The Catalan Transversal Range (Serralada Transversal) is a system of minor mountain ranges at the eastern end of the Pre-Pyrenees, between the Osona and Garrotxa comarques. The existence of the Catalan Transversal Range has made communications in the northern areas of Catalonia difficult in the past, especially between Northeastern Catalonia (Catalan Coastal Depression, with cities like Girona, Figueres and La Jonquera) and Western Catalonia (Catalan Mediterranean System; Lleida, Cervera and further west to Aragón), a problem that has been partly solved with the development of the Eix Transversal.
The Catalan Transversal Range is made up of a series of mountains running in a NW / SE axis between the Pyrenees, the Sub-Pyrenees, the Catalan Pre-Coastal Range and the northern end of the Catalan Coastal Depression. The highest point is at Puigsacalm, 1.515 m.
Its most characteristic feature is a small region of volcanic origin near Olot, Garrotxa. There are extinct volcanoes like the conical-shaped Santa Margarida and Croscat, as well as basalt masses that originated in ancient lava flows at Castellfollit de la Roca.
The Catalan Central Depression (Catalan: Depressió Central Catalana) is a natural depression between the Pre-Pyrenees and the Catalan Pre-Coastal Range in Spain. It widens towards the west, linking with the Ebro Depression, Catalan: Depressió de l'Ebre, of which it could be considered an eastern extension. The Catalan Central Depression is about 180 km long with an average width of 50 km.Catalan Coastal Depression
The Catalan Coastal Depression, Catalan: Depressió Litoral Catalana, is a natural depression between the Catalan Pre-Coastal Range and the Mediterranean Sea. It is part of the Catalan Mediterranean System.Catalan Coastal Range
The Catalan Coastal Range (Catalan: Serralada Litoral Catalana, IPA: [sərəˈlaðə lituˈɾal kətəˈlanə]) is a system of mountain ranges running parallel to the Mediterranean Sea coast in Catalonia, Spain. It is part of the Catalan Mediterranean System. Its main axis runs between the Foix River and the Roses Gulf and the average altitude is around 500 m. The highest point is 763 m at the Montnegre.Catalan Mediterranean System
The Catalan Mediterranean System, also known as Mediterranean System, Transversal Ibero-Pyrenaean System, and Catalanid System, is a wide coastal geographical region in Catalonia. It is made up of a double system of coastal mountain chains: The Catalan Coastal Range and the Catalan Pre-Coastal Range, as well as the Catalan Coastal Depression and other coastal and pre-coastal plains located among those mountain ranges.Catalan Pre-Coastal Range
The Catalan Pre-Coastal Range (Catalan: Serralada Prelitoral Catalana) is a system of mountain ranges running parallel to the Mediterranean Sea coast in Catalonia. It is part of the Catalan Mediterranean System. Its main axis runs between the Catalan Transversal Range and the Serra de l'Espina, which connects with the Ports de Tortosa-Beseit, part of the Iberian System. The highest point is 1.706,7 m at the Montseny Massif.Catalonia
Catalonia (; Catalan: Catalunya [kətəˈluɲə]; Aranese: Catalonha [kataˈluɲɔ]; Spanish: Cataluña [kataˈluɲa];) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia (with the remainder Roussillon now part of France's Pyrénées-Orientales, Occitanie). It is bordered by France (Occitanie) and Andorra (Andorra la Vella, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana and Sant Julià de Lòria) to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions. The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, and were later called Catalonia. In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, the lineages of the rulers of Catalonia and rulers of the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon, when the King of Aragon married his daughter to the Count of Barcelona. The de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese rulers in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts (parliament), and constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power, trade and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the later Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their kingdoms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation.
During the Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659), Catalonia revolted (1640–1652) against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being briefly proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army. Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia, mostly the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; following Catalan defeat on 11 September 1714, Philip V, inspired by the model of France imposed a unifying administration across Spain, enacting the Nueva Planta decrees, suppressing the main Catalan institutions and rights like in the other realms of the Crown of Aragon. This led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of government and literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended.
In the 19th century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second half of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, and with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government. After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational, environmental, and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence.
On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum. The Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others, including President Carles Puigdemont, fled to other European countries.Eix Transversal
C-25 or Eix Transversal (English: Transversal Arterial Road; lit. Transversal Axis) is a 280 km long primary highway in Catalonia, Spain.
It crosses the Catalan Transversal Range mountainous region, communicating the northern end of the Catalan Coastal Depression with the Catalan Central Depression.According to the current coding for highways managed by the Generalitat de Catalunya, the first number C-25 indicates that is mainly a west-eastbound highway, and the second number C-25 indicates that is the fifth southernmost. The road begins at the intersection with Autovía A-2, near Cervera (comarca of Segarra), and finishes at Cassà de la Selva (comarca of Gironès), with a total length of 141 km.Garrotxa
Garrotxa is a comarca (county) in Girona, Catalonia, Spain. Its population in 2016 was 55,999, more than half of them in the capital city of Olot. It is roughly equivalent to the historical comarca of Besalú.Geology of the Pyrenees
The Pyrenees are a 430-kilometre-long, roughly east–west striking, intracontinental mountain chain that divide France, Spain, and Andorra. The belt has an extended, polycyclic geological evolution dating back to the Precambrian. The chain's present configuration is due to the collision between the microcontinent Iberia and the southwestern promontory of the European Plate (i.e. Southern France). The two continents were approaching each other since the onset of the Upper Cretaceous (Albian/Cenomanian) about 100 million years ago and were consequently colliding during the Paleogene (Eocene/Oligocene) 55 to 25 million years ago. After its uplift, the chain experienced intense erosion and isostatic readjustments. A cross-section through the chain shows an asymmetric flower-like structure with steeper dips on the French side. The Pyrenees are not solely the result of compressional forces, but also show an important sinistral shearing.Guilleries
The Guilleries Massif (Catalan Les Guilleries) is a mountain system located at the apex of the Catalan Transversal Range and the Pre-Coastal Range. The highest point of the range is Sant Miquel de Solterra or Sant Miquel de les Formigues (1.204 m), other main peaks are Turó del Faig Verd (1,187 m), Rocallarga (1,187 m), Sant Benet (1,149 m), El Far (1,111 m), Sant Gregori (1 ,094 m), Montdois (930 m), L'Agullola (921 m) and Turó del Castell (851 m)The Guilleries is one of the few places in the Catalan Mediterranean System where amphibolite facies conditions are found. The Pantà de Susqueda and Pantà de Sau reservoirs, of great importance for Barcelona metropolitan water supply, are located in the Guilleries area.
These mountains were notorious in former times for being a haunt of bandits and highwaymen.The main towns in the Guilleries area are Sant Hilari Sacalm, Osor, Susqueda, Vilanova de Sau, Sant Sadurní d'Osormort, Espinelves and Viladrau.List of mountains in Catalonia
This is a list of mountains in Catalonia, Spain.Onyar
The Onyar is a river in Catalonia (north eastern Spain) that begins at the Guilleries massif at the apex of the Catalan Transversal Range and the Pre-Coastal Range. It joins the Ter at the city of Girona.Outline of Catalonia
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Catalonia:
Catalonia – nationality and one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain, located on the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula.Plain of Vic
The Plain of Vic (Catalan Plana de Vic) is a 30 km long depression located at the eastern end of the Catalan Central Depression in the Osona comarca. It is named after the town of Vic, an important and ancient urban center in this natural region that lies in the midst of the plain. Other significant towns in the plain are Manlleu and Tona.
This natural depression carved by river Ter and its tributaries is longer than it is wide and stretches in a N / S direction. It is completely surrounded by mountains: The Sub-Pyrenees, with Bellmunt mountain towering in the north, the Lluçanès and Moianès high plateaus in the West, the Montseny in the southeast and the Guilleries, located at the apex of the Catalan Transversal Range and the Pre-Coastal Range, in the east.Pre-Pyrenees
The Pre-Pyrenees are the foothills of the Pyrenees.Puigsacalm
Puigsacalm is the highest mountain of the Catalan Transversal Range, Catalonia, Spain. It has an elevation of 1,512 metres above sea level.Sant Miquel de Solterra
Sant Miquel de Solterra or Sant Miquel de les Formigues is the highest mountain of the Guilleries Massif, Catalonia, Spain. It has an elevation of 1,201.9 metres above sea level.Sant Roc d'Amer
Sant Roc, also known as Sant Roc d'Amer, Sant Roc de la Barroca and Grony, is a mountain of the Catalan Transversal Range, Catalonia, Spain. It has an elevation of 591 metres above sea level. It is part of the range that separates the Llémena River and the Brugent river valleys and is located at the confluence of the Garrotxa (Sant Aniol de Finestres), el Gironès (Sant Martí de Llémena) and la Selva (Sant Julià del Llor i Bonmatí) comarques. This mountain has a striking appearance and is quite visible from the road between Bonmatí and Sant Martí de Llémena. The steep cliffs on the southern and northeastern sides of the mountain are known as Cingles de Sant Roc.Sub-Pyrenees
The Sub-Pyrenees (Catalan: Subpirineu) are a mountainous region in Catalonia, Spain, forming a section of the southern foothills of the Pyrenees. They are located at the eastern end of the Pre-Pyrenees, west of the Catalan Transversal Range, between the lower Ripollès and an area of the high Garrotxa.