Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg

Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg (Katarina in Swedish) (24 September 1513 – 23 September 1535) was the first consort of Gustav I of Sweden and Queen of Sweden from 1531 until her death in 1535.

Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg
Catherine of Sweden (1531) effigy 2007
Catherine as depicted on her tomb
Queen consort of Sweden
Tenure 24 September 1531 – 23 September 1535
Born September 24, 1513
Died September 23, 1535 (aged 21)
Burial Uppsala Cathedral
Spouse Gustav I of Sweden
Issue Eric XIV of Sweden
House Ascania
Father Magnus I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg
Mother Catherine of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Religion Lutheran
Uppsala domkyrka tomb Gustav Vasa01
Gustav and Catherine


Catherine was born in Ratzeburg to Magnus I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg and Catherine, daughter of Henry IV, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Her marriage to Gustav I of Sweden was arranged for political reasons. Gustav wished to marry shortly after having conquered the Swedish throne, and after having failed in his negotiations to marry Dorothea of Denmark, who was however also proposed to by Philip of Hesse, who was considered more advantageous; Sophia of Mecklenburg and Anna of Pomerania, whose parents considered his rule too unstable; and Hedwig of Poland, whose parents discontinued negotiations because of the Swedish Reformation, he was advised to consider the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg.

Though the Duchy was small and poor, it had many advantages: its dynasty was related to many of the most powerful dynasties of Europe, which would give valuable connections with the German princes; it was Protestant, which was important for the ongoing Swedish Reformation, but could also give Imperial connections through Catherine's mother; it would give a valuable link to Denmark, as Catherine's older sister Dorothea was married to Christian, the Crown Prince of Denmark; and finally, the Duchy was at that point known as a center for mercenaries, which was important for Gustav as a newly established ruler.[1] The negotiations started in 1528, but was delayed several years as the bride's father doubted the stability of the throne, partially confirmed by events such as the Dalecarlian rebellions.[1] Finally, after mediation from Lübeck, they were completed after almost three years, and Catherine was granted the counties of Korsholm, Kalmar and Öland as a dower.[2]

In September 1531, Catherine was escorted to Sweden on a fleet by the "highest lords and ladies of the realm" headed by her future sister-in-law Margaret and her spouse Count John of Hoya, and met her future spouse for the first time.[1] Their wedding were celebrated in Stockholm on her 18th birthday 24 September 1531. Shortly after the royal wedding, Brita Leijonhufvud, the daughter of the king's second cousin Ebba Eriksdotter Vasa, was married to the king's courtier and favorite Gustav Olsson Stenbock (they were to be the parents of the king's third wife Catherine Stenbock) and the king's niece Brita Joakimsdotter Brahe was engaged to riksråd Birger Nilsson Grip: both of these events were hosted by the royal couple, and were the first Catherine hosted as queen of Sweden.[1]

Very little is known about queen Catherine as a person and her tenure as queen. There are no information of her courtiers, though she is assumed to have brought ladies-in-waiting from Germany in addition to her Swedish ones, among whom Margaret Leijonhufvud (the king's future second queen) is likely to have been one.[1] Traditional history describe Catherine as capricious, cold, melancholic and discontent, and the marriage has been described as a stormy and unhappy one, despite the fact that there are no contemporary information of this.[3] On 13 December 1533, she fulfilled her most important task as queen consort by giving birth to an heir to the throne: the future Erik XIV.

In September 1535, during a ball given to the honor of her brother-in-law, king Christian III of Denmark, who was visiting the Swedish royal court, queen Catherine fell during a dance with Christian III while pregnant.[1] The fall confined her to bed and led to complications, and she died 23 September with her unborn child.[1]

At the time of her death, king Gustav was engaged in the Count's Feud, and his opponents in this conflict, Lübeck and Rostock, spread the rumor that he had murdered his queen by beating her in the head with a silver cane after a report from a spy that she had slandered him to Christian while dancing.[2] The exhumation of Catherine's skeleton made in the 1940s show no signs of any such injury, and no accusations were ever made by her family.[2] Further more, Christian III himself confirms the serious fall of queen Catherine in his private letters, even though he was no friend of Gustav Vasa.[1]

In traditional history writings, queen Catherine was given a bad reputation and often presented as a bad example and contrast to the second queen of Gustav I, queen Margaret Leijonhufvud, who was made to be a stereotypical perfect ideal queen.[1]


Ancestors of Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg
16. Eric IV, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg
8. Bernard II, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg
17. Sophie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
4. John V, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg
18. Bogislaw VIII, Duke of Pomerania
9. Adelheid of Pomerania-Stolp
19. Sophia of Holstein
2. Magnus I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg
20. Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg
10. Frederick II, Elector of Brandenburg
21. Elisabeth of Bavaria
5. Dorothea of Brandenburg
22. Frederick I, Elector of Saxony
11. Catherine of Saxony
23. Catherine of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1. Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg
24. William the Victorious, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
12. William IV, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
25. Cecilia of Brandenburg
6. Henry IV, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
26. Bodo VII, Count of Stolberg-Wernigerode
13. Elisabeth of Stolberg-Wernigerode
27. Anna of Schwarzburg
3. Catherine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
28. Wartislaw IX, Duke of Pomerania
14. Eric II, Duke of Pomerania
29. Sophie of Saxe-Lauenburg
7. Catherine of Pomerania-Wolgast
30. Bogislaw IX, Duke of Pomerania
15. Sophia of Pomerania-Stolp
31. Maria of Masovia


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Tegenborg Falkdalen, Karin, Margareta Regina: vid Gustav Vasas sida : [en biografi över Margareta Leijonhufvud (1516-1551)], Setterblad, Stockholm, 2016
  2. ^ a b c Katarina, urn:sbl:12404, Svenskt biografiskt lexikon (art av Ivan Svalenius), hämtad 2016-12-26.
  3. ^ Larsson, Lars-Olof (2002). Gustav Vasa – landsfader eller tyrann?. Stockholm: Prisma. ISBN 91-518-3904-0
Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg
Born: 24 September 1513 Died: 23 September 1535
Swedish royalty
Preceded by
Isabella of Burgundy
Queen consort of Sweden
Succeeded by
Margaret Leijonhufvud

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