that students in private education outperform those from government schools on all educational, social and economic indicators.[34]

Development of girls in society

Catholic schooling has indicated a large impact in the changing role of women for countries such as Malta and Japan. Catholic schooling of girls in Malta, for example indicates: “...evidence of remarkable commitment to the full development of girls in a global society.”[33] Similarly, all girl schools in Japan have also contributed powerfully to the “personal and educational patriarchal society”.[33]

Criticism

Economic inequality

The expensive cost and necessity to obtain high salary levels is contributing to the difficulty of maintain Catholic schools. Many Catholic schools in the United States in inner America which has traditionally served the most in are continuously being forced to close at an increasing rate. This may be seen as contradicting the Catholic schools principles as it does not live up to its reality. The preferential services to the poor serves a problem when there is a clear distinction that wealthier Catholic schools receive better resources and are more privileged than those in areas of low-income.[33] This today is being experienced in Latin America and other national settings where financial constraints in serving the poor is not being undertaken as state aid or subsidy are not being available to the Catholic schools.

Political context

There have been instances where some political ideologies that are engaged with secularism or countries that have high nationalism are suspicious of what Catholic schools are teaching. The moral and social teachings by Catholic schools may be seen as “continuation of Colonial cultural dominance of the society,” still being felt in Zambia, Malawi, and the colonies of Spain.[33]

Homosexuality

In 2019, a Catholic school in Kansas City, Kansas was criticised for deciding not to enroll a child of a homosexual couple on the grounds of "helping our students understand the meaning and purpose of their sexuality."[35]

In 2015, it was reported that the school's long-serving director of religious education, Margie Winters, had been fired from the Waldron Mercy Academy in the after a parent had reported her directly to the Archdiocese of Philadelphia for marrying her long-term lesbian partner in a civil ceremony in 2007. Winters had been upfront with school administrators at the time of her hiring and was advised to keep a low profile which she says she did. Many parents expressed anger and concern over the school's decision. Principal Nell Stetser justified the decision by arguing that "many of us accept life choices that contradict current Church teachings, but to continue as a Catholic school, Waldron Mercy must comply with those teachings." But she called urgently for "an open and honest discussion about this and other divisive issues at the intersection of our society and our Church." The Archbishop of Philadelphia Charles Chaput, however, has not yet responded to such a call and instead spoke out in favour of her firing, simply calling the dismissal "common sense.".[36][37]

Secularized character

In 2017, a Catholic school in San Anselmo, California was criticized for removing or relocating most of its Catholic statues and artwork in an attempt to better accommodate non-Catholic students.[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ Gardner, Roy; Lawton, Denis; Cairns, Jo (2005), Faith Schools, Routledge, p. 148, ISBN 978-0-415-33526-3
  2. ^ ""Laudato Si"". Vermont Catholic. 8 (4, 2016-2017, Winter): 73. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  3. ^ a b c , ISBN 978-1-4020-5776-2 Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ "Area 1 – The Faith Community" (PDF). Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  5. ^ Alessi, Scott (April 2014). "Should Catholic schools make exceptions for non-Catholic students?". uscatholic.org. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08.
  6. ^ Scott, Katie (January 21, 2015). "Why non-Catholics select Catholic schools". Catholic Herald (Arlington, Virginia).
  7. ^ a b Diocese of cairns. "Religious Dimension". Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  8. ^ Charles F. Westoff, R. G. Potter (2015). Third Child: A Study in the Prediction of Fertility. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400876426. Page 239
  9. ^ "UCANews.com October 5, 2009". Archived from the original on 2017-11-15.
  10. ^ "Catholic Board of Education". Archived from the original on 2009-11-19.
  11. ^ "UCANews.com October 5, 2009". Archived from the original on 2017-12-22.
  12. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2005".
  13. ^ a b Gutiérrez, Angelina L. V. (2007), "Catholic school in the Philippines: Beacons of hope in Asia", in Grace, Gerald; O’Keefe, Joseph (eds.), International Handbook of Catholic Education Challenges for School Systems in the 21st Century, International Handbooks of Religion and Education, 2, Netherlands: Springer, pp. 709–723, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5776-2, ISBN 978-1-4020-5776-2
  14. ^ "Výchova a vzdelávanie v súkromných a cirkevných školách". minedu. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  15. ^ "Catholic Schools and Colleges". The Catholic Church in England and Wales website. The Catholic Church in England and Wales. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-08-09. Retrieved 2007-08-02.
  16. ^ "Catholic Statistics 2003". The Catholic Church in England and Wales website. The Catholic Church in England and Wales. 2003. Archived from the original on 2007-08-05. Retrieved 2007-08-02.
  17. ^ Catholic Education Service. "Promoting and Supporting Catholic Education in England and Wales". Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
  18. ^ The Tablet. "New research targets Catholic schools", page 42, 25 April 2009
  19. ^ a b Commission for Catholic Education: Northern Ireland. "Statistics". Retrieved 29 September 2010.
  20. ^ Scottish Catholic Education Service
  21. ^ Schools past and present. Scottish Catholic Education Service.
  22. ^ http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/schools/lsoe/pdf/Roche_Center/Sustaining_Urban_Catholic_Elementary_%20Schools.pdf
  23. ^ a b c d Cattaro, Gerald M.; Cooper, Bruce S. (2007), "Developments in Catholic schools in the USA: Politics, policy & prophecy", in Grace, Gerald; O’Keefe, Joseph (eds.), International Handbook of Catholic Education Challenges for School Systems in the 21st Century, International Handbooks of Religion and Education, 2, Netherlands: Springer, pp. 61–83, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5776-2, ISBN 978-1-4020-5776-2
  24. ^ Catholic Education
  25. ^ "Briefly Noted | Excellence in Philanthropy | The Philanthropy Roundtable". www.philanthropyroundtable.org. Retrieved 2016-03-03.
  26. ^ Catholic Australia. "Catholic community in Australia". Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
  27. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2009). Schools, Australia: Schools by school affiliation—states and territories
  28. ^ The Purple Economy Archived 2013-01-17 at the Wayback Machine by Max Wallace
  29. ^ a b Wanden, Kevin; Birch, Lyn (2007), "Catholic schools in New Zealand", in Grace, Gerald; O’Keefe, Joseph (eds.), International Handbook of Catholic Education Challenges for School Systems in the 21st Century, International Handbooks of Religion and Education, 2, Netherlands: Springer, pp. 847–870, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5776-2, ISBN 978-1-4020-5776-2
  30. ^ "Roll by Authority & Affiliation – 1 July 2013". Ministry of Education (New Zealand). Archived from the original on 18 August 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
  31. ^ "Summary of Gross Attendance Dues Rates 2013". New Zealand Catholic Education Office. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  32. ^ Pell, George (2007), "Religion and culture: Catholic schools in Australia", in Grace, Gerald; O’Keefe, Joseph (eds.), International Handbook of Catholic Education Challenges for School Systems in the 21st Century, International Handbooks of Religion and Education, 2, Netherlands: Springer, pp. 835–845, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5776-2, ISBN 978-1-4020-5776-2
  33. ^ a b c d e Grace, Gerald; O’Keefe, Joseph (2007), "Catholic schools facing the Challenges of the 21st century: An overview", in Grace, Gerald; O’Keefe, Joseph (eds.), International Handbook of Catholic Education Challenges for School Systems in the 21st Century, International Handbooks of Religion and Education, 2, Netherlands: Springer, pp. 1–11, doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5776-2, ISBN 978-1-4020-5776-2
  34. ^ a b Francis, Vella (1999), "Do Catholic Schools Make a Difference? Evidence from Australia", The Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, Vol. 34, No. 1: 208–224
  35. ^ Kansas archbishop responds to criticism over school not enrolling child Mar 19, 2019 by Catholic News Service
  36. ^ "Gay Priest Fired From Chaplain Job Asks Pope To Meet LGBT Catholics In U.S". Huffington Post. July 20, 2015.
  37. ^ http://articles.philly.com/2015-07-16/news/64454387_1_pope-francis-chaput-catholic-church
  38. ^ Removing Catholic school’s statues may be necessary September 06, 2017, by Dr. Dan Guernsey

External links

Adolph John Paschang

Bishop Adolph John Paschang (Chinese: 柏增主教, 16 April 1895 – 3 February 1968) was an American Maryknoll Catholic bishop, missionary, relief worker and educator working in the southern part of China in the early 20th century.

Aiken, South Carolina

Aiken is the largest city in and the county seat of Aiken County, in the western portion of the state of South Carolina, United States. With Augusta, Georgia, it is one of the two largest cities of the Central Savannah River Area. It is part of the Augusta-Richmond County Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Founded in 1835, it was named after William Aiken, the president of the South Carolina Railroad. It became part of Aiken County when the county was formed in 1871 from parts of Orangeburg, Lexington, Edgefield, and Barnwell counties.

Aiken is home to the University of South Carolina Aiken. The population was 30,296 at the 2013 census. Aiken was recognized with the All-America City Award in 1997 by the National Civic League. Aiken was also awarded the best small town of the south by Southern Living.

Augusta, Georgia

Augusta (US: ), officially Augusta–Richmond County, is a consolidated city-county on the central eastern border of the U.S. state of Georgia. The city lies across the Savannah River from South Carolina at the head of its navigable portion. Georgia's second-largest city after Atlanta, Augusta is located in the Piedmont section of the state.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Augusta–Richmond County had a 2017 estimated population of 197,166, not counting the unconsolidated cities of Blythe and Hephzibah. It is the 122nd largest city in the United States. The process of consolidation between the City of Augusta and Richmond County began with a 1995 referendum in the two jurisdictions. The merger was completed on July 1, 1996. Augusta is the principal city of the Augusta metropolitan area, situated in both Georgia and South Carolina on both sides of the Savannah River. In 2017 it had an estimated population of 600,151, making it the second-largest metro area in the state. It is the 93rd largest metropolitan area in the United States.

Augusta was established in 1736 and is named for Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (1719–1772), the bride of Frederick, Prince of Wales and the mother of the British monarch George III. During the American Civil War, Augusta housed the principal Confederate powder works. Augusta's warm climate made it a major resort town of the Eastern United States in the early and mid-20th century. Internationally, Augusta is best known for hosting The Masters golf tournament each spring. The Masters brings over 200,000 visitors from across the world to the Augusta National Golf Club. Membership at Augusta National is widely considered to be the most exclusive in the sport of golf across the world.

Augusta lies approximately two hours east of downtown Atlanta by car via I-20. The city is home to Fort Gordon, a major U.S. Army base. In 2016, it was announced that the new National Cyber Security Headquarters would be based in Augusta, bringing as many as 10,000 cyber security specialists to the Fort Gordon area.

Bendale

Bendale, also called Cedarbrae, is a residential neighbourhood in the eastern part of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is located in the former suburb of Scarborough. It is centred on the intersection of Lawrence Avenue East and Brimley Road. Its boundaries, as defined by the City, are Midland Avenue from Lawrence, north to Highway 401, east to McCowan, south to Lawrence, east to West Highland Creek, south-west along West Highland Creek, then follow several side streets parallel to the Creek, north to Midland Avenue. The area north of Ellesmere is typically considered the Scarborough City Centre district, and is not considered in this neighbourhood article.

Bendale was shortened from the original name Benlomond in 1881, which was named for Benlomond.

Bettendorf, Iowa

Bettendorf is a city in Scott County, Iowa, United States. It is the fifteenth largest city of Iowa and the fourth largest city in the "Quad Cities". It is part of the Davenport–Moline–Rock Island, IA-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 33,217 at the 2010 U.S. Census and was estimated to be 35,505 by July 2015.Bettendorf is one of the Quad Cities, along with neighboring Davenport and the Illinois cities of Moline, East Moline and Rock Island. The Quad Cities have a population estimate of 382,630. In 2011, Bettendorf was named U.S. 95th Best Town by CNNMoney.

Cardinal Newman Catholic School, Hove

Cardinal Newman Catholic School is an 11–18 voluntary aided comprehensive school located in Hove, East Sussex, England. It is a Catholic mixed comprehensive; established to serve the many parishes that lie on the coastal band between Newhaven and Seaford in the east and Shoreham in the west.

The Head Teacher of Cardinal Newman is James Kilmartin.It is currently rated as 'Good' by Ofsted (January 2018 Ofsted Report).

In 2017, 92% of students gained a Grade 4 or above for English and 84% gained a Grade 4 or above for Mathematics. The Progress 8 score was +0.3 making it the top performing secondary school in Brighton and Hove.

Newman College is the Sixth Form of Cardinal Newman Catholic School in a purpose built Sixth Form Centre opened in February 2015. In 2017, 73% of A-level students achieved A*-C grades which is the highest of any school sixth form in Brighton and Hove.

Cary, North Carolina

Cary is the seventh-largest municipality in North Carolina. Cary is predominantly in Wake County, with a small area in Chatham County in the U.S. state of North Carolina and is the county's second-largest municipality, as well as the third-largest municipality in The Triangle of North Carolina after Raleigh and Durham.

The town's population was 135,234 as of the 2010 census (an increase of 43.1% since 2000), making it the largest town and seventh-largest municipality statewide. As of April 2018, the town's estimated population was 162,025, though Cary was still considered a town because that is how it was registered with the state. Cary is the second most populous incorporated town (behind only Gilbert, Arizona) in the United States.

According to the US Census Bureau, Cary was the 5th fastest-growing municipality in the United States between September 1, 2006, and September 1, 2007. In 2015 Cary had a low crime rate of 84 violent crimes per 100,000 residents. Charlotte, the largest city in North Carolina, had a violent crime rate of 648 violent crimes per 100,000 residents, almost 8 times higher than Cary.

Raleigh, Durham, and Chapel Hill make up the three primary metropolitan areas of the Research Triangle metropolitan region. The regional nickname of "The Triangle" originated after the 1959 creation of the Research Triangle Park, primarily located in Durham County, four miles from downtown Durham. RTP is bordered on three sides by the city of Durham and is roughly midway between the cities of Raleigh and Chapel Hill, and the three major research universities of NC State University, Duke University, and University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.

Effective June 6, 2003, the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) redefined the Federal statistical areas. This resulted in the formation of the Raleigh-Cary, NC Metro Area and the Durham-Chapel Hill, NC Metro Area.

The Research Triangle region encompasses OMB's Combined Statistical Area (CSA) of Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill in the central Piedmont region of North Carolina. As of 2012, the population of the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill CSA was 1,998,808. The Raleigh-Cary Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as of Census 2010 was 1,130,490.

Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board

The Dufferin-Peel Catholic District School Board (DPCDSB, known as English-language Separate District School Board No. 43 prior to 1999) is the separate school board that oversees 148 Catholic school facilities (122 elementary schools, 26 secondary or high schools and 2 continuing education schools or adult learning centers) throughout Peel Region (Mississauga, Brampton, Caledon) and Dufferin County (including Orangeville). It employs roughly 5,000 teachers; about 3,000 at the elementary level, and the remaining 2,000 at the secondary school and continuing education level, for 90,000 students.

Its headquarters is on Matheson Boulevard West in Mississauga. The board was previously known as the Dufferin-Peel Separate School Board (DPSSB) before 1998.

Edmonton Catholic School District

Edmonton Catholic Separate School District No. 7 or the Edmonton Catholic School District (ECSD) is the Catholic school board in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Hamilton-Wentworth Catholic District School Board

The Hamilton-Wentworth Catholic District School Board is the Catholic school board for the city of Hamilton, Ontario which includes the former Wentworth County. It operates 55 schools: 48 elementary, and 7 secondary schools.

Ottawa Catholic School Board

The Ottawa Catholic School Board (OCSB, known as English-language Separate District School Board No. 53 prior to 1999) is a publicly funded separate school board in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Its headquarters are in the Nepean area of Ottawa.It employs approximately 4000 people and operates 84 schools in the greater Ottawa area, with a total student population of approximately 38,800. Before 2007, the board was known as Ottawa-Carleton Catholic School Board (OCCSB) and its two former boards prior to 1998, Carleton Roman Catholic Separate School Board (CRCSSB) and Ottawa Roman Catholic Separate School Board (ORCSSB).

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Philadelphia

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Philadelphia is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in southeastern Pennsylvania, in the United States. It covers the City and County of Philadelphia as well as Bucks, Chester, Delaware, and Montgomery counties. The diocese was erected by Pope Pius VII on April 8, 1808, from territories of the Archdiocese of Baltimore. Originally the diocese included all of Pennsylvania, Delaware, and seven counties and parts of three counties in New Jersey. The diocese was raised to the dignity of a metropolitan archdiocese on February 12, 1875. The seat of the archbishop is the Cathedral-Basilica of Ss. Peter & Paul.

It is also the Metropolitan See of the Ecclesiastical Province of Philadelphia, which includes the suffragan episcopal sees of Allentown, Altoona-Johnstown, Erie, Greensburg, Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, and Scranton. The territory of the province is coextensive with the state of Pennsylvania.

Runnymede, Toronto

Runnymede is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario, Canada located north of Bloor Street West between Jane Street and Runnymede Road north to Dundas Street West. It is located directly north of the former village of Swansea and west of the High Park North neighbourhood. The immediate area around Bloor Street is commonly known as Bloor West Village after the shopping area along Bloor Street, whereas the area to the north is considered the Runnymede neighbourhood.

Saint George Catholic College

St George Catholic VA College (formerly known as St George Catholic School for Girls & Boys) is a Catholic voluntary aided comprehensive secondary school for girls and boys in Swaythling, Southampton, Hampshire.

The college became a mixed school in September 2013 and is operated under the auspices of the Diocese of Portsmouth.

St Andrew's Catholic School

St Andrews Catholic School is a Christian secondary school and sixth form college in Grange Road, Ottways Lane, Leatherhead, close to the town of Epsom, Surrey, England. Originally a convent, it consists of three main buildings: the central building dating back to the mid-1950s, a sixth form and performance arts building, finished in 2008, and the Earl building which accommodates History, Geography and Languages, finished in 2017. Named in memory of John Earl who served as Chair of Governors. The school holds Specialist Maths and Computing College status.

The school is on the boundary of Leatherhead and Ashtead and has been in competition with neighbouring schools for some time. It is primarily a faith school, and has strong links with the local diocese and churches.

The school partakes in a myriad of charity work, which used to include a yearly sponsored walk (where pupils walk 6 or 12 miles to raise money for charities) until a recent change of headteacher. The charity work is now limited to CAFOD, as well as having close links with the village of Nyashozi in Tanzania. The school also hosts the yearly Dance Showcase which takes place at Leatherhead Theatre. It is now a 'College of Maths & Computing' as well as being one of the top 10 most popular schools in Surrey. St Andrew's Sixth Form College is an improving sixth form college with the aim to be the best sixth form college in the country.

St Anne's Catholic School, Southampton

St Anne's Catholic School is an 11-18 secondary school in Southampton, England, for girls. The school's sixth form is coeducational. The school is situated close to the city centre, and attracts pupils from all round the city and beyond. The school converted to academy status in August 2012. In January 2016, there were 1080 students enrolled, with 48 students at the end of Year 13. Until 2006, it was known as St Anne's Convent School.

St Gregory's Catholic School

St Gregory's Catholic School (often shortened to St Greg's) is an 11–18 mixed, Roman Catholic secondary school and sixth form with academy status in Royal Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England. It was established in 1966 and is part of the Kent Catholic Schools' Partnership. It is located in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Southwark.

St Peter's Catholic School

St Peter's Catholic School, colloquially known as St Peter's, is a comprehensive secondary school in Guildford, Surrey, England. St Peter's receives Surrey County Council funding and is eligible for educational grants, parent-teacher association funding and the Diocesan funding, having approved voluntary aided status.

The school's Governing Body is further overseen by the Diocesan Education Team following the 1971 combination of St Peter's (Boys') School, and a Merrow Grange Roman Catholic (Girls') School.

Toronto Catholic District School Board

The Toronto Catholic District School Board (TCDSB, known as English-language Separate District School Board No. 40 prior to 1999) is an English-language public-separate school board for Toronto, Ontario, Canada, headquartered in North York. It is one of the two English boards of education in the City of Toronto, serving the former municipalities of Scarborough, North York, York, East York, Old Toronto and Etobicoke. With 85,864 students, the TCDSB is one of the largest school boards in Canada, and is the largest publicly funded Catholic school board in the world. Until 1998, it was known as the Metropolitan Separate School Board (MSSB) as an anglophone and francophone separate school district.

School types
By educational stage
By funding / eligibility
By style of education
By scope
Historical
Concepts
Organisations
Events
History
Timeline
Ecclesiastical
Legal
Theology
Bible and
Tradition;
Catechism
Philosophy
Saints
Organisation
Hierarchy
Laity
Precedence
By country
Culture
Media
Institutes,
orders,
societies
Associations
of the faithful
Charities

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.