Catarrh is inflammation of the mucous membranes in one of the airways or cavities of the body,[1][2] usually with reference to the throat and paranasal sinuses. It can result in a thick exudate of mucus and white blood cells caused by the swelling of the mucous membranes in the head in response to an infection. It is a symptom usually associated with the common cold, pharyngitis, and chesty coughs, but it can also be found in patients with adenoiditis, otitis media, sinusitis or tonsillitis. The phlegm produced by catarrh may either discharge or cause a blockage that may become chronic.

The word "catarrh" was widely used in medicine since before the era of medical science, which explains why it has various senses and in older texts may be synonymous with, or vaguely indistinguishable from, common cold, nasopharyngitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis, or sinusitis. The word is no longer as widely used in American medical practice, mostly because more precise words are available for any particular pathosis. Indeed, to the extent that it is still used, it is no longer viewed nosologically as a disease entity but instead as a symptom, a sign, or a syndrome of both. The term "catarrh" is found in medical sources from the United Kingdom.[3] The word has also been common in the folk medicine of Appalachia, where medicinal plants have been used to treat the inflammation and drainage associated with the condition.[4]

SynonymsCatarrhal inflammation
  • /kəˈtɑːr/

Clinical relevance

Due to the human ear's function of regulating the pressure within the head region, catarrh blockage may also cause discomfort during changes in atmospheric pressure.


The word "catarrh" comes from 15th-century French catarrhe, Latin catarrhus, and Greek Ancient Greek: καταρρεῖν[5] (katarrhein): kata- meaning "down" and rhein meaning "to flow." The Oxford English Dictionary quotes Thomas Bowes' translation of Pierre de la Primaudaye's The [second part of the] French academie (1594): "Sodainely choked by catarrhes, which like to floods of waters, runne downewards."[6]

See also


  1. ^ "Catarrh - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Retrieved November 8, 2011.
  2. ^ "Chronic Catarrh — Its Symptoms, Causes and Effects. — A Few Practical Remarks by Dr. Lighthill, Author of "A Popular Treatise on Deafness", "Letters on Catarrh." No. 34 St. Mark's-Place, New-York. Symptoms of Catarrh. Causes of Catarrh. Treatment of Catarrh. From J.S. Beecher, Esq., firm of Ives, Beecher and Co., No. 98 Front-St. From Maj. Alvin Walker, Paymaster, U.S.A. From W. Larrabee, Esq. - Article". Retrieved November 8, 2011.
  3. ^ "Catarrh". NHS Choices. GOV.UK. February 17, 2016. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  4. ^ "A Guide to Medicinal Plants of Appalachia" (PDF). 1969. Retrieved May 12, 2015.
  5. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Catarrh" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^ "catarrh". OED Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved May 12, 2015.

External links

Alvie railway line

The Alvie railway line was a branch line in Victoria, Australia, that left the Warrnambool line just west of Colac and proceeded in a generally north-westerly direction to Alvie. It was 16 kilometres long, and operated from 1923 to 1954.


Barostriction refers to a restriction of pressure equalization ventilation that should normally be present. Sealed containers, such as Pelican cases and SKB cases, often have a pressure release vent that can become blocked and cause rupture of the container during change in elevation. Similarly, acoustic suspension speakers have such need for ventilation.

C. L. Blood

Charles Lewis Blood (September 8, 1835 – September 27, 1908; alias C. H. Lewis et al.) was an American con artist and self-styled physician who operated in Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, and Chicago. He produced a patent medicine treatment known as "oxygenized air", which he promoted as a cure for catarrh, scrofula, consumption, and diseases of the respiratory tract.

Catarrh, South Carolina

Catarrh, South Carolina, United States is an unincorporated community in western Chesterfield County. Jefferson is 6 miles NNW and McBee is 9.2 miles SE. Catarrh appears on the Angelus, South Carolina Geological Survey Map. Catarrh falls within the Jefferson, South Carolina zip code 29718.

Congestive hepatopathy

Congestive hepatopathy, also known as nutmeg liver and chronic passive congestion of the liver, is liver dysfunction due to venous congestion, usually due to congestive heart failure. The gross pathological appearance of a liver affected by chronic passive congestion is "speckled" like a grated nutmeg kernel; the dark spots represent the dilated and congested hepatic venules and small hepatic veins. The paler areas are unaffected surrounding liver tissue. When severe and longstanding, hepatic congestion can lead to fibrosis; if congestion is due to right heart failure, it is called cardiac cirrhosis.


Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid. It makes the eye appear pink or reddish. Pain, burning, scratchiness, or itchiness may occur. The affected eye may have increased tears or be "stuck shut" in the morning. Swelling of the white part of the eye may also occur. Itching is more common in cases due to allergies. Conjunctivitis can affect one or both eyes.The most common infectious causes are viral followed by bacterial. The viral infection may occur along with other symptoms of a common cold. Both viral and bacterial cases are easily spread between people. Allergies to pollen or animal hair are also a common cause. Diagnosis is often based on signs and symptoms. Occasionally, a sample of the discharge is sent for culture.Prevention is partly by handwashing. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. In the majority of viral cases, there is no specific treatment. Most cases due to a bacterial infection also resolve without treatment; however, antibiotics can shorten the illness. People who wear contact lenses and those whose infection is caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia should be treated. Allergic cases can be treated with antihistamines or mast cell inhibitor drops.About 3 to 6 million people get conjunctivitis each year in the United States. In adults, viral causes are more common, while in children, bacterial causes are more common. Typically, people get better in one or two weeks. If visual loss, significant pain, sensitivity to light, signs of herpes, or if symptoms do not improve after a week, further diagnosis and treatment may be required. Conjunctivitis in a newborn, known as neonatal conjunctivitis, may also require specific treatment.

Esperanto words with the suffix -um

Esperanto derivation is for the most part regular and predictable: One can normally understand new words that are built upon known roots, and can create new words on the fly while speaking. However, there is a suffix -um- that has no inherent meaning, but derives words that cannot be readily derived with dedicated affixes. Such derivations must be memorized individually, though because the root already exists, they may be more easily learned than a completely new word. Because of its irregularity and unpredictability, over-use of the suffix -um- is discouraged. Over time substitutes have been developed for some of the original -um- words and new ones have been coined. Regular derivations may in some cases substitute for a word in -um-; in other cases they may be similar but not exact replacements; and in still others, a substitutable word may be considered jargon (like using 'a catarrh' for 'a cold' in English).

Franz Leopold Lafontaine

Franz Anton Leopold Lafontaine (14 January 1756 – 12 December 1812) was an eminent military surgeon. He was known as the editor of the first Polish medical journal and for his work on catarrh.

Lafontaine was the maternal grandfather of Princess Julia of Battenberg. He is an ancestor of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and his descendants including his son Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the throne of the United Kingdom. He is also an ancestor of the former Queen consort Victoria Eugenie of Spain and the present Spanish Royal Family.

Hot Dogma

Hot Dogma, released on 1 October 1990, is the second full-length album by anonymous Australian band TISM. It was their major label debut on Phonogram Records, which peaked in the top 100 on the ARIA Albums Chart. The title comes from a joining of the two phrases hot dog, a food, and dogma, a specific religious belief. An additional disc, Hot Dogma - The Interview Disc was added to initial sales copies and contains live responses by TISM to an unheard DJs questions.

Meum athamanticum

Meum athamanticum is a glabrous, highly aromatic (aroma compound), perennial plant - the only species (monotypic) in the genus Meum, belonging to the family Apiaceae. Common names in the U.K. include Baldmoney, Spignel,(also Spiknel and Spikenel) and Meu.

It is a plant of grassland, often on limestone, in mountain districts of Western Europe and Central Europe, its range extending as far south as the Sierra Nevada (Spain) of Andalucia, and central Bulgaria in the Balkans.

It is not a very common plant in the U.K., being found in only a few localities in N. England and N. Wales although a little more plentiful in Scotland - where it is found as far north as Argyll and Aberdeenshire.Meum has been cultivated in Scotland, where the roots were eaten as a root vegetable. The delicate, feathery foliage has been used as a condiment and in the preparation of a wide variety of home remedies as a diuretic, to control menstruation and uterine complaints and to treat catarrh, hysteria and stomach ailments.The scent of the roots of Meum has much in common with those of two other edible/medicinal umbellifers : Levisticum officinale and Angelica archangelica, while the aromatic flavour of Meum leaves is somewhat like Melilot (which owes its aroma of new-mown hay to coumarin) and is communicated to milk and butter when cows feed on the foliage in Spring. The curious name Baldmoney is said to be derived from the name of the god Baldr (Scandinavian mythology) - to whom the plant was dedicated. In German it is known as Bärwurz [bear wort], feminine gender (die) for the plant and masculine gender (der) for a variety of Bavarian schnapps which is flavoured with its extract.

Myrica faya

Myrica faya (firetree, faya or haya; syn. Morella faya (Ait.) Wilbur) is a species of Myrica, native to Macaronesia (the Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands), and possibly also southern Portugal.

It is an evergreen shrub or small tree 3–8 m tall, rarely up to 15 m tall. The leaves are usually a dark, glossy green, 4–11 cm long and 1–3 cm broad, with an entire margin and a bluntly pointed apex. It easily grows in any type of soil.

It is subdioecious, with the male and female flowers produced largely on separate plants, but often with a few flowers of the other sex present (Binggeli 1997). The male flowers have four stamens and are normally produced in clumps close to the branch. The female flowers, usually occurring in similar groups grow slightly farther from the branch tips. The fruit is an edible drupe 5–6 mm diameter, it is a reddish purple ripening dark purple to black. It is used as an astringent remedy for catarrh (Pérez 1999, Rushforth 1999).

In Macaronesian islands it occurs most abundantly at altitudes of 600–900 m. The Portuguese population may be native or naturalised following early importation from Madeira or the Azores (Rushforth 1999). It is an invasive species in Hawaii (Vitousek et al. 1987), where it displaces native trees such as Metrosideros polymorpha, with profound impacts on nitrogen cycling (Vitousek & Walker 1989).

Prasat Suor Prat

Prasat Suor Prat (Khmer: ប្រាសាទសួព្រ័ត) is a series of twelve towers spanning north to south lining the eastern side of a royal square in Angkor Thom, near the town of Siem Reap, Cambodia. The towers are made from rugged laterite and sandstone. They are right in front of Terrace of the Elephants and Terrace of the Leper King, flanking the start of the road leading east to the Victory Gate, on either side of which they are symmetrically arranged. Their function remains unknown.The current tower's name in Khmer means "The towers of the tightrope dancers," a romantic idea derived from the local belief that they were used to support a high wire stretched between them for acrobatics during royal festivals. This belief, however, is irrelevant. Zhou Daguan describes in his records that the towers are used to settle disputes among Angkorian people.

The temple was possible built during the reign of Indravarman II.

Among the twelve towers, the structures identified as N1 tower and N2 antechamber were in danger of collapse and were reconstructed in 2001-2005 by JSA (Japanese Government Team for Safeguarding of Angkor) and APSARA.

Richard Hargrave

Richard Hargrave (1 February 1817 – 19 January 1905) was a former Australian politician and a pastoralist.

Hargrave was born to Joshua Hargrave and Sarah Hargrave (née Lee) on 1 February 1817 at Greenwich, England. His father was a hardware merchant.

He arrived in Sydney in 1838 on board the Argyle and went to work on Combelong Station at Monaro for Messrs Hughes and Hosking. The following year he became a partner of the Callendoon Station and the Goondiwini Stations on the Macintyre River. He founded Beeboo and Whylm on the Severn River. In 1843, he lost everything along with his partners following the financial collapse of the New South Wales economy in that year. His merchant father refinanced Hargrave and he was able to purchase 21,000 acres (85 km2) at Armidale which he named "Hillgrove Station". He also acquired leases for Bostobrick and Tyringham and Hernani in New England. He was said to be involved in much conflict with the local Aboriginal population. He married Mary William on 16 February 1847 at Sydney. They had six sons and one daughter.Was a member for New England and Macleay from 17 April 1856 to 19 December 1857 in the first New South Wales Legislative Assembly. During his time as a member he was a member of the following committees:

Elections and Qualifications Committee

Impounding Laws Committee

Australian Trust Company’s Bill Committee

Petition of Mr David Cross Committee

Elections and Qualifications Committee

Reclaiming Land, Woolloomooloo Bay Committee

Secondary Punishment Committee

Scab and Catarrh in Sheep Committee

Australian Gas Company’s Light Bill CommitteeAfter politics, he and his wife retired to Armidale and moved into a cottage near the railway station. The street where they lived is now named Hargrave Street after them. He died at Armidale on 19 January 1905.His brother John Hargrave also served in the New South Wales Parliament after arriving in New South Wales in 1857. His brother went on to become Solicitor-General, Attorney General and a judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales. His nephew Lawrence Hargrave was the inventor of the box or cellular kite. Hargrave’s great, greatson Rick Colless is a current serving member of the New South Wales Parliament.

Samuel Brubaker Hartman

Samuel Brubaker Hartman (April 1, 1830 - January 30, 1918) was an American physician and multi-millionaire quack who patented the renowned "miracle cure" Peruna. His particular "genius" was in redefining catarrh as the source of all disease. So then, pneumonia and tuberculosis were catarrh of the lungs, cancer sores were catarrh of the mouth; appendicitis, catarrh of the appendix, and so forth.Hartman was one of the most successful patent medicine manufacturers of the 19th century and produced numerous publications through his own company, most of which promoted his medicine Pe-ru-na.

South Carolina Highway 157

South Carolina Highway 157 (SC 157) is a 10.2-mile-long (16.4 km) state highway in the Sandhills region of South Carolina. Though it physically runs west to east, it is signed as a north-south road. Its southern terminus at its westernmost point at SC 341 in Kershaw, Lancaster County and its northern terminus (eastern end) at SC 346 about two miles (3.2 km) west of Catarrh in rural Kershaw County.

South Carolina Highway 346

South Carolina Highway 346 (SC 346) is a 12.6-mile-long (20.3 km) state highway in Kershaw County, South Carolina. It is a north-south highway running between Bethune at SC 341 and SC 903 about two miles (3.2 km) west of Catarrh. Except within Bethune, it runs through rural wooded areas of the Sandhills region of the state.

South Carolina Highway 903

South Carolina Highway 903 (SC 903) is a primary state highway in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It connects Lancaster to Darlington, Florence, and the Grand Strand.

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) or spring catarrh is a recurrent, bilateral, and self-limiting inflammation of conjunctiva, having a periodic seasonal incidence.

Violet ray

A violet ray is an antique medical appliance used during the early 20th century in electrotherapy. Their construction usually featured a disruptive discharge coil with an interrupter to apply a high voltage, high frequency, low current to the human body for therapeutic purposes.

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