Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars

The Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (CN) is an astronomical catalogue of nebulae first published in 1786 by William Herschel, with the assistance of his sister Caroline Herschel. It was later expanded into the General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (GC) by his son, John Herschel. The CN and GC are the precursors to John Louis Emil Dreyer's New General Catalogue (NGC) used by current astronomers.

History

The Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars was first published in 1786 by William Herschel in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.[1] In 1789, he added another 1,000 entries,[2] and finally another 500 in 1802,[3] bringing the total to 2,500 entries. This catalogue originated the usage of letters and catalogue numbers as identifiers. The capital "H" followed with the catalogue entry number represented the item.[4]

In 1864, the CN was expanded into the General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (GC) by John Herschel (William's son).[5] The GC contained 5,079 entries. Later, a complementary edition of the catalog was published posthumously as the General Catalogue of 10,300 Multiple and Double Stars. The small "h" followed with the catalogue entry number represented the item.[4]

In 1878, John Louis Emil Dreyer published a supplement to the General Catalogue.[6] In 1886, he suggested building a second supplement to the General Catalogue, but the Royal Astronomical Society asked Dreyer to compile a new version instead. This led to the publication of the New General Catalogue (NGC) in 1888,[7] and its two expansions, the Index Catalogues (IC), in 1895[8] and 1908.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ Herschel, W. (1786). "Catalogue of One Thousand New Nebulae and Clusters of Stars". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 76: 457–499. Bibcode:1786RSPT...76..457H. doi:10.1098/rstl.1786.0027.
  2. ^ Herschel, W. (1789). "Catalogue of a Second Thousand of New Nebulae and Clusters of Stars; with a Few Introductory Remarks on the Construction of the Heavens". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 79: 212–255. Bibcode:1789RSPT...79..212H. doi:10.1098/rstl.1789.0021.
  3. ^ Herschel, W. (1802). "Catalogue of 500 New Nebulae, Nebulous Stars, Planetary Nebulae, and Clusters of Stars; with Remarks on the Construction of the Heavens". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 92: 477–528. Bibcode:1802RSPT...92..477H. doi:10.1098/rstl.1802.0021.
  4. ^ a b Joseph S. Tenn (29 April 2013). "Keepers of the Double Stars". Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage (published March 2013). 16 (1): 81–93. arXiv:1304.5494. Bibcode:2013JAHH...16...81T. ISSN 1440-2807.
  5. ^ Herschel, J. F. W (1864). "Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 154: 1–137. Bibcode:1864RSPT..154....1H. doi:10.1098/rstl.1864.0001.
  6. ^ Dreyer, J. L. E. (1878). "A Supplement to Sir John Herschel's "General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars"". Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. 26: 391–426. JSTOR 30079091.
  7. ^ Dreyer, J. L. E. (1888). "A New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars, Being the Catalogue of the Late Sir John F.W. Herschel, Bart., Revised, Corrected, and Enlarged" (PDF). Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society. 49: 1–237. Bibcode:1888MmRAS..49....1D.
  8. ^ Dreyer, J. L. E. (1895). "Index Catalogue of Nebulae Found in the Years 1888 to 1894, with Notes and Corrections to the New General Catalogue". Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society. 51: 185–228. Bibcode:1895MmRAS..51..185D.
  9. ^ Dreyer, J. L. E. (1910). "Second Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars; Containing Objects Found in the Years 1895 to 1907, with Notes and Corrections to the New General Catalogue and to the Index Catalogue for 1888–94" (PDF). Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society. 59: 105–198. Bibcode:1910MmRAS..59..105D.

External links

Herschel 400 Catalogue

The Herschel 400 catalogue is a subset of William Herschel's original Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars, selected by Brenda F. Guzman (Branchett), Lydel Guzman, Paul Jones, James Morrison, Peggy Taylor and Sara Saey of the Ancient City Astronomy Club in St. Augustine, Florida, United States c. 1980. They decided to generate the list after reading a letter published in Sky & Telescope by James Mullaney of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.In this letter Mr. Mullaney suggested that William Herschel's original catalogue of 2,500 objects would be an excellent basis for deep sky object selection for amateur astronomers looking for a challenge after completing the Messier Catalogue.

The Herschel 400 is a subset of John Herschel's General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters published in 1864 of 5,000 objects, and hence also of the New General Catalogue.

The catalogue forms the basis of the Astronomical League's Herschel 400 club. In 1997, another subset of 400 Herschel objects was selected by the Rose City Astronomers of Portland, Oregon as the Herschel II list, which forms the basis of the Astronomical League's Herschel II Program.

Herschel Catalogue

Herschel Catalogue may refer to:

Herschel Space Observatory catalogue of observations, which use the "FIRST" designator

Catalogues published by William Herschel and Caroline Herschel

Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (CN), catalogued by William and Caroline Herschel, using "H" entry designator

Catalogues published by John Herschel

General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (GC), catalogued by John Herschel, using "h" entry designator

J.L.E. Dreyer's New General Catalogue and Index Catalogues, which expanded on the William,Caroline,John Herschel catalogues, which use the "NGC" and "IC" designators

Herschel 400 Catalogue, a subset of the Herschels' catalogues for amateur astronomers

Messier 102

Messier 102 (also known as M102) is a galaxy listed in the Messier Catalogue that has not been identified unambiguously. Its original discoverer Pierre Méchain later said that it was a duplicate observation of Messier 101, but more recent historical evidence favors that it is NGC 5866, although other galaxies have been suggested as possible identities.

Messier object

The Messier objects are a set of 110 astronomical objects cataloged by the French astronomer Charles Messier in his Catalogue des Nébuleuses et des Amas d'Étoiles ("Catalogue of Nebulae and Star Clusters").

Because Messier was interested in finding only comets, he created a list of non-comet objects that frustrated his hunt for them. The compilation of this list, in collaboration with his assistant Pierre Méchain, is known as the Messier catalogue. This catalogue of objects is one of the most famous lists of astronomical objects, and many Messier objects are still referenced by their Messier number.

The catalogue includes some astronomical objects that can be observed from Earth's Northern Hemisphere such as deep-sky objects, a characteristic which makes the Messier objects extremely popular targets for amateur astronomers.A preliminary version first appeared in the Memoirs of the French Academy of Sciences in 1771,

and the last item was added in 1966 by Kenneth Glyn Jones, based on Messier's observations.

The first version of Messier's catalogue contained 45 objects and was published in 1774 in the journal of the French Academy of Sciences in Paris. In addition to his own discoveries, this version included objects previously observed by other astronomers, with only 17 of the 45 objects being Messier's.

By 1780 the catalogue had increased to 80 objects. The final version of the catalogue containing 103 objects was published in 1781 in the Connaissance des Temps for the year 1784.

However, due to what was thought for a long time to be the incorrect addition of Messier 102, the total number remained 102. Other astronomers, using side notes in Messier's texts, eventually filled out the list up to 110 objects.The catalogue consists of a diverse range of astronomical objects, ranging from star clusters and nebulae to galaxies. For example, Messier 1 is a supernova remnant, known as the Crab Nebula, and the great spiral Andromeda Galaxy is M31. Many further inclusions followed in the next century when the first addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding Messier's side note in his 1781 edition exemplar of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, and M110 by Kenneth Glyn Jones in 1967.

NGC 1

NGC 1, also occasionally referred to as GC 1, UGC 57, PGC 564 or Holm 2a is an intermediate spiral galaxy of the morphological type Sbc, located approximately 210 to 215 million light-years from the Solar System in the constellation Pegasus. It was discovered on 30 September 1861 by Heinrich d'Arrest.

NGC 17

NGC 17, also known as NGC 34, is a spiral galaxy in the constellation Cetus. It is the result of a merger between two disk galaxies, resulting in a recent starburst in the central regions and continuing starforming activity. The galaxy is still gas-rich, and has a single galactic nucleus. It lies 250 million light years away. It was discovered in 1886 by Frank Muller and then observed again later that year by Lewis Swift.

Due to the major merger event NGC 17 has no defined spiral arms like the Milky Way galaxy. Unlike the Milky Way, the center bar nucleus is also distorted. The merger destroyed any galactic habitable zone that may have been there before the merger. For the Milky Way, the galactic habitable zone is commonly believed to be an annulus with an outer radius of about 10 kiloparsecs and an inner radius close to the Galactic Center, both of which lack hard boundaries.

NGC 1935

NGC 1935 (also known as ESO 56-EN110 and IC 2126) is an emission nebula which is part of the larger LMC-N44 nebula in the Dorado constellation. NGC 1935 is also located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. It was discovered by John Herschel in 1834 which was added to the Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars as NGC 1935 and was observed by Williamina Fleming in 1901 and was later added to the Index Catalogue as IC 2126.

NGC 1936

NGC 1936 (also known as IC 2127 and ESO 056-EN111) is an emission nebula which is part of the larger LMC-N44 nebula located in the Dorado constellation in the Large Magellanic Cloud by John Herschel in 1834 which was added to the Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars as NGC 1936 and was observed by John Dunlop on September 27, 1936 and Williamina Fleming in 1901 which was later added to the Index Catalogue as IC 2127. Its apparent magnitude is 11.60.

NGC 2029

NGC 2029 (also known as ESO 56-EN156) is a emission nebula in the Dorado constellation and is part of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It is part of a complex of nebulae and stars, including NGC 2032, NGC 2035 and NGC 2040, It was discovered by James Dunlop on the 27 September 1826. Its apparent magnitude is 12.29, and its size is 2.25 arc minutes.The coordinates for NGC 2029 and NGC 2030 were reversed between Herschel's original Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars and the New General Catalogue. NGC 2030, originally GC 2029, is an isolated nebula with an embedded star cluster, about 1.5 degrees north of NGC 2029.

NGC 288

NGC 288 is a globular cluster in the constellation Sculptor. Its visual appearance was described by John Dreyer in 1888. It is located about 1.8° southeast of the galaxy NGC 253, 37′ north-northeast of the South Galactic Pole, 15′ south-southeast of a 9th magnitude star, and encompassed by a half-circular chain of stars that opens on its southwest side. It can be observed through binoculars. It is not very concentrated and has a well resolved, large 3′ dense core that is surrounded by a much more diffuse and irregular 9′ diameter ring. Peripheral members extend farther outward towards the south and especially southwest.

NGC 4889

NGC 4889 (also known as Coma B) is an E4 supergiant elliptical galaxy. It was discovered in 1785 by the British astronomer Frederick William Herschel I, who catalogued it as a bright, nebulous patch. The brightest galaxy within the northern Coma Cluster, it is located at a median distance of 94 million parsecs (308 million light years) from Earth. At the core of the galaxy is a supermassive black hole that heats the intracluster medium through the action of friction from infalling gases and dust. The gamma ray bursts from the galaxy extend out to several million light years of the cluster.

As with other similar elliptical galaxies, only a fraction of the mass of NGC 4889 is in the form of stars. They have a flattened, unequal distribution that bulges within its edge. Between the stars is a dense interstellar medium full of heavy elements emitted by evolved stars. The diffuse stellar halo extends out to one million light years in diameter. Orbiting the galaxy is a very large population of globular clusters. NGC 4889 is also a strong source of soft X-ray, ultraviolet, and radio frequency radiation.

As the largest and the most massive galaxy easily visible to Earth, NGC 4889 has played an important role in both amateur and professional astronomy, and has become a prototype in studying the dynamical evolution of other supergiant elliptical galaxies in the more distant universe.

NGC 592

NGC 592 is a H II region type emission nebula located in the Triangulum galaxy (M33) and thus in the constellation of Triangulum. The nebula contains an open cluster of stars and is approximately 2.86 million light-years away from Earth.

NGC 612

NGC 612 is a lenticular galaxy in the constellation of Sculptor located approximately 388 million light-years from Earth. It is a type II Seyfert galaxy and thus has an active galactic nucleus. NGC 612 has been identified as an extremely rare example of a non-elliptical radio galaxy, hosting one of the nearest powerful FR-II radio sources.

NGC 643

NGC 643 is an open cluster located on the far outskirts of the Small Magellanic Cloud in the southern constellation of Hydrus, approximately 200,000 light-years from Earth. Due to their close proximity to NGC 643, the open cluster ESO 29-SC44 and the galaxies PGC 6117 and PGC 6256 are also designated NGC 643A, NGC 643B and NGC 643C, respectively. NGC 643 is relatively old. Its brightest stars have an apparent magnitude of 19.

NGC 681

NGC 681 (also known as the Little Sombrero Galaxy) is an intermediate spiral galaxy in the constellation of Cetus, located approximately 66.5 million light-years from Earth. The name Little Sombrero Galaxy is a reference to a much larger and earlier observed sombrero-like galaxy designated M104, or the Sombrero Galaxy.

NGC 7793

NGC 7793 is a flocculent spiral galaxy about 12.7 million light-years away in the constellation Sculptor. It was discovered in 1826 by James Dunlop.

Nebulae and Star Clusters

There are several astronomical catalogues referred to as Nebulae and Star Clusters.

The catalogues that it may refer to:

Catalogue des nébuleuses et des amas d'étoiles (Messier "M" catalogue) first published 1771

Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (William Herschel 'CN'/"H" catalogue) first published 1786

General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (John Herschel 'GC'/"h" catalogue) first published 1864

New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (Dreyer "NGC" catalogue) first published 1888

Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (JLE Dreyer's "IC" catalogue)

New General Catalogue

The New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (abbreviated as NGC) is a catalogue of deep-sky objects compiled by John Louis Emil Dreyer in 1888. It expands upon the cataloguing work of William and Caroline Herschel, and John Herschel's General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars. The NGC contains 7,840 objects, known as the NGC objects. It is one of the largest comprehensive catalogues, as it includes all types of deep space objects, including galaxies, star clusters, emission nebulae and absorption nebulae. Dreyer also published two supplements to the NGC in 1895 and 1908, known as the Index Catalogues, describing a further 5,386 astronomical objects.

Objects in the sky of the southern hemisphere are catalogued somewhat less thoroughly, but many were observed by John Herschel or James Dunlop. The NGC had many errors, but an attempt to eliminate them was initiated by the NGC/IC Project in 1993, after partial attempts with the Revised New General Catalogue (RNGC) by Jack W. Sulentic and William G. Tifft in 1973, and NGC2000.0 by Roger W. Sinnott in 1988.

The Revised New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue (abbreviated as RNGC/IC) was compiled in 2009 by Wolfgang Steinicke.

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