Catania

Catania (UK: /kəˈteɪniə, -ˈtɑːn-/, US: /-njə, kəˈtæniə/,[3][4] Sicilian and Italian: [kaˈtaːnja] (listen)) is the second largest city of Sicily after Palermo located on the east coast facing the Ionian Sea. It is the capital of the Metropolitan City of Catania, one of the ten biggest cities in Italy, and the seventh largest metropolitan area in Italy. The population of the city proper is 320,000 while the population of the city's metropolitan area, Metropolitan City of Catania, stood at 1,116,168 inhabitants.

Catania was destroyed by catastrophic earthquakes in 1169[5] and 1693, and by several volcanic eruptions from the neighbouring Mount Etna, the most violent of which was in 1669.[5]

Catania was founded in the 8th century BC by Chalcidians.[5] In 1434, the first university in Sicily was founded in the city.[5] In the 14th century and into the Renaissance period, Catania was one of Italy's most important cultural, artistic and political centres.[5]

The city is noted for its history, culture, architecture and gastronomy. Its old town, besides being one of the biggest examples of baroque architecture in Italy, is a World Heritage Site, protected by UNESCO.

Catania has been a native or adoptive homeland of some of Italy's most famous artists and writers, including composers Vincenzo Bellini and Giovanni Pacini, and writers Giovanni Verga, Luigi Capuana, Federico De Roberto and Nino Martoglio.

The city is the main industrial, logistical and commercial center of Sicily. It is the home of the Catania-Fontanarossa Airport, the largest in Southern Italy.

Catania
Comune di Catania
Catania skyline
Catania skyline
Flag of Catania

Flag
Location of Catania
Catania is located in Italy
Catania
Catania
Location of Catania in Sicily
Catania is located in Sicily
Catania
Catania
Catania (Sicily)
Coordinates: 37°30′0″N 15°5′25″E / 37.50000°N 15.09028°ECoordinates: 37°30′0″N 15°5′25″E / 37.50000°N 15.09028°E
CountryItaly
RegionSicily
Metropolitan cityCatania (CT)
FrazioniBicocca, Codavolpe, Junghetto, Pantano d'Arci, Paradiso degli Aranci, Passo Cavaliere, Passo del Fico, Passo Martino, Primosole, Reitano, Vaccarizzo, Villaggio Delfino
Government
 • MayorSalvo Pogliese (FI)
Area
 • Total182.9 km2 (70.6 sq mi)
Elevation
7 m (23 ft)
Population
(2018-01-01)[2]
 • Total311,620
 • Density1,700/km2 (4,400/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Catanese
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
95100
Dialing code095
ISTAT code087015
Patron saintSt. Agatha
Saint dayFebruary 5
WebsiteOfficial website
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Part ofLate Baroque Towns of the Val di Noto (South-Eastern Sicily)
CriteriaCultural: (i)(ii)(iv)(v)
Reference1024rev-002
Inscription2002 (26th Session)
Area38.5 ha (4,140,000 sq ft)
Buffer zone80.13 ha (8,625,000 sq ft)
Catania BW 2012-10-06 09-52-47
Piazza Duomo (Cathedral Square)
Catane Fontana Dell elefante
u Liotru, symbol of Catania
MonumentoBelliniCT
Stesichorus Square and Bellini's Monument (Piazza Stesicoro – Monumento a Vincenzo Bellini)

Etymology

The ancient indigenous population of the Sicels named their villages after geographical attributes of their location. The Sicilian word, katane, means "grater, flaying knife, skinning place" or a "crude tool apt to pare". Other translations of the name are "harsh lands", "uneven ground", "sharp stones", or "rugged or rough soil". The latter etymologies are easily justifiable since, for many centuries following an eruption, the city has always been rebuilt within its black-lava landscape.[6] Around 729 BC, the ancient village of Katane became the Chalcidian colony of Katánē where the native population was rapidly Hellenized. The Naxian founders, coming from the adjacent coast, later used the name for their new settlement along the River Amenano.

Around 263 BC, the city was variously known as Catĭna and Catăna (Greek: Κατάνη, Ancient Greek: [katánεː]; Latin: Catana, pronounced [ˈkatana], and Catina.[7]). The former has been primarily used for its supposed assonance with catina, the Latin feminization of the name catinus.[8] Catinus has two meanings: "a gulf, a basin or a bay" and "a bowl, a vessel or a trough", thanks to the city’s distinctive topography.

Around 900, when Catania was part of the emirate of Sicily, it was known in Arabic as Balad al-fīl (بلد الفيل) and Madinat al-fīl (مدينة الفيل). The former means "The Village (or the Country) of the Elephant", while the latter means "The City of the Elephant".[9] The Elephant is the lava sculpture over the fountain in Piazza Duomo. Most likely a prehistoric sculpture that was reforged during the Byzantine Era, it appears to be a talisman that was reputedly powerful enough to protect the city from enemies and to keep away misfortune, plagues, or natural calamities. Another Arab toponym was Qaṭāniyyah (قطانية), allegedly from the Arabic word for the "leguminous plants".[10] Pulses like lentils, beans, peas, broad beans, and lupins were chiefly cultivated in the plains around the city well before the arrival of Aghlabids. Afterwards, many Arabic agronomists developed these crops and the citrus orchards in the area around the city. The toponym Wadi Musa (وادي موسى), or "Valley of Moses" (from the Arabic name of the Simeto River), was rarely used.[10][11][12]

Geography

Catania is located on the east coast of the island of Sicily, at the foot of Mount Etna.

As observed by Strabo, the location of Catania at the foot of Mount Etna has been both a curse and a blessing. On the one hand, violent outbursts of the volcano throughout history have destroyed large parts of the city, whilst on the other hand the volcanic ashes yield fertile soil, especially suited for the growth of vines. (Strab. vi. p. 269)

Two subterranean rivers run under the city; the Amenano, which surfaces at one single point south of Piazza Duomo, and the Longane (or Lognina).[13]

Climate

The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Csa" (Mediterranean Climate).[14] It has hot summers, one of the hottest in the whole country of Italy (a feature characterising nearly every month). Temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) are surpassed almost every year a couple of times,

Winters are mild with chilly nights (not rare peaks around 20 °C or 68 °F) . Most of precipitation is concentrated from October to March, leaving late spring and summer virtually dry (some years there is no rain for 3–4 months). The city receives around 500 millimetres (20 inches) of rain per year, although the amount can vary greatly from year to year (wettest over 1,200 millimetres or 47 inches, driest under 250 millimetres or 9.8 inches,).

During winter nights lows can occasionally go under 0 °C (32 °F). Highs under 10 °C (50 °F) can happen during winter.[15] Snow, due to the presence of Etna that protects the city from the northern winds, is an uncommon occurrence, but occasional snow flurries have been seen over the recent years especially in the hilly districts, more substantial in the northern hinterland. More recently, light snowfalls occurred on 9 February 2015, 6 January 2017 and 5 January 2019, but the last heavy snowfall dates back to 17 December 1988.

Demographics

Cataniavistaarea
An aerial view of the port of Catania

As of January 2015, there are 315.601 people residing in Catania,[17] of whom 47.2% are male and 52.8% are female. Minors (people under age 18) totalled 20.50 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 18.87 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners).

The average age of Catania residents is 41 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Catania declined by 3.35 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.85 percent.[17] The reason for this population decline in the Comune di Catania is mainly due to a large segment of the population leaving the city centre to go to live in the up-town residential areas of the comuni of the Metropolitan Area. As a result of this, while the population in the comune di Catania declines, the population of the hinterland comuni increases making the overall population of the Metropolitan area of Catania increase.[17]

The current birth rate of Catania is 10.07 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births. As of 2006, 98.03% of the population was Italian. The largest immigrant groups come from Sub-Saharan Africa: 0.69%, South Asia: 0.46%, and from other European countries (particularly from Ukraine and Poland): 0.33%.

History

Foundation

Catania was founded as a Greek colony named Κατάνη (Katánē—see also the list of traditional-Greek place names), of Chalcidic origin, under the guidance of a leader named Euarchos (Euarchus).

The exact date of its foundation is not recorded, but it appears from Thucydides that it came into existence slightly later than Leontini (modern Lentini), which he claims was five years after Syracuse, or 730 BC.[18]

Greek Sicily

The only event of its early history that is known about is the legislation of Charondas, the exact date of which is uncertain.

His legislation was extended to the other Chalcidic cities, not only of Sicily, but of Magna Graecia also, as well as to his own country.[19] It is evident that Catania had close relations with these other cities during this time.

Catania appears to have retained its independence up to the reign of the despot Hieron of Syracuse, whereupon in 476 BC he expelled all the original inhabitants of Catania and replaced them with those he ruled over at Leontini - said to have numbered no less than 10,000, consisting partly of Syracusans and Peloponnesians.

At the same time he changed the city's name to Αἴτνη (Aítnē, Aetna or Ætna, after the nearby Mount Etna, and proclaimed himself the Oekist or founder of the new city. For this he was celebrated by Pindar, and after his death he received heroic honors from the citizens of his new colony.[20]

A few years after the death of Hieron and the expulsion of Thrasybulus, the Syracusans combined with Ducetius, king of the Sicels, to expel the newly settled inhabitants of Catania, who went on to settle in the fortress of Inessa (to which they gave the name Aetna). The old Chalcidic citizens were reinstated to the city in 461 BC.[21]

The period that followed appears to have been one of great prosperity for Catania, as well as for the Sicilian cities in general. However, no details from this period of its history are known, until the great Athenian expedition to Sicily (part of the larger Peloponnesian War), when the Athenians invaded the city.

The Catanaeans at first refused to allow the Athenians into their city, but after the latter had forced an entrance, they found themselves compelled to honour the alliance of their invaders. Catania became the headquarters of the Athenian armament throughout the first year of the expedition, and the base of their subsequent operations against Syracuse.[22]

No information exists on the fate of Catania after the Athenian expedition. It is next mentioned in 403 BC when it fell into the power of Dionysius I of Syracuse, who plundered the city and sold its citizens as slaves, after which he established a body of Campanian mercenaries.

These, however, quit in 396 BC and retired to Aetna, on the approach of the great Carthaginian armament under Himilco and Mago. The great naval battle in which the latter defeated Leptines, who was quickly fought off from Catania, and the city fell into the hands of the Carthaginians.[23]

Calippus, the assassin of Dion of Syracuse, held possession of Catania for a time (Plut. Dion. 58); and when Timoleon landed in Sicily Catania was subject to a despot named Mamercus, who at first joined the Corinthian leader, but afterwards abandoned this allegiance for that of the Carthaginians. As a consequence he was attacked and expelled by Timoleon.[24]

Catania was now restored to liberty, and appears to have continued to retain its independence; during the wars of Agathocles with the Carthaginians, it sided at one time with the former, at others with the latter; and when Pyrrhus landed in Sicily, Catania was the first to open its gates to him, and received him with the great splendour.[25]

Catania was the birthplace of the philosopher and legislator Charondas and was also the place of residence of the poet Stesichorus, who was buried in a magnificent sepulchre outside one of the gates, which derived from thence the name of Porta Stesichoreia. (Suda, under Στησίχορος.)

Xenophanes, the philosopher of Elea, also spent the latter years of his life in the city [26] so that it was evidently, at an early period, a place of cultivation and refinement.

The first introduction of dancing to accompany the flute was also ascribed to Andron, a citizen of Catania.[27]

In ancient times Catania was associated with the legend of Amphinomus and Anapias, who, on occasion of a great eruption of Etna, abandoned all their property and carried off their aged parents on their shoulders, the stream of lava itself was said to have parted, and flowed aside so as not to harm them. Statues were erected to their honor, and the place of their burial was known as the Campus Piorum; the Catanaeans even introduced the figures of the youths on their coins, and the legend became a favorite subject of allusion and declamation among the Latin poets, of whom the younger Lucilius and Claudian have dwelt upon it at considerable length.

The occurrence is referred by Hyginus to the first eruption of Etna that took place after the settlement of Catania.[28]

Roman rule

In the First Punic War, Catania was one of the first among the cities of Sicily, which made their submission to the Roman Republic, after the first successes of their arms in 263 BC.[29] The expression of Pliny (vii. 60) who represents it as having been taken by Valerius Messalla, is certainly a mistake.

It appears to have continued afterwards steadily to maintain its friendly relations with Rome, and though it did not enjoy the advantages of a confederate city (foederata civitas), like its neighbors Tauromenium (modern Taormina) and Messana (modern Messina), it rose to a position of great prosperity under the Roman rule.

Cicero repeatedly mentions it as, in his time, a wealthy and flourishing city; it retained its ancient municipal institutions, its chief magistrate bearing the title of Proagorus; and appears to have been one of the principal ports of Sicily for the export of corn.[30]

It subsequently suffered severely from the ravages of Sextus Pompeius, and was in consequence one of the cities to which a colony was sent by Augustus; a measure that appears to have in a great degree restored its prosperity, so that in Strabo's time it was one of the few cities in the island that was in a flourishing condition.[31]

It retained its colonial rank, as well as its prosperity, throughout the period of the Roman Empire; so that in the 4th century Ausonius in his Ordo Nobilium Urbium, notices Catania and Syracuse alone among the cities of Sicily.[32]

One of the most serious eruptions of Mount Etna happened in 121 BC, when great part of Catania was overwhelmed by streams of lava, and the hot ashes fell in such quantities in the city itself, as to break in the roofs of the houses.

Catania was in consequence exempted, for 10 years, from its usual contributions to the Roman state[33] The greater part of the broad tract of plain to the southwest of Catania (now called the Piana di Catania, a district of great fertility), appears to have belonged, in ancient times, to Leontini or Centuripa (modern Centuripe), but that portion of it between Catana itself and the mouth of the Symaethus, was annexed to the territory of the latter city, and must have furnished abundant supplies of grain.

The port of Catania also, which was in great part filled up by the eruption of 1669, appears to have been in ancient times much frequented, and was the chief place of export for the corn of the rich neighboring plains. The little river Amenanus, or Amenas, which flowed through the city, was a very small stream and could never have been navigable.

Middle Ages

OldCatania
Picture of Catania in 1575

Catania was sacked by the Vandals of Gaiseric in 440–441. After a period under the Ostrogoths, it was reconquered in 535 by the Eastern Roman Empire, under which (aside from a short period in 550–555) it remained until the 9th century. It was the seat of the Byzantine governor of the island.

Catania was under the Islamic emirate of Sicily until 1072, when it fell to the Normans of Roger I of Sicily. Subsequently, the city was ruled by a bishop-count. In 1194–1197 the city was sacked by German soldiers during after the conquest of the island by emperor Henry VI. In 1232 it rebelled to the former's son, Frederick II, who later built a massive castle, Castello Ursino and also made Catania a royal city, ending the dominance of the bishops. Catania was one of the main centers of the Sicilian Vespers revolt (1282) against the House of Anjou, and was the seat of the incoronation of the new Aragonese king of Sicily, Peter I. In the 14th century it gained importance as it was chosen by the Aragonese as a Parliament and Royal seat. Here, in 1347, it was signed the treaty of peace that ended the long War of the Vesper between Aragonese and Angevines. Catania lost its capital role when, in the early 15th century, Sicily was turned into a member of the Crown of Aragon, and kept its autonomy and original privileges specially during the period from 1282 to 1410.

In 1434 King Alfonso V founded here the Siciliae Studium Generale, the oldest university in the island.

Early Modern times

Etna eruzione 1669 platania
Mount Etna erupting in 1669

With the unification of Castile and Aragon (early 16th century[34]), Sicily became part of the Spanish Empire. It rebelled against the foreign government in 1516 and 1647.[35]

In 1669 the city's surroundings suffered great material damage from an eruption of Mount Etna. The city itself was largely saved by its walls that diverted most of the lava into the port. Afterwards in 1693 the city was then completely destroyed by a heavy earthquake and its aftershocks. The city was then rebuilt in the Baroque architecture that nowadays characterizes it.

Unified Italy

Catania was one of the vanguards of the movement for the Sicilian autonomy in the early 19th century.

In 1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi's expedition of the Thousand conquered Sicily for Piedmont from the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Since the following year Catania was part of the newly unified Italy, whose history it shares since then.

After heavy fighting across eastern Sicily, Catania was eventually captured by the British 8th Army on 5 August 1943.[36] After the conflict, and the constitution of the Italian Republic (1946), Catania attempted to catch up with the economic and social development of Italy's richer northern regions. The problems faced in Catania were emblematic of those faced by other towns in the Mezzogiorno, namely a heavy gap in industrial development and infrastructures, and the threat of the mafia. This notwithstanding, during the 1960s (and partly during the 1990s) Catania enjoyed development and a period of economic, social and cultural success. In the first decade of the 21st century, Catania's economic and social development somewhat faltered and the city is again facing economic and social stagnation. This was aggravated by the economical crisis left by the Forza Italia administration of mayor Scapagnini in 2008.[37]

Metropolitan area

Catania area metropolitana
The Metropolitan Area of Catania: in red, the city and the hinterland comuni forming the urban belt; in yellow, the province.

The Metropolitan Area of Catania is formed by the Comune of Catania (315,601 inhabitants as of January 2015)[17] and by 26 surrounding comuni[38] forming an urban belt (453,938 inhabitants as of December 2007).[17] The total population of the Metropolitan Area of Catania is therefore 752,895.[17] The comuni forming the Metropolitan Area are:

These comuni form a system with the centre of Catania sharing its economical and social life and forming an organic urban texture.

The Metropolitan Area of Catania should not be mistaken for the Province of Catania, a far broader administrative area that includes 58 comuni and 1,081,915 inhabitants,[17] but does not form an urban system with the city.

Catania administrative divisions

Municipalità di Catania
Municipalities of Catania

The city of Catania is divided in ten administrative areas called Municipalità (Municipalities).[39] The current administrative set-up was established in 1995, modifying previous set-ups dating back to 1971 and 1978.

The ten municipalities of Catania are:

Main sights

Catania BW 2012-10-06 11-32-08 2 fj
Giovanni Battista Vaccarini's Duomo façade (1736) is an example of the city's Sicilian Baroque architecture

The symbol of the city is u Liotru, or the Fontana dell'Elefante, assembled in 1736 by Giovanni Battista Vaccarini. It portrays an ancient lavic stone elephant and is topped by an Egyptian obelisk from Syene. Legend has it that Vaccarini's original elephant was neuter, which the men of Catania took as an insult to their virility. To appease them, Vaccarini appropriately appended elephantine testicles to the original statue.

The Sicilian name u Liotru is a phonetic change of Heliodorus, a nobleman who, after trying without success to become bishop of the city, became a sorcerer and was therefore condemned to the stake. Legend has it that Heliodorus himself was the sculptor of the lava elephant and that he used to magically ride it in his fantastic travels from Catania to Constantinople.[40] Another legend has it that Heliodorus was able to transform himself into an elephant.

The presence of an elephant in the millenary history of Catania is surely connected to both zooarcheology and popular creeds. In fact, the prehistoric fauna of Sicily from the Upper Paleolithic, included dwarf elephants. Paleontologist Othenio Abel suggested that the presence of dwarf elephants in Sicily may be the origin of the legend of the Cyclops. Ancient Greeks, after finding the skulls of dwarf elephants, about twice the size of a human skull, with a large central nasal cavity (mistaken for a large single eye-socket) supposed that they were skulls of giants with a single eye.

The Catanian Museum of Mineralogy, Paleontology and Vulcanology holds the integral unburied skeleton of an Elephas falconeri in an excellent state of conservation. The first inhabitants of Etna molded such lavic artifact to idolize the mythical proboscidian.

Classical buildings

The city has been buried by lava a total of seventeen times in recorded history, and in layers under the present day city are the Roman city that preceded it, and the Greek city before that. Many of the ancient monuments of the Roman city have been destroyed by the numerous seisms. Currently, different ancient remains can be seen and visited in the city-centre, as part of an archaeological park (Parco Archeologico Greco-Romano di Catania).

Catania Greek-Roman theater
The Church of Saint Francis of Assisi backs the Cavea of the Greek-Roman Theatre.
Odeum Catania
The Odeon.
Catania anfiteatro romano2423
Roman Amphitheatre.

Ancient edifices include:

  • Greek-Roman Theatre of Catania (2nd century)
  • Odeon (3rd century). It could house up to 1500 spectators
  • Amphitheatre
  • Greek Acropolis of Montevergine
  • Roman Aqueduct
  • Roman Forum
  • Roman broken arcades
  • Christian basilicas, hypogea, burial monuments and Catacombs
  • Roman Colonnade

Roman thermal structures

  • Achillean Baths
  • Terme dell’Indirizzo
  • Terme di Santa Maria Odigitria
  • Terme della Rotonda
  • Baths of the Four Quoins
  • Terme di Palazzo Asmundo
  • Terme del Palazzo dell’Università
  • Terme di Casa Gagliano
  • Terme della Chiesa di Sant'Antonio Abate
Catania terme indirizzo23434
Roman Thermal Baths of Santa Maria dell'Indirizzo.

Baroque and historical churches

Chiesa di San Placido (Catania)
San Placido
2893 - Catania - Giov. Batt. Vaccarini - Chiesa della Badia di S. Agata (1767) - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto, 4-July-2008
Badìa di Sant'Agata
ChiesaSFrancescoImmacolataCT
San Francesco d'Assisi all'Immacolata
SAgataFornaceEst
Sant'Agata alla Fornace or San Biagio
Chiesa di Santa Maria dell'aiuto (Catania, XVIII sec.)
Santa Maria dell'Aiuto
Catania Chiesa San Benedetto234232
San Benedetto da Norcia
Chiesa di San Francesco Borgia a Catania
San Francesco Borgia

The Baroque city centre of Catania is a UNESCO World Heritage Site

  • The Cathedral (1070–1093, rebuilt after the 1693 earthquake)
  • Saint Agatha Abbey (1620)
  • Saint Placidus (1769)
  • Church of San Giuseppe al Duomo
  • Church of Santissimo Sacramento al Duomo
  • Church of San Martino dei Bianchi
  • Church of Sant'Agata la Vetere (254)
  • Saint Agatha by the Furnace or Saint Blaise (1098, rebuilt in 1700)
  • Church of the Saint Jail or Saint Agatha at the Jail (Santo Carcere or Sant'Agata al Carcere) (1760). This temple includes the ancient jail where Saint Agatha was allegedly imprisoned during her martyrdom.
  • Saint Francis of Assisi at the Immaculate (1329). It still houses the mortal remains of Queen Eleanor of Sicily, who decided and promoted the construction of the principal Franciscan building of Catania on the same place of the once Roman Temple of Minerva
  • Saint Benedict of Nursia (1704–1713)
  • Badìa Grande e Badìa Piccola del Chiostro delle Monache Benedettine
  • Benedictine Nuns' Arch (Arco delle Monache Benedettine)
  • Basilica della Collegiata, a notable example of Sicilian Baroque, whose façade was designed by Stefano Ittar
  • Saint Mary of Ogninella
  • Saint Michael the Lesser
  • Saint Michael Archangel or Minorites' Church
  • Saint Julian
  • Saint Julian's Monastery
  • Santa Teresa di Avila
  • Saint Francis Borgia or Jesuits' Church
  • Convent of the Jesuits
  • Saint Mary of Jesus (1465, restored in 1706)
  • Saint Dominic or Saint Mary the Great (1224)
  • Dominicans Friary (1224)
  • Saint Mary of Purity or Saint Mary of Visitation (1775)
  • Madonna of Graces' Chapel
  • Saint Ursula
  • Saint Agatha on the Lavic Runnels
  • Saint Euplius Old Church Ruins
  • Church of San Gaetano alle Grotte (260)
  • Basilica of the Most Holy Annunciated Mary of Carmel (1729)
  • Saint Agatha by the Borough (1669, destroyed in 1693 and rebuilt in 1709). The "Borough" (il Borgo) is an inner district of Catania.
  • Saint Nicholas by the Borough
  • Church of the Santissimo Sacramento al Borgo
  • Church of Santa Maria della Provvidenza al Borgo
  • Chapel of the Blind's Housing (Ospizio dei Ciechi)
  • Saint Camillus of the Crucifers
  • Benedictine Monastery of San Nicolò l'Arena (1558)
  • Basilica of San Nicola l'Arena (1687)
  • Church of Santa Maria dell'Indirizzo (1730)
  • Saint Clare (1563)
  • Convent of the Poor Clares (1563)
  • Saint Sebastian Martyr (1313)
  • Saint Anne
  • Sanctuary of Santa Maria dell'Aiuto
  • Madonna of Loreto
  • Church of San Giuseppe al Transito
  • Church of Immacolata Concezione dei Minoritelli
  • Church of Sant'Agata al Conservatorio delle Verginelle
  • Church of Santa Maria dell'Itria or Odigitria).
  • Saint Philip Neri
  • Saint Martha
  • Church of the Holy Child
  • Our Lady of Providence
  • Church of San Berillo in Santa Maria degli Ammalati
  • Our Lady of the Poor
  • Church of San Vincenzo de' Paoli
  • Saint John the Baptist, in the suburb of San Giovanni di Galermo
  • Saint Anthony Abbot
  • Little Saviour's Byzantine Chapel
  • Saint Augustine
  • Church of the Most Holy Trinity
  • Church of the Little Virgins
  • Our Lady of the Rotunda
  • Church of the Santissimo Sacramento Ritrovato (1796).[41]
  • Sanctuary of Our Lady of Ognina (1308).[42] Ognina is the maritime quarter and the main fishing pole of Catania. Many bareboats and umpteen smacks gather and crowd here all year round. In its close vicinities there is a cylindric tower, known as Saint Mary's Tower (Torre Santa Maria),[43] which was restructured in the 16th century to prevent the frequent plunders of the Saracen pirates. The church is the result of the gradual modification of the Greek Temple Athena Longatis or Parthenos Longatis that existed on the steep reef. This cult was imported from a Boeotian region of Greece called Longas[44] from where the first Hellenic settlers of this borough probably came. After the earthquake of 1693 it was rebuilt on the same place but with a different orientation.
  • Our Lady of Montserrat (1755)[45]
  • Church of Santa Maria della Salute
  • Saint Mary of La Salette
  • Church of Santa Maria della Mercede
  • Church of Santa Caterina al Rinazzo
  • Our Lady of Concordia
  • Church of Santa Maria della Guardia
  • Our Lady of Consolation
  • Church of Santissimo Crocifisso Maiorana
  • Crucifix of Miracles
  • Crucifix of Good Death
  • Our Lady of La Mecca[46]
  • Saint Cajetan at the Marina
  • Most Holy Redeemer
  • Saint Francis of Paola
  • Church of the Divina Maternità
  • Chapel of Mary Auxiliatrix
  • Chapel of the Sacred Heart of Jesus
  • Church of the Sacro Cuore al Fortino (1898)
  • Saints George and Denis
  • Church of the Sacred Heart of the Capuchins
  • Saint Christopher
  • Saints Cosmas and Damian
  • Church of Santa Maria del Soccorso or Santa Maria della Palma
  • Saint Vitus
  • Church of the Santi Angeli Custodi
  • Church of the Santissimo Salvatore

Other

CastelloUrsino1CT
Castello Ursino
Palazzo delle poste centrali (Catania)
Palazzo delle Poste
Negozio Frigeri, Via Manzoni, Catania, arch. Tommaso Malerba
Negozio Frigeri

Economy

Catania Parco Villa Bellini
Villa Bellini, one of the most visited places

Catania is the first economic and industrial hub of Sicily. The city is famous for its mainly petrochemical industry, and the extraction of sulphur. In the year 2000, according to Census, Catania was the 14th richest city in Italy, with a GDP of US$6.6 billion (€6.304 billion), which was 0.54% of the Italian GDP, a GDP per capita of US$21,000 (€20,100) and an average GDP per employee of US$69,000 (€66,100).[49]

In the late-19th century and early-20th century, Catania began to be heavily industrialised, with its several factories and chimneys, often to the extant that it was referred to as Southern Italy's "Manchester." The economy of Catania suffered heavily from the bad effects of World War I, and was marked by an economic crisis and recession that culminated in the 1920s. Since then, the city lost its industrial and entrepreneurial importance. In the 1930s, Catania remained a small fishing town with derelict and disused industries. However, after the destruction of World War II, Catania's economy began to re-grow in the late-1950s and early-1960s. As a matter of fact, the city's economic growth was so rapid and dynamic that it was often nicknamed the "Milan of the South", or in Italian "Milano del Sud". This rapid economic growth prompted a great number of Sicilians living in the more rural areas, or smaller towns such as Enna, Ragusa and Caltanissetta, to move to the city to seek new jobs.

Today, Catania, despite several problems, has one of the most dynamic economies in the whole of Southern Italy. It still has a strong industrial and agricultural sector, and a fast-growing tourist industry, with many international visitors coming to visit the city's main sights and the nearby Etna volcano. It contains the headquarters or important offices of companies such as STMicroelectronics, and also several chemical and pharmaceutical businesses. There have been several new business developments to further boost Catania's economy, including the construction of Etnapolis,[50] a huge and avant-garde commercial centre designed by Massimiliano Fuksas, the same architect who designed the FieraMilano industrial fair in Milan, or the Etna Valley,[51] where several high-tech offices are located.

Tourism is a fast-growing industry in Catania. Lately the administration and private companies have made several investments in the hospitality industry in order to make tourism a competitive sector in Catania and its province. Nearby, just 12 kilometres (7 miles) from the city, there is Etnaland, a big theme park, which is the largest of its kind in Southern Italy and which attracts thousands of tourists, not only from Sicily, but also from the rest of Italy.

Education

Catania BW 2012-10-06 11-26-20
Historical building of the University, in the city centre. Nowadays the different faculties are hosted in different buildings around town.

The University of Catania dates back to 1434 and it is the oldest university in Sicily.[52] Its academic nicknames are: Siculorum Gymnasium and Siciliae Studium Generale. Nowadays it hosts 12 faculties and over 62,000 students,[53] and it offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs.

Catania hosts the Scuola Superiore, an academic institution linked to the University of Catania, aimed at the excellence in education. The Scuola Superiore di Catania also offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs.[54]

Apart from the University and the Scuola Superiore Catania is base of the prestigious Istituto Musicale Vincenzo Bellini[55] an advanced institute of musical studies (Conservatory) and the Accademia di Belle Arti an advanced institute of artistic studies.[56] Both institutions offer programs of university level for musical and artistic education.

Culture

The opera composer Vincenzo Bellini was born in Catania, and a museum exists at his birthplace. The Teatro Massimo "Vincenzo Bellini", which opened in 1890, is named after the composer. The opera house presents a variety of operas through a season, which run from December to May, many of which are the work of Bellini.

Giovanni Verga was born in Catania in 1840.[57] He became the greatest writer of Verismo, an Italian literary movement akin to Naturalism.[58] His novels portray life among the lower levels of Sicilian society, such as fishermen and stonemasons, and were written in a mixture of both literary language and local dialect.[57] Francesco Longo Mancini was a painter known for paintings of nudes who was born in Catania in 1880.

Candelore-1994
Saint Agatha Festival in February, 1994

The city's patron saint is Saint Agatha, who is celebrated with a religious pageantry, the Festival of Saint Agatha, on February 5 every year.

The city is base of the newspaper La Sicilia and of the TV-channel Antenna Sicilia also known as Sicilia Channel. Several others local television channels and free-press magazines have their headquarters in Catania.

The city is home to the Catania Jazz Festival, which typically runs for several winter months with concerts in different locations.[59] In the late 1980s and during the 1990s Catania had a sparkling and unique popular music scene. Indie pop and indie rock bands, local radio station and dynamic independent music record labels sprung. As a result, in those years the city experienced a vital and effervescent cultural period. Artists like Carmen Consoli and Mario Venuti and internationally known indie rock bands like Uzeda came out of this cultural milieu.

The city is the home of Amatori Catania rugby union team, Calcio Catania football team and Orizzonte Catania, the latter being a women's water polo club, winning eight European Champions Cup titles from 1994 to 2008. Noted Italian basketball coach Ettore Messina is a native of Catania. The city also hosted the first ever qualification tournament for the Rugby World Cup Sevens in 1992, and the associated Etna Cup, which was won by the host Sicily team. In addition, the Catania Elephants are currently members of the Italian Football League.

Catania also hosted the 2011 FIE Fencing World Championships.

Cuisine

Tris di granite
Tris di granite (trio of granitas) with strawberry, mandarin and almond flavors

Catania has a unique cuisine, with strong Sicilian traits. Dishes such as Pasta alla Norma are from the city. Pasta alla Norma is a pasta dish made out of macaroni-like penne, tomato sauce, largely sliced aubergines, and often topped with salty ricotta, or ricotta salata in Italian. Granita, a popular flavoured sherbet, is believed to hail from the city too. Blood oranges, such as the famous tarocco, are common to the city and others. Another famous plate is horse's meat, usually cooked on coals and sold on the streets and at restaurants. In Castello Ursino's surroundings are located the most famous horse's meat restaurants with lots of different price ranges. However, the most famous and traditional food are the Arancini. It is a rice croquette stuffed with any kind of ingredients such as meat sauce, mushrooms, pistachio, smoked salmon ... It has an orange colour because of the saffron used. The arancini are on sale in any Tavola Calda shop and they can be eaten at any time of the day.

Transport

Catania has a commercial seaport (Catania seaport), an international airport (Catania Fontanarossa), a central railway station (Catania Centrale) and it is a main node of the Sicilian motorway system.

The motorways serving Catania are the A18 Messina-Catania and the A19 Palermo-Catania; extensions of the A18 going from Catania to Syracuse and to Gela are currently under construction.

The Circumetnea is a narrow-gauge railway that runs for 110 km (68 mi) from Catania round the base of Mount Etna. It attains the height of 976 m (3,202.10 ft) above sea level before descending to rejoin the coast at Giarre-Riposto to the North.

In the late 1990s the first line of an underground railway (Metropolitana di Catania) was built. The underground service started in 1999 and it is currently active on a route of 8.8 km (5.5 mi), from the station Nesima (West of town), passing through the stations of San Nullo, Cibali (still under construction), Milo, Borgo, Giuffrida, Italia, Galatea, Giovanni XXIII, to Stesicoro. These two stations, bringing Catania Underground in the city centre, have opened on 20 December 2016[60] First line is planned to extend from the satellite city of Paternò to Fontanarossa Airport.

Catania Public Transportation Statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Catania, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 56 min. 13% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 23 min, while 46% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.7 km, while 3% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[61]

Notable residents

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Catania is sister cities with:

Influence on the planning of Adelaide, Australia

The site of what was to become the major Australian city of Adelaide was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia. In 1823, Light had fondly written of Catania: "The two principal streets cross each other at right angles in the square in the direction of north and south and east and west. They are wide and spacious and about a mile [1.6 km] long". This became the basis for his plan of Adelaide.[65]

References

  1. ^ "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Catania" (US) and "Catania". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  4. ^ "Catania". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
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  6. ^ "The meaning of the name Catania". Sicilia.indettaglio.it. 2006-11-04. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
  7. ^ Roman writers fluctuate between the two forms Catana and Catina, of which the latter is, perhaps, the most common, and is supported by inscriptions (Orell. 3708, 3778); but the analogy of the Greek Κατάνη, and the modern Catania, would point to the former as the more correct.
  8. ^ Holm Adolf (1925), Catania Antica, G. Libertini
  9. ^ Amari Michele, Edrisi, Il Libro di Re Ruggero, Vol. I p.71
  10. ^ a b Various authors (1987), Enciclopedia di Catania, Tringale
  11. ^ Correnti Santi (1981), La Città Semprerifiorente, Catania, Greco
  12. ^ Correnti Santi & Spartà Santino (2007), Le Strade di Catania, Rome, Newton Compton
  13. ^ Giuffrida Tino, Catania dalle origini alla dominazione normanna, Catania, Bonaccorso. Excerpt here (in Italian) [1]
  14. ^ Climate Summary from Weatherbase.com (Catania, Italy)
  15. ^ https://www.ilmeteo.it/portale/archivio-meteo/Catania
  16. ^ "Climatological Information for Catania, Italy" - Hong Kong Observatory
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  18. ^ Thuc. vi. 3; Strabo vi. p. 268; Scymnus 286; Scylax § 13; Stephanus of Byzantium s. v.
  19. ^ Aristotle, Pol. ii. 9.
  20. ^ Diodorus xi. 49, in 66; Strabo l.c.; Pind. Pyth. i., and Schol. ad loc.
  21. ^ Diod. xi. 76; Strabo l. c.)
  22. ^ Thuc. vi. 50–52, 63, 71, 89; Diod. xiii. 4, 6, 7; Plut. Nic. 15, 16.
  23. ^ Diod. xiv. 15, 58, 60.
  24. ^ Diod. xvi. 69; Plut. Timol. 13, 30–34.
  25. ^ Diod. xix. 110, xxii. 8, Exc. Hoesch. p. 496.
  26. ^ Diog. Laert. ix. 2. § 1.
  27. ^ Athen. i. p. 22, c.
  28. ^ Strabo vi. p. 269; Pausanias x. 28. § 4; Conon, Narr. 43; Philostr. Vit. Apoll. v. 17; Gaius Julius Solinus 5. § 15; Gaius Julius Hyginus 254; Valerius Maximus v. 4. Ext. § 4; Lucil. Aetn. 602-40; Claudian. Idyll. 7; Silius Italicus xiv. 196; Auson. Ordo Nob. Urb. 11.
  29. ^ Eutrop. ii. 19.
  30. ^ Cicero In Verrem iii. 4. 3, 83, iv. 23, 45; Livy xxvii. 8.
  31. ^ Strabo vi. pp. 268, 270, 272; Dion Cassius iv. 7.
  32. ^ Pliny iii. 8. s. 14; Ptol. iii. 4. § 9; Itin. Ant. pp. 87,90, 93, 94.
  33. ^ Oros. v. 13.
  34. ^ Ferdinand II of Aragon became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458.
  35. ^ Translation of an eye-witness account of the 1647 rebellion
  36. ^ The Invasion of Sicily 1943 By Jon Diamond, pg. 212-214
  37. ^ Documentary about the conditions of the city after the financial turmoil (in Italian)
  38. ^ "The Metropolitan Area of Catania defined by ANCI Sicilia (National Association of Comuni Italiani)". Anci.sicilia.it. Archived from the original on 2010-12-08. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
  39. ^ "Le dieci Municipalità catanesi:" [The ten Municipalities of Catania:]. Comune di Catania (in Italian). Retrieved 2018-02-17.
  40. ^ Amari Michele (1933), Storia dei Musulmani di Sicilia, Catania, Nallino, Vol. I, pp. 344–345
  41. ^ "Santissimo Sacramento Ritrovato – Home". Sacramentoritrovato.com. 2009-03-16. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  42. ^ "Santa Maria di Lognina". Etanland on line (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2009-05-28. Retrieved 2008-08-20.
  43. ^ "Catania, Torre di Ognina" [Saint Mary's Tower of Ognina]. Mondi medievali (in Italian). Archeoambiente e Giuseppe Tropea.
  44. ^ "Athena Longatis". Mythindex.com. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
  45. ^ "Home Page Parrocchia N.S. di Monserrato". Parrocchie.it. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  46. ^ La Mecca is not the Saudi holy city, but a vernacular Catanian word that identifies a "silk mill" that existed, in effect, in its vicinity.
  47. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission – Catania War Cemetery [3]
  48. ^ Veterans Affairs Canada – Anciens Combattants Canada – Catania War Cemetery [4]
  49. ^ "La ricchezza del territorio italiano". webcache.googleusercontent.com. Archived from the original on 2004-03-18. Retrieved 2010-06-01.
  50. ^ "home". Centroetnapolis.it. Archived from the original on 2010-06-17. Retrieved 2010-06-01.
  51. ^ "Oggi la chiamano Etna Valley: i progetti, le aziende, il lavoro nel territorio di Catania". Etnavalley.com. 2010-04-29. Archived from the original on 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2010-06-01.
  52. ^ Giuseppe Giarrizzo. "La nostra storia" [Our History] (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2012-08-30.
  53. ^ "La storia dell'Ateneo scritta da Giarrizzo" [The History of the University by Giarrizzo] (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2012-07-20.
  54. ^ "Scuola Superiore di Catania" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2009-08-03.
  55. ^ "Musical Institute Vincenzo Bellini – Official site". Istitutobellini.it. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
  56. ^ "Academy of Fine Arts of Catania". Italian official site. Retrieved 2011-04-05.
  57. ^ a b Drabble, Margaret (1985). "The Oxford Companion to English Literature: Verga, Giovanni" (5th ed.). London: Guild Publishing: 1026.
  58. ^ Drabble, Margaret (1985). "The Oxford Companion to English Literature: Verismo" (5th ed.). London: Guild Publishing: 1026.
  59. ^ Catania Jazz Festival, Traghettiper-sicilia.it, retrieved 5 February 2017
  60. ^ Underground railway of Catania from Subways.net [5] and from CityRailways.net in (in Italian)[6] and (in English)(translation)[7]
  61. ^ "Catania Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017. CC-BY icon.svg Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  62. ^ "Phoenix Sister Cities". Phoenix Sister Cities. Archived from the original on 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2013-08-06.
  63. ^ Jérôme Steffenino, Marguerite Masson. "Ville de Grenoble –Coopérations et villes jumelles". Grenoble.fr. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
  64. ^ lasicilia.it. "Catania-Ottawa, gemellaggio hi tech. Missione in Canada per stringere accordi di collaborazione" (in Italian).
  65. ^ Johnson and Langmead, The Adelaide city plan: fiction and fact, Wakefield Press, 1986.

Sources

  • Amico, Vito Maria (1740). Catana Illustrata.
  • Correnti, Santi (1981). La Città Semprerifiorente. Catania: Greco.
  • Correnti, Santi (2001). Cataniamia. Catania: Greco.
  • Correnti, Santi; Santino Spartà (2007). Le strade di Catania, Rome. Newton & Compton.
  • Various. Enciclopedia di Catania. Tringale.
  • Ilaria Di Pietra, Catania. Viaggi e viaggiatori nella città del vulcano, Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania 2007
  • Antonino Recupero, Catania. Città del mediterraneo, (Fotografia di Alfio Garozzo. Prefazione di Andrea Camilleri), Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania 2007, ISBN 978-88-7751-273-4
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Further reading

External links

2006–07 Serie A

The 2006–07 Serie A season (officially known as the Serie A TIM 2006–2007) began 2 September 2006. It was scheduled to begin on 26 and 27 August, but was then postponed due to the 2006 Italian football scandal. It was the 104th Italian championship held, the first without the presence of Juventus, and the 75th Serie A league, the first being held in 1929. On 22 April 2007, Internazionale became Serie A champions after defeating Siena, as Roma's loss to Atalanta left Inter with a 16-point advantage with five matches to play.

Agatha of Sicily

Saint Agatha of Sicily (c. 231 – c. 251 AD) is a Christian saint. Her memorial is on 5 February. Agatha was born at Catania or Palermo, Sicily, and she was martyred in approximately 251. She is one of seven women, who, along with the Blessed Virgin Mary, are commemorated by name in the Canon of the Mass.She is the patron saint of Catania, Molise, Malta, San Marino, and Zamarramala, a municipality of the Province of Segovia in Spain. She is also the patron saint of breast cancer patients, martyrs, wet nurses, bell-founders, bakers, fire, earthquakes, and eruptions of Mount Etna.

Calcio Catania

Calcio Catania, commonly referred to as Catania, is an Italian football club founded in 1929 and based in Catania, Sicily. They currently compete in Serie C, the third tier of the Italian football league system, and host home games at the Stadio Angelo Massimino.

The club has achieved moderate success in the top league, with the highest position ever reached by the club is eighth in Serie A, done four times: during the early 1960s and again in 2012–13. The furthest Catania have progressed in cup competitions is the final of the Coppa delle Alpi. Catania have a long-standing rivalry with fellow islanders Palermo, with whom they have contested the Derby di Sicilia since 1936.

Caltagirone

Caltagirone (Italian: [kaltadʒiˈroːne]; Sicilian: Caltaggiruni [kaltaddʒɪˈɾuːnɪ]) is an inland city and comune in the Metropolitan City of Catania, on the island (and region) of Sicily, southern Italy, about 70 kilometres (43 mi) southwest of Catania. It is the fifth most populous municipality of the Metropolitan City, behind Catania, Acireale, Misterbianco and Paternò. Alongside Catania, it is the only town who is seat of a tribunal in the former province. Since 1987, the comune has obtained the City title, through presidential act. After Caltanissetta, it is the second most populous comune in Central Sicily.

The town is a production center of pottery, particularly maiolica and terra-cotta wares. Nowadays, the production is more and more oriented to artistic production of ceramics and terra-cotta sculptures. Other activities are mainly related to agriculture (production of grapes, olives, peaches), third-sector activities and tourism.

Catania Metro

The Catania Metro (Italian: Metropolitana di Catania) is a rapid transit system serving the city of Catania, Sicily, in southern Italy. It is the southernmost metro system in Europe.

The Catania Metro has been in operation since June 27, 1999.

Catania–Fontanarossa Airport

Catania–Fontanarossa Airport (Italian: Aeroporto Internazionale Vincenzo Bellini di Catania-Fontanarossa) (IATA: CTA, ICAO: LICC), also known as Vincenzo Bellini Airport, is an international airport 2.3 NM (4.3 km; 2.6 mi) southwest of Catania, the second largest city on the Italian island of Sicily. It is named after the opera composer Vincenzo Bellini, who was born in Catania.

It is the busiest airport in Sicily and the fifth busiest in Italy with 9.933.318 passengers in 2018. Major airlines such as Alitalia, Lufthansa and KLM offer services here and connect numerous European destinations such as Rome, Munich, Amsterdam and Berlin, while low-cost airlines such as easyJet and Ryanair offer flights to leisure destinations.

With nearly two million passengers carried in 2016, the Catania/Fontanarossa - Rome/Fiumicino route is Italy's busiest air route, and Europe's fourth busiest.

LEN Euro League Women

The LEN Euro League Women, formerly known as LEN European Cup (from 1987 to 1999) and LEN Champions Cup (from 1999 to 2013), is the premier competition for women's water polo clubs of Europe and takes place every year. It is organized by the Ligue Européenne de Natation (LEN) and was created in 1987 as LEN European Cup.

List of railway stations in Sicily

This is the list of the railway stations in Sicily owned by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, a branch of the Italian state company Ferrovie dello Stato.

Metropolitan City of Catania

The Metropolitan City of Catania (Italian: Città metropolitana di Catania) is a metropolitan city in Sicily, southern Italy. Its capital is the city of Catania. It replaced the Province of Catania and comprises the city of Catania and other 57 municipalities (comuni).

Militello in Val di Catania

Militello in Val di Catania (Sicilian: Militeddu) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Catania in the Italian region Sicily, located about 160 kilometres (99 mi) southeast of Palermo and about 35 kilometres (22 mi) southwest of Catania, on the last slopes of the Hyblaean Mountains. It has a railway station on the line Catania-Gela.

Mount Etna

Mount Etna, or Etna (Italian: Etna [ˈɛtna] or Mongibello [mondʒiˈbɛllo]; Sicilian: Mungibeddu [mʊndʒɪbˈbɛɖɖʊ] or â Muntagna; Latin: Aetna), is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Catania, between the cities of Messina and Catania. It lies above the convergent plate margin between the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate. It is the highest active volcano in Europe outside the Caucasus. It is currently 3,326 m (10,912 ft) high, though this varies with summit eruptions. It is the highest peak in Italy south of the Alps. Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 (459 sq mi) with a basal circumference of 140 km (87 miles). This makes it by far the largest of the three active volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. Only Mount Teide on Tenerife in the Canary Islands surpasses it in the whole of the European–North-African region west of the Black Sea. In Greek Mythology, the deadly monster Typhon was trapped under this mountain by Zeus, the god of the sky and thunder and king of gods, and the forges of Hephaestus were said to also be located underneath it.Mount Etna is one of the world’s most active volcanoes and is in an almost constant state of activity. The fertile volcanic soils support extensive agriculture, with vineyards and orchards spread across the lower slopes of the mountain and the broad Plain of Catania to the south. Due to its history of recent activity and nearby population, Mount Etna has been designated a Decade Volcano by the United Nations. In June 2013, it was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Pasquale Marino

Pasquale Marino (born 13 July 1962) is an Italian football manager of Spezia and former midfielder.

Pasta alla Norma

Pasta alla Norma (pronounced [ˈpasta alla ˈnɔrma]) is one of the most well known Italian pasta dishes. It is typical of the Sicilian cuisine created originally in Catania, Sicily, Italy.

The original recipe is made with macaroni (typical italian pasta), tomatoes, fried aubergines (eggplant), grated ricotta salata cheese, and basil.

The name of the dish is said to originate from the apocryphal exclamation by the Italian writer Nino Martoglio who, upon tasting the dish, exclaimed "This is a real 'Norma'!", comparing it with the exceptional perfection of the Vincenzo Bellini opera Norma.

Province of Catania

The Province of Catania (Italian: Provincia di Catania; Sicilian: Pruvincia di Catania) was a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in southern Italy. Its capital was the city of Catania. It was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Catania starting from 4 August 2015.

Serie B

Serie B (Italian pronunciation: [ˈsɛːrje ˈbi]), currently named Serie BKT for sponsorship reasons, is the second-highest division in the Italian football league system after the Serie A. It has been operating for over eighty years since the 1929–30 season. It had been organized by Lega Calcio until 2010, when the Lega Serie B was created for the 2010–11 season. Common nicknames for the league are campionato cadetto and cadetteria, as cadetto is the Italian for junior or cadet.

Sicily

Sicily (Italian: Sicilia [siˈtʃiːlja]; Sicilian: Sicilia [sɪˈʃiːlja]) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana.

Sicily is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe, and one of the most active in the world, currently 3,329 m (10,922 ft) high. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate.

The earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on the island dates from as early as 12,000 BC. By around 750 BC, Sicily had three Phoenician and a dozen Greek colonies and, for the next 600 years, it was the site of the Sicilian Wars and the Punic Wars. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, Sicily was ruled during the Early Middle Ages by the Vandals, the Ostrogoths, the Byzantine Empire, and the Emirate of Sicily. The Norman conquest of southern Italy led to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, which was subsequently ruled by the Hohenstaufen, the Capetian House of Anjou, Spain, and the House of Habsburg. It was finally unified under the House of Bourbon with the Kingdom of Naples as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. It became part of Italy in 1860 following the Expedition of the Thousand, a revolt led by Giuseppe Garibaldi during the Italian unification, and a plebiscite. Sicily was given special status as an autonomous region on 15th May 1946, 18 days before the Italian constitutional referendum of 1946. Albeit, much of the autonomy still remains unapplied, especially financial autonomy, because the autonomy-activating laws have been deferred to be approved by the parithetic committee (50% Italian State, 50% Regione Siciliana), since 1946.

Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature, cuisine, and architecture. It is also home to important archaeological and ancient sites, such as the Necropolis of Pantalica, the Valley of the Temples, Erice and Selinunte.

Stadio Angelo Massimino

Stadio Angelo Massimino (previously known as Stadio Cibali) is a multi-use stadium in Catania, Italy. It is used mostly for football matches and the home of Calcio Catania. The stadium was built in 1935 by architect Raffaele Leone on behalf of the company owned by the engineer Antonio Ferro and holds 20,266. It was renamed in 2002 after former Catania chairman Angelo Massimino.

Catania was banned from playing any Serie A matches inside the stadium from 14 February 2007 until 30 June 2007. This was due to the violence that occurred on 2 February 2007 outside the stadium in the clash against Palermo which resulted in the death of a Police Officer.

The Real Housewives of New Jersey

The Real Housewives of New Jersey (abbreviated RHONJ) is an American reality television series that premiered on May 12, 2009, on Bravo. Developed as the fourth installment of The Real Housewives franchise, following The Real Housewives of Orange County, New York City, and Atlanta, it has aired eight seasons and focuses on the personal and professional lives of several women residing in New Jersey.

The series originally focused on Teresa Giudice, Jacqueline Laurita, Caroline Manzo, Dina Manzo, and Danielle Staub. The cast currently consists of Giudice, Melissa Gorga, Dolores Catania, Margaret Josephs, Jennifer Aydin, and Jackie Goldschneider. Of the original housewives, Dina Manzo left during production of the second season before returning for the sixth and departing again afterward; Staub left after the second season before returning in a recurring capacity in the eighth; Caroline Manzo left after the fifth; and Laurita was reduced to a recurring capacity during the sixth, then returned to being a full-time cast member in the seventh before departing again afterward. The remaining housewives joined in later seasons: Gorga in the third, Catania in the seventh, Josephs in the eighth, and Aydin and Goldschneider in the ninth. Other regular cast members have included Kathy Wakile (season 3–5), Teresa Aprea (season 6), Amber Marchese (season 6), Nicole Napolitano (season 6), and Siggy Flicker (season 7–8).

The success of the show has resulted in the spin-offs Manzo'd with Children and Teresa Checks In.

University of Catania

The University of Catania (Italian: Università degli Studi di Catania) is a university located in Catania, Sicily. Founded in 1434, it is the oldest university in Sicily, the 13th oldest in Italy, and the 29th oldest university in the world. With a population of over 60,000 students, it is the main university in Sicily.

Climate data for Catania, Sicily (Catania-Fontanarossa)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.0
(77.0)
25.1
(77.2)
29.4
(84.9)
34.0
(93.2)
37.5
(99.5)
42.0
(107.6)
45.3
(113.5)
43.4
(110.1)
38.0
(100.4)
34.6
(94.3)
29.1
(84.4)
23.9
(75.0)
45.3
(113.5)
Average high °C (°F) 15.8
(60.4)
16.4
(61.5)
17.8
(64.0)
20.3
(68.5)
24.2
(75.6)
28.3
(82.9)
31.7
(89.1)
32.0
(89.6)
29.1
(84.4)
24.7
(76.5)
20.3
(68.5)
16.8
(62.2)
23.1
(73.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.6
(51.1)
10.9
(51.6)
12.2
(54.0)
14.3
(57.7)
17.9
(64.2)
22.0
(71.6)
25.1
(77.2)
25.6
(78.1)
23.1
(73.6)
19.2
(66.6)
15.0
(59.0)
11.8
(53.2)
17.3
(63.1)
Average low °C (°F) 5.3
(41.5)
5.4
(41.7)
6.5
(43.7)
8.3
(46.9)
11.6
(52.9)
15.6
(60.1)
18.5
(65.3)
19.2
(66.6)
17.1
(62.8)
13.7
(56.7)
9.7
(49.5)
6.7
(44.1)
11.5
(52.7)
Record low °C (°F) −5.0
(23.0)
−4.0
(24.8)
−3.0
(26.6)
0.0
(32.0)
4.6
(40.3)
9.6
(49.3)
12.1
(53.8)
14.0
(57.2)
9.0
(48.2)
1.0
(33.8)
−0.6
(30.9)
−2.0
(28.4)
−5.0
(23.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 74.8
(2.94)
52.6
(2.07)
46.0
(1.81)
35.4
(1.39)
19.2
(0.76)
6.0
(0.24)
5.0
(0.20)
8.9
(0.35)
45.0
(1.77)
106.1
(4.18)
62.3
(2.45)
85.9
(3.38)
547.2
(21.54)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 9 7 6 5 3 1 0 1 4 8 7 9 60
Mean monthly sunshine hours 112.1 124.0 165.9 191.4 231.3 281.2 315.2 280.4 242.3 186.1 162.0 134.9 2,426.8
Source #1: Hong Kong Observatory[16] (1961–1990)
Source #2: [8] (1991-2010)
sunlight: [9]
Catania
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Gardens and parks
Events and traditions

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