Catherine of Poděbrady

Catherine of Poděbrady (11 November 1449 – 8 March 1464,[1]) was the first wife of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary.

Catherine of Poděbrady
Queen consort of Hungary and Croatia
Věnceslav Černý - Odchod Kateřiny, dcery Jiříkovy, z domova do Uher
Catherine leaving her father and stepmother to live in Hungary
Tenure1463–1464
Born11 November 1449
Poděbrady
Died8 March 1464 (aged 14)
Buda
SpouseMatthias Corvinus of Hungary
HousePoděbrady
FatherGeorge of Poděbrady
MotherKunigunde of Sternberg

Biography

Catherine and her twin sister Sidonie were born at Poděbrady, to the Bohemian king George of Poděbrady and his first wife, Kunigunde of Šternberk. Kunigunde died from complications of the birth. George of Poděbrady eventually remarried; his second wife, Joanna of Rožmitál, bore George more children, including Ludmila of Poděbrady.

Matthias Corvinus had lost his fiancée, Elisabeth of Cilli, at a young age. On 1 May 1463 he married Catherine at Matthias Church[2] in Buda. Matthias was eighteen, his bride thirteen. The wedding negotiations had begun in 1458 when Catherine was nine years old. It was agreed that George would make Matthias King of Bohemia if he married Catherine. Soon after the marriage, Catherine left her family and went to live in Hungary with her new husband. Janus Pannonius helped teach Catherine Latin.[3]

The queen was very young, so she played little part in the politics of her husband's two kingdoms. She died in childbirth at the age of 14. Her child died soon after birth as well. The event caused Matthias to lose hope of siring a legitimate heir. He eventually married Beatrice of Naples, but that marriage also failed to produce an heir. Matthias's only surviving offspring was an illegitimate son, John Corvinus, by his mistress Barbara Edelpöck.

References

  1. ^ Cawley, Charles, BOHEMIA, Medieval Lands, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy,
  2. ^ Matthias Church
  3. ^ Translation from Czech Wikipedia
Catherine of Poděbrady
Born: 1449 Died: 1464
Royal titles
Preceded by
Elizabeth of Luxembourg
Queen consort of Hungary
1463–1464
Succeeded by
Beatrice of Naples
1449

Year 1449 (MCDXLIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1464

Year 1464 (MCDLXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once (1000(M)+(-100(C)+500(D))+50(L)+10(X)+(-1(I)+5(V)) = 1464).

Elizabeth of Luxembourg

Elizabeth of Luxembourg (7 October 1409 – 19 December 1442) was queen consort of Germany, Hungary and Bohemia.

The only child of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Elizabeth was expected to ascend his thrones along with her husband, Albert of Austria. Her rights were ignored by the Hungarian nobility when Sigismund died in 1437 and only her husband was accepted as monarch, with Elizabeth as mere consort.

Albert died in 1439, leaving Elizabeth a pregnant dowager with two daughters, Anne and Elizabeth. Bohemian nobility proclaimed an interregnum, while King Vladislaus III of Poland was crowned new king of Hungary in May 1440, three months after Queen Elizabeth delivered a son, Ladislaus the Posthumous. She was determined to contend for her patrimony on her son's behalf, which led to a civil war between hers and Vladislaus' supporters. The conflict ended with the queen's death at the age of 33. Vladislaus himself died in battle in 1444, opening the path for Elizabeth's son to be recognized as king of Hungary.

Hunyadi family

The Hunyadi family was one of the most powerful noble families in the Kingdom of Hungary during the 15th century. A member of the family, Matthias Corvinus, was King of Hungary from 1458 until 1490, King of Bohemia (ruling in Moravia, Lower Lusatia, Upper Lusatia, and Silesia) from 1469 until 1490, and Duke of Austria from 1487 until 1490. His illegitimate son, John Corvinus, ruled the Duchy of Troppau from 1485 until 1501, and five further Silesian duchies, including Bytom, Głubczyce, Loslau, Racibórz, and Tost, from 1485 until 1490. The Hunyadi coat-of-arms depicted a raven with a golden ring in its beak.

The founder of the family, Voyk, received the eponymous Hunyad Castle (in present-day Hunedoara, Romania) from Sigismund, King of Hungary, in 1409. His ethnicity is the subject of scholarly debate. Some modern historians describe him as a Vlach, or Romanian, knez or boyar, from either Wallachia or Transylvania. Others describe him as a Cuman or Slav nobleman. According to the 15th-century historian, Johannes de Thurocz, Voyk moved from Wallachia to Transylvania. Voyk's oldest son, John Hunyadi, was often mentioned as a "Vlach" by his contemporaries.

John Hunyadi, a talented military commander, became the first member of the family to acquire the status of "true baron of the realm". He was appointed Ban of Severin in 1439, and Voivode of Transylvania in 1441. He was also granted the title Perpetual Count of Beszterce in 1452, thus receiving the first hereditary title created in the Kingdom of Hungary. At his death, John Hunyadi held many lands throughout the Kingdom. John Hunyadi's fame and fortune led the election of his son, Matthias Corvinus, as King of Hungary in 1458. Matthias ruled Moravia, Silesia, Austria, and other neighbouring regions. He attempted to secure hereditary line of succession for his son, John Corvinus. This did not happen, however, and John was only able to retain the Duchy of Glogau, along with some other family domains in Hungary, after Matthias died in 1490. John's only son, Christopher Corvinus, was the last male member of the family. He died at the age of six in 1505. His sister Elisabeth died during childhood.

List of Hungarian consorts

This is a list of the queens consorts of Hungary, the consorts of the kings of Hungary. After the extinction of the Árpád dynasty and later the Angevin dynasty, the title of King of Hungary has been held by a monarch outside of Hungary with a few exceptions. After 1526, the title of Queen of Hungary belonged to the wife of the Habsburg Emperors who were also King of Hungary.

Queens of Hungary also held the titles after 1526: Holy Roman Empress (later Empress of Austria) and Queen consort of Bohemia. Since Leopold I, all kings of Hungary used the title of Apostolic King of Hungary – the title given to Saint Stephen I by the Pope – and their wives were styled as Apostolic Queens of Hungary.

The title lasted just a little over nine centuries, from 1000 to 1918.

The Kingdom of Hungary also had two queens regnant who were crowned as kings: Maria I and Maria II Theresa.

List of Hungarian monarchs

For a list of presidents until present day, see List of heads of state of Hungary. For the semi-independent monarchs of Transylvania in the 16th and 17th centuries, see List of Princes of Transylvania.This is a List of Hungarian monarchs, which includes the grand princes (895–1000) and the kings and ruling queens of Hungary (1000–1918).

The Principality of Hungary established 895 or 896, following the 9th-century Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin. The Kingdom of Hungary existed from 1000 (or arguably from 1001; the coronation of Saint Stephen) until 1918 (when Charles IV "renounced participation" in state affairs, but did not abdicate). The Árpád dynasty, the male-line descendants of Grand Prince Árpád, ruled Hungary continuously from 895 to 1301.

List of rulers of Austria

Austria was ruled by the House of Babenberg until 1246 and by the House of Habsburg from 1282 to 1918.

List of women who died in childbirth

This is a list of notable women, either famous themselves or closely associated with someone well known, who suffered maternal death as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO):

"the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes."Note that this wording includes abortion, miscarriage, stillbirth, and ectopic pregnancy. Generally, there is a distinction between a direct maternal death that is the result of a complication of the pregnancy, delivery, or management of the two, and an indirect maternal death that is a pregnancy-related death in a woman with a pre-existing or newly developed health problem unrelated to pregnancy. Fatalities during but unrelated to a pregnancy are termed accidental, incidental, or non-obstetrical maternal deaths.

However, the WHO definition is only one of many; other definitions may include accidental and incidental causes. Cases with "incidental causes" include deaths secondary to violence against women that may be related to the pregnancy and be affected by the socioeconomic and cultural environment. Also, it has been reportedthat about 10% of maternal deaths may occur late, that is after 42 days after a termination or delivery; thus, some definitions extend the period of observation to one year after the end of gestation.

Matthias Church

Matthias Church (Hungarian: Mátyás-templom) is a Roman Catholic church located in Budapest, Hungary, in front of the Fisherman's Bastion at the heart of Buda's Castle District. According to church tradition, it was originally built in Romanesque style in 1015, although no archaeological remains exist. The current building was constructed in the florid late Gothic style in the second half of the 14th century and was extensively restored in the late 19th century. It was the second largest church of medieval Buda and the seventh largest church of the medieval Hungarian Kingdom.

Matthias Corvinus

Matthias Corvinus, also called Matthias I (Hungarian: Hunyadi Mátyás, Croatian: Matija Korvin, Romanian: Matei Corvin, Slovak: Matej Korvín, Czech: Matyáš Korvín; 23 February 1443 – 6 April 1490), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458 to 1490. After conducting several military campaigns, he was elected King of Bohemia in 1469 and adopted the title Duke of Austria in 1487. He was the son of John Hunyadi, Regent of Hungary, who died in 1456. In 1457, Matthias was imprisoned along with his older brother, Ladislaus Hunyadi, on the orders of King Ladislaus the Posthumous. Ladislaus Hunyadi was executed, causing a rebellion that forced King Ladislaus to flee Hungary. After the King died unexpectedly, Matthias's uncle Michael Szilágyi persuaded the Estates to unanimously proclaim Matthias king on 24 January 1458. He began his rule under his uncle's guardianship, but he took effective control of government within two weeks.

As king, Matthias waged wars against the Czech mercenaries who dominated Upper Hungary (today parts of Slovakia and Northern Hungary) and against Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, who claimed Hungary for himself. In this period, the Ottoman Empire conquered Serbia and Bosnia, terminating the zone of buffer states along the southern frontiers of the Kingdom of Hungary. Matthias signed a peace treaty with Frederick III in 1463, acknowledging the Emperor's right to style himself King of Hungary. The Emperor returned the Holy Crown of Hungary with which Matthias was crowned on 29 April 1464. In this year, Matthias invaded the territories that had recently been occupied by the Ottomans and seized fortresses in Bosnia. He soon realized he could expect no substantial aid from the Christian powers and gave up his anti-Ottoman policy.

Matthias introduced new taxes and regularly collected extraordinary taxes. These measures caused a rebellion in Transylvania in 1467, but he subdued the rebels. The next year, Matthias declared war on George of Poděbrady, the Hussite King of Bohemia, and conquered Moravia, Silesia, and Lausitz, but he could not occupy Bohemia proper. The Catholic Estates proclaimed him King of Bohemia on 3 May 1469, but the Hussite lords refused to yield to him even after the death of their leader George of Poděbrady in 1471. Instead, they elected Vladislaus Jagiellon, the eldest son of Casimir IV of Poland. A group of Hungarian prelates and lords offered the throne to Vladislaus's younger brother Casimir, but Matthias overcame their rebellion. Having routed the united troops of Casimir IV and Vladislaus at Breslau in Silesia (now Wrocław in Poland) in late 1474, Matthias turned against the Ottomans, who had devastated the eastern parts of Hungary. He sent reinforcements to Stephen the Great, Prince of Moldavia, enabling Stephen to repel a series of Ottoman invasions in the late 1470s. In 1476, Matthias besieged and seized Šabac, an important Ottoman border fort. He concluded a peace treaty with Vladislaus Jagiellon in 1478, confirming the division of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown between them. Matthias waged a war against Emperor Frederick and occupied Lower Austria between 1482 and 1487.

Matthias established a professional army (the Black Army of Hungary), reformed the administration of justice, reduced the power of the barons, and promoted the careers of talented individuals chosen for their abilities rather than their social statuses. Matthias patronized art and science; his royal library, the Bibliotheca Corviniana, was one of the largest collections of books in Europe. With his patronage, Hungary became the first country to embrace the Renaissance from Italy. As Matthias the Just, the monarch who wandered among his subjects in disguise, he remains a popular hero of Hungarian folk tales.

November 11

November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 50 days remain until the end of the year.

Peace Treaty of Wiener Neustadt

The Peace Treaty of Wiener Neustadt was a treaty between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Holy Roman Empire. It was preceded by the Truce of Radkersburg and followed by the Peace of Pressburg. It deals with succession issues and ascertains the territory mortgages in Moson, Sopron and Vas counties.

Podiebrad family

The Bohemian Poděbrady family (Czech: Páni z Poděbrad) was a noble family in Bohemia, arising from the Lords of Kunštát. After Boček of Kunštát (d. 1373) had acquired the Lordship of Poděbrady by marriage, he called himself "Boček of Kunštát and Poděbrady". The most prominent member of the family was George of Poděbrady, who was king of Bohemia. His sons were raised to imperial counts and Counts of Glatz. They founded the Silesian branch of the family, the Dukes of Dukes of Münsterberg (Czech: Knížata z Minsterberka).

Sidonie of Poděbrady

Sidonie of Poděbrady (Czech: Zdenka z Poděbrad; 14 November 1449 – 1 February 1510) was a duchess consort of Saxony. She was a daughter of George of Poděbrady, King of Bohemia, and his first wife Kunigunde of Sternberg. She was the twin sister of Catherine of Poděbrady, wife of Matthias Corvinus of Hungary.

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