Saint Catherine of Siena (25 March 1347 – 29 April 1380), a laywoman associated with the Dominican Order, was a Scholastic philosopher, and theologian who had a great influence on the Catholic Church. Canonized in 1461, she is also a doctor of the Church.
Born in Siena, she grew up there and wanted very soon to devote herself to God, against the will of her parents. She joined the Sisters of the Penance of St. Dominic and made her vows. She made herself known very quickly by being marked by mystical phenomena such as stigmata and mystical marriage.
She accompanied the chaplain of the Dominicans to the pope in Avignon, as ambassador of Florence, then at war against the pope. Her influence with Pope Gregory XI played a role in his decision to leave Avignon for Rome. She was then sent by him to negotiate peace with Florence. After Gregory XI's death and peace concluded, she returned to Siena. She dictated to secretaries her set of spiritual treatises The Dialogue of Divine Providence.
The Great Schism of the West led Catherine of Siena to go to Rome with the pope. She sent numerous letters to princes and cardinals to promote obedience to Pope Urban VI and defend what she calls the "vessel of the Church." She died on 29 April 1380, exhausted by her penances. Urban VI celebrated her funeral and burial in the Basilica of Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome.
The devotion around Catherine of Siena developed rapidly after her death. She was canonized in 1461, declared patron saint of Rome in 1866, and of Italy (together with Francis of Assisi) in 1939. First woman (along with Teresa of Ávila) to be declared a "doctor of the Church," on 4 October 1970 by Pope Paul VI, she was also proclaimed patron saint of Europe in 1999 by Pope John Paul II. She is the patron saint of journalists, media, and all communication professions, because of her epistolary work for the papacy.
Catherine of Siena is one of the outstanding figures of medieval Catholicism, by the strong influence she has had in the history of the papacy. She is behind the return of the Pope from Avignon to Rome, and then carried out many missions entrusted by the pope, something quite rare for a woman in the Middle Ages.
Her writings—and especially The Dialogue, her major work which includes a set of treatises she would have dictated during ecstasies—mark theological thought. She is one of the most influential writers in Catholicism, to the point that she is one of only four women to be declared a doctor of the Church. This recognition by the Church consecrates the importance of her writings.
Saint Catherine of Siena
St. Catherine of Siena,
by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
|Virgin, Doctor of the Church|
|Born||25 March 1347|
Siena, Republic of Siena
|Died||29 April 1380 (aged 33)|
Rome, Papal States
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church; Anglican Communion; Lutheranism|
|Canonized||29 June 1461 by Pope Pius II|
|Major shrine||Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Rome and Shrine of Saint Catherine, Siena|
|Feast||April 29; April 30 (Roman Calendar, 1628–1969)|
|Attributes||Dominican tertiaries' habit, lily, book, crucifix, heart, crown of thorns, stigmata, ring, dove, rose, skull, miniature church, miniature ship bearing Papal coat of arms|
|Patronage||against fire; bodily ills; Diocese of Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA; Europe; illness; Italy; Bambang, Nueva Vizcaya, Samal, Bataan, Philippines; miscarriages; people ridiculed for their piety; sexual temptation; sick people; sickness; nurses|
Caterina di Giacomo di Benincasa was born on 25 March 1347 (shortly before the Black Death ravaged Europe) in Siena, Italy, to Lapa Piagenti, the daughter of a local poet, and Giacomo di Benincasa, a cloth dyer who ran his enterprise with the help of his sons. The house where Catherine grew up is still in existence. Lapa was about forty years old when she gave premature birth to twin daughters Catherine and Giovanna. She had already borne 22 children, but half of them had died. Giovanna was handed over to a wet-nurse and died soon after. Catherine was nursed by her mother and developed into a healthy child. She was two years old when Lapa had her 25th child, another daughter named Giovanna. As a child Catherine was so merry that the family gave her the pet name of "Euphrosyne", which is Greek for "joy" and the name of an early Christian saint.
Catherine is said by her confessor and biographer Raymond of Capua O.P.'s Life to have had her first vision of Christ when she was five or six years old: She and a brother were on the way home from visiting a married sister when she is said to have experienced a vision of Christ seated in glory with the Apostles Peter, Paul, and John. Raymond continues that at age seven, Catherine vowed to give her whole life to God.
When Catherine was sixteen, her older sister Bonaventura died in childbirth; already anguished by this, Catherine soon learned that her parents wanted her to marry Bonaventura's widower. She was absolutely opposed and started a strict fast. She had learned this from Bonaventura, whose husband had been far from considerate but his wife had changed his attitude by refusing to eat until he showed better manners. Besides fasting, Catherine further disappointed her mother by cutting off her long hair as a protest against being overly encouraged to improve her appearance to attract a husband.
Catherine would later advise Raymond of Capua to do during times of trouble what she did now as a teenager: "Build a cell inside your mind, from which you can never flee." In this inner cell she made her father into a representation of Christ, her mother into the Blessed Virgin Mary, and her brothers into the apostles. Serving them humbly became an opportunity for spiritual growth. Catherine resisted the accepted course of marriage and motherhood on the one hand, or a nun's veil on the other. She chose to live an active and prayerful life outside a convent's walls following the model of the Dominicans. Eventually her father gave up and permitted her to live as she pleased.
A vision of Saint Dominic gave strength to Catherine, but her wish to join his Order was no comfort to Lapa, who took her daughter with her to the baths in Bagno Vignoni to improve her health. Catherine fell seriously ill with a violent rash, fever and pain, which conveniently made her mother accept her wish to join the "Mantellate", the local association of Dominican tertiaries. Lapa went to the Sisters of the Order and persuaded them to take in her daughter. Within days, Catherine seemed entirely restored, rose from bed and donned the black and white habit of the Third Order of Saint Dominic. Catherine received the habit of a Dominican tertiary from the friars of the order after vigorous protests from the tertiaries themselves, who up to that point had been only widows. As a tertiary, she lived outside the convent, at home with her family like before. The Mantellate taught Catherine how to read, and she lived in almost total silence and solitude in the family home.
Her custom of giving away clothing and food without asking anyone's permission cost her family significantly, but she requested nothing for herself. By staying in their midst, she could live out her rejection of them more strongly. She did not want their food, referring to the table laid for her in Heaven with her real family.
According to Raymond of Capua, at the age of twenty-one (c. 1368), Catherine experienced what she described in her letters as a "Mystical Marriage" with Jesus, later a popular subject in art as the Mystic marriage of Saint Catherine. Caroline Walker Bynum explains one surprising and controversial aspect of this marriage that occurs both in artistic representations of the event and in some early accounts of her life: "Underlining the extent to which the marriage was a fusion with Christ's physicality [...] Catherine received, not the ring of gold and jewels that her biographer reports in his bowdlerized version, but the ring of Christ's foreskin." Catherine herself mentions the foreskin-as-wedding ring motif in one of her letters (#221), equating the wedding ring of a virgin with a foreskin; she typically claimed that her own wedding ring to Christ was simply invisible. Raymond of Capua also records that she was told by Christ to leave her withdrawn life and enter the public life of the world. Catherine rejoined her family and began helping the ill and the poor, where she took care of them in hospitals or homes. Her early pious activities in Siena attracted a group of followers, women and men, who gathered around her.
As social and political tensions mounted in Siena, Catherine found herself drawn to intervene in wider politics. She made her first journey to Florence in 1374, probably to be interviewed by the Dominican authorities at the General Chapter held in Florence in May 1374, though this is controverted (if she was interviewed, then the absence of later evidence suggests she was deemed sufficiently orthodox). It seems that at this time she acquired Raymond of Capua as her confessor and spiritual director.
After this visit, she began travelling with her followers throughout northern and central Italy advocating reform of the clergy and advising people that repentance and renewal could be done through "the total love for God." In Pisa, in 1375, she used what influence she had to sway that city and Lucca away from alliance with the anti-papal league whose force was gaining momentum and strength. She also lent her enthusiasm towards promoting the launch of a new crusade. It was in Pisa in 1375 that, according to Raymond of Capua's biography, she received the stigmata (visible, at Catherine's request, only to herself).
Physical travel was not the only way in which Catherine made her views known. From 1375 onwards, she began dictating letters to scribes. These letters were intended to reach men and women of her circle, increasingly widening her audience to include figures in authority as she begged for peace between the republics and principalities of Italy and for the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. She carried on a long correspondence with Pope Gregory XI, asking him to reform the clergy and the administration of the Papal States.
Towards the end of 1375, she returned to Siena, to assist a young political prisoner, Niccolò di Tuldo, at his execution. In June 1376 Catherine went to Avignon as ambassador of the Republic of Florence to make peace with the Papal States (on 31 March 1376 Gregory XI had placed Florence under interdict). She was unsuccessful and was disowned by the Florentine leaders, who sent ambassadors to negotiate on their own terms as soon as Catherine's work had paved the way for them. Catherine sent an appropriately scorching letter back to Florence in response. While in Avignon, Catherine also tried to convince Pope Gregory XI, the last Avignon Pope, to return to Rome. Gregory did indeed return his administration to Rome in January 1377; to what extent this was due to Catherine's influence is a topic of much modern debate.
Catherine returned to Siena and spent the early months of 1377 founding a women's monastery of strict observance outside the city in the old fortress of Belcaro. She spent the rest of 1377 at Rocca d'Orcia, about twenty miles from Siena, on a local mission of peace-making and preaching. During this period, in autumn 1377, she had the experience which led to the writing of her Dialogue and learned to write, although she still seems to have chiefly relied upon her secretaries for her correspondence.
Late in 1377 or early in 1378 Catherine again travelled to Florence, at the order of Gregory XI, to seek peace between Florence and Rome. Following Gregory's death in March 1378 riots, the revolts of the Ciompi, broke out in Florence on 18 June, and in the ensuing violence she was nearly assassinated. Eventually, in July 1378, peace was agreed between Florence and Rome; Catherine returned quietly to Florence.
In late November 1378, with the outbreak of the Western Schism, the new Pope, Urban VI, summoned her to Rome. She stayed at Pope Urban VI's court and tried to convince nobles and cardinals of his legitimacy, both meeting with individuals at court and writing letters to persuade others.
For many years she had accustomed herself to a rigorous abstinence. She received the Holy Eucharist almost daily. This extreme fasting appeared unhealthy in the eyes of the clergy and her own sisterhood. Her confessor, Blessed Raymond, ordered her to eat properly. But Catherine claimed that she was unable to, describing her inability to eat as an infermità (illness). From the beginning of 1380, Catherine could neither eat nor swallow water. On February 26 she lost the use of her legs.
Catherine died in Rome, on 29 April 1380, at the age of thirty-three, having eight days earlier suffered a massive stroke which paralyzed her from the waist down. Her last words were, "Father, into Your Hands I commend my soul and my spirit."
There is some internal evidence of Catherine's personality, teaching and work in her nearly four hundred letters, her Dialogue, and her prayers.
Much detail about her life has also, however, been drawn from the various sources written shortly after her death in order to promote her cult and canonisation. Though much of this material is heavily hagiographic, it has been an important source for historians seeking to reconstruct Catherine's life. Various sources are particularly important, especially the works of Raymond of Capua, who was Catherine's spiritual director and close friend from 1374 until her death, and himself became Master General of the Order in 1380. Raymond began writing what is known as the Legenda Major, his Life of Catherine, in 1384, and completed it in 1395.
Another important work written after Catherine's death was Libellus de Supplemento (Little Supplement Book), written between 1412 and 1418 by Tommaso d'Antonio Nacci da Siena (commonly called Thomas of Siena, or Tommaso Caffarini): the work is an expansion of Raymond's Legenda Major making heavy use of the notes of Catherine's first confessor, Tommaso della Fonte (notes that do not survive anywhere else). Caffarini later published a more compact account of Catherine's life, entitled the Legenda Minor.
From 1411 onwards, Caffarini also co-ordinated the compiling of the Processus of Venice, the set of documents submitted as part of the process of canonisation of Catherine, which provides testimony from nearly all of Catherine's disciples. There is also an anonymous piece entitled "Miracoli della Beata Caterina" (Miracle of Blessed Catherine), written by an anonymous Florentine. A few other relevant pieces survive.
Three genres of work by Catherine survive:
Catherine's theology can be described as mystical, and was employed towards practical ends for her own spiritual life or those of others. She used the language of medieval scholastic philosophy to elaborate her experiential mysticism. Interested mainly with achieving an incorporeal union with God, Catherine practiced extreme fasting and asceticism, eventually to the extent of living solely off the Eucharist every day. For Catherine, this practice was the means to fully realize her love of Christ in her mystical experience, with a large proportion of her ecstatic visions relating to the consumption or rejection of food during her life. She viewed Christ as a "bridge" between the soul and God and transmitted that idea, along with her other teachings, in her book The Dialogue. The Dialogue is highly systematic and explanatory in its presentation of her mystical ideas; however, these ideas themselves are not so much based in reason or logic as they are based in her ecstatic mystical experience.
She was buried in the (Roman) cemetery of Santa Maria sopra Minerva which lies near the Pantheon. After miracles were reported to take place at her grave, Raymond moved her inside the Basilica of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, where she lies to this day.
Her head however, was parted from her body and inserted in a gilt bust of bronze. This bust was later taken to Siena, and carried through that city in a procession to the Dominican church. Behind the bust walked Lapa, Catherine's mother, who lived until she was 89 years old. By then she had seen the end of the wealth and the happiness of her family, and followed most of her children and several of her grandchildren to the grave. She helped Raymond of Capua write his biography of her daughter, and said, "I think God has laid my soul athwart in my body, so that it can't get out." The incorrupt head and thumb were entombed in the Basilica of San Domenico at Siena, where they remain.
On 4 October 1970, Pope Paul VI named Catherine a Doctor of the Church; this title was almost simultaneously given to Saint Teresa of Ávila (27 September 1970), making them the first women to receive this honour.
Initially however, her feast day was not included in the General Roman Calendar. When it was added in 1597, it was put on the day of her death, April 29; however, because this conflicted with the feast of Saint Peter of Verona which also fell on the 29th of April, Catherine's feast day was moved in 1628 to the new date of April 30. In the 1969 revision of the calendar, it was decided to leave the celebration of the feast of St Peter of Verona to local calendars, because he was not as well known worldwide, and Catherine's feast was restored to April 29.
In his decree of 13 April 1866, Pope Pius IX declared Catherine of Siena to be a co-patroness of Rome. On 18 June 1939 Pope Pius XII named her a joint patron saint of Italy along with Saint Francis of Assisi.
On 1 October 1999, Pope John Paul II made her one of Europe's patron saints, along with Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross and Saint Bridget of Sweden. She is also the patroness of the historically Catholic American woman's fraternity, Theta Phi Alpha.
The people of Siena wished to have Catherine's body. A story is told of a miracle whereby they were partially successful: knowing that they could not smuggle her whole body out of Rome, they decided to take only her head which they placed in a bag. When stopped by the Roman guards, they prayed to Catherine to help them, confident that she would rather have her body (or at least part thereof) in Siena. When they opened the bag to show the guards, it appeared no longer to hold her head but to be full of rose petals.
Catherine ranks high among the mystics and spiritual writers of the Church. She remains a greatly respected figure for her spiritual writings, and political boldness to "speak truth to power"—it being exceptional for a woman, in her time period, to have had such influence in politics and on world history.
The main churches in honor of Catherine of Siena are:
English translations of The Dialogue include:
The Letters are translated into English as:
The Prayers are translated into English as:
Raymond of Capua's Life was translated into English in 1493 and 1609, and in Modern English is translated as:
The Cathedral Church of St. Catharine of Siena is the seat of the Diocese of Allentown. It is located at 1825 Turner Street, Allentown, Pennsylvania, United States.Dominican Sisters of St. Catherine of Siena
The Congregation of the Dominican Sisters of St. Catherine of Siena is a Dominican congregation of religious sisters under the patronage of St. Catherine of Siena. It was founded by Fr. Juan de Sto. Domingo, O.P., of Spain in 1696. Mother Francisca del Espiritu Santo Fuentes was appointed prioress for life.Servant of God Francisca del Espíritu Santo de Fuentes (1647 – August 24, 1711) is a Spanish Roman Catholic religious figure. She was the first Prioress of the Congregation of the Dominican Sisters of St. Catherine of Siena in the Philippines.Laura of Saint Catherine of Siena
Saint Laura of Saint Catherine of Siena (26 May 1874 – 21 October 1949) - born María Laura de Jesús Montoya Upegui - was a Colombian Roman Catholic professed religious and the founder of the Congregation of the Missionary Sisters of the Immaculate Virgin Mary and Saint Catherine of Siena (1914). She was well known for her work with Indigenous peoples and for acting as a strong role model for South American girls.Pope John Paul II beatified her in 2004 and Pope Francis canonized her as a saint in mid-2013. Montoya is the first Colombian to be made a saint.List of schools in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans
This is a list of schools in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans. They are not all operated by the archdiocese. There are 5 universities or colleges and over 20 high schools within the archdiocese.Militia Christi
Militia Christi is a continuation of a centuries-old Catholic movement founded by Saint Dominic as a movement for laity, envisaged as a kind of army in suppressing insurgents inspired by the Albigensian heresy. Saints Catherine of Siena and Rose of Lima were both members of the original movement.St. Dominic is more famous as the founder of the Order of Preachers, more commonly known as the Dominicans.Mystical marriage of Saint Catherine
The mystical marriage of Saint Catherine (or "Mystic") covers two different subjects in Christian art arising from visions received by either Catherine of Alexandria or Catherine of Siena (1347–1380), in which these virgin saints went through a mystical marriage wedding ceremony with Christ, in the presence of the Virgin Mary, consecrating themselves and their virginity to him.
The Catholic Encyclopaedia notes that such a wedding ceremony "is but the accompaniment and symbol of a purely spiritual grace", and that "as a wife should share in the life of her husband, and as Christ suffered for the redemption of mankind, the mystical spouse enters into a more intimate participation in His sufferings." Catherine of Alexandria was martyred, while Catherine of Siena received the stigmata.
Both subjects are frequent subjects in Christian art; the scene usually includes one of the Saint Catherines and either the infant Jesus held by his mother or an adult Jesus. Very rarely both saints are shown in a double ceremony (as at right). Saint Catherine of Alexandria is invariably dressed as a princess in rich clothes, often with a crown, and normally with loose long blonde hair and carrying a martyr's palm, sometimes with her attribute of a wheel; Saint Catherine of Siena is shown as a Dominican nun in white with a black over-robe open at the front, so it is usually easy to tell which saint is depicted.Richmond, Sheffield
Richmond is a suburb of Sheffield in South Yorkshire, England. It lies in the eastern part of the city (grid reference SK403854).
Richmond was historically a small settlement consisting of a few cottages and Richmond Hall Farm, built in 1668 and demolished in 1966. Gateposts from the farm, which may have originally flanked an entrance to Sheffield Park, can still be seen amidst a housing estate dating from the late 1960s.The suburb is served by St Catherine of Siena church, designed by Basil Spence.St. Catherine of Siena Academy
St. Catherine of Siena Academy is a private Roman Catholic girls' high school in Wixom, Michigan, USA.St. Catherine of Siena Church (New York City)
The Church of St. Catherine of Siena is a Roman Catholic parish church in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York, located at 411 East 68th Street, Manhattan, New York City. The parish was developed from that of St. Vincent Ferrer in 1896. It is staffed by the Dominican Fathers.
The church built a two-story convent and penthouse at 416 East 69th Street, built 1957 to designs by Starrett & Van Vleck of 267 Fifth Avenue for $100,000 ($890,000 in current dollar terms).St. Catherine of Siena Parish, Wilmington, Delaware
Saint Catherine of Siena Parish is located in Wilmington, Delaware. It has a Roman Catholic church located on Centerville Road with over 1100 families. The original church was founded in the 1960s by the surrounding Catholic community. A new church was recently built in 1993 and the original church foundation is now the St. Catherine gymnasium. Many of the original founders and their families are still present. New arriving families include Mexican families. Certain masses are available in Spanish.
The Saint Catherine of Siena Elementary School graduated its last class in 2011 before closing and merging into the All Saints Catholic School along with St. Matthew's Elementary school in Wilmington and Corpus Christi Elementary school in Elsmere. The school building is now owned by the government and is used for space for a charter school. Four hundred children attend the religious education/Christian formation weekly. The St. Catherine high school youth and middle school youth groups stay active and do work-camps in the summer. For those families speaking Spanish, there is a bilingual program.St. Catherine of Siena Roman Catholic Church
The St. Catherine of Siena Roman Catholic Church is a church located at 4151 Seminole Street in Detroit, Michigan. It is now the St. Augustine and St. Monica Roman Catholic Church. The church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1991.St. Catherine of Siena School (Martinez, California)
St. Catherine of Siena School in Martinez, California is a Catholic school in the Diocese of Oakland. The school has a Preschool and serves students in Kindergarten through Eighth Grade. Most graduates of the school attend Alhambra High School (Martinez, California), Carondelet High School, or De La Salle High School (Concord, California). Located in the Downtown area of Martinez, the school's north facing wall features a mural of John Muir, the famed naturalist whose home is merely a few minutes down the street driving toward Interstate Highway 4.
The school has a CYO program that consists of basketball, cross country, track and field, and cheerleading (the first cheer squad in the Oakland Diocese). The girls basketball team has had much success in recent years with many diocese victories.St. Catherine of Siena School (Vallejo, California)
St. Catherine of Siena School in Vallejo, California is a Catholic school in the Diocese of Sacramento. The school has nine classes: kindergarten to junior high school. Although St Catherine is a private Catholic school, it accepts applications for all students regardless of parish or religious affiliations. Its kindergarten is full day for entire school year. The school also offers pre-kindergarten and after school programs.St. Catherine of Sienna Church (Trumbull, Connecticut)
St. Catherine of Siena is a Roman Catholic parish in Trumbull, Connecticut, part of the Diocese of Bridgeport.St. Mary – St. Catherine of Siena Parish
St. Mary – St. Catherine of Siena is an historic Roman Catholic parish in Charlestown, Massachusetts. It resulted from the 2006 merger of two older parishes, St. Catherine of Siena on Vine St. and St. Mary's on Warren and Winthrop. The parish occupies the latter's building, which was one of the later masterpieces of Patrick Keely. Built between 1887 and 1893, its ornate interior boasts stained glass windows by Franz Mayer & Co. and a hammer-beam oak ceiling with angels, carved by Keely himself.
The St. Catherine's building, a Romanesque design completed in 1895, was closed in 2008. Visually the brick building is a well-known landmark visible from the Tobin Bridge.St Catherine of Siena, Richmond
St Catherine of Siena is an Anglican church in the Richmond district of Sheffield in England.St Catherine of Siena Church, Birmingham
St Catherine of Siena Church is a Roman Catholic Parish church situated on Bristol Street in Birmingham. It was founded in 1874, and demolished and replaced in 1964. The church is within the Archdiocese of Birmingham and was run by the Missionary Society of St. Columban from 2005 to 2013.St Catherine of Siena Church, Cocking
St Catherine of Siena Church is an Anglican parish church in Cocking, a village in the district of Chichester, one of seven local government districts in the English county of West Sussex.
The oldest parts of the church date from the 11th century although most of the church is later, from the 12th to 14th centuries, with substantial additions in the mid-19th century. The church had no dedication until, in April 2007, the congregation agreed to dedicate the church to St Catherine of Siena, whose name is engraved on one of the church bells. The church is a Grade I Listed building. Inside the church, the main features of interest are the 11th-century chancel arch, the remnants of a 13th-century wall painting and the 12th-century font.Third Order of Saint Dominic
The Third Order of Saint Dominic (properly referred to as the Lay Fraternities of St Dominic or Lay Dominicans since 1972) is a Roman Catholic third order affiliated with the Dominican Order.
Lay Dominicans are men and women, singles and couples living a Christian life with a Dominican spirituality in the secular world. They find inspiration following the same spiritual path taken by many saints, blesseds, and other holy men and women throughout the 800-year history of the Dominican Order. The Life of a Dominican layperson is all about having a passion for the Word of God. It is about committing one self to a community of like minded brothers and sisters that immerse themselves in the Word of God. There are Lay Dominican Provinces all around the world.
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|Early Middle Ages|
|High Middle Ages|
|Mysticism and reforms|