The Catalan Republic (Catalan: República Catalana, IPA: [rəˈpubːlikə kətəˈlanə]) was a state proclaimed in 1931 by Francesc Macià as the "Catalan Republic within the Iberian Federation". It existed between 14 and 17 April 1931.
República Catalana (Catalan)
Location of the Catalan Republic within Europe
|Status||Republic within Iberian Federation|
|Government||Republic under provisional government|
|Historical era||Interwar period|
|14 April 1931|
• Establishment of the Generalitat
|17 April 1931|
|Currency||Spanish peseta (de facto)|
|Today part of|| Spain|
By the Pact of San Sebastián (August 17, 1930), the Spanish republican parties agree to prepare a change of regime in case of victories in the following elections. In this project, there was a provision for the political autonomy of Catalonia, within the Republic. On 14 April 1931, after the municipal elections which gave in Catalonia the large majority to a party founded three weeks before of the elections by the union of the independentist Estat Català and the Catalan Republican Party, the Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), its leader Francesc Macià, few hours before the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in Madrid, from the balcony of the Palace of the Generalitat (then the seat of the Provincial Deputation of Barcelona), proclaimed the "Catalan Republic, expecting that the other peoples of Spain constitute themselves as republics, in order to establish the Iberian Confederation". Macià was appointed as acting president.
Immediately, Macià began exercising power and dismissed General Despujols, chief of the Spanish Army in Barcelona, appointing General López Ochoa, loyal to the new republican government in his place, while his companion of party, Lluís Companys, was designated civil governor of Barcelona. He also appointed the ministers of the Catalan government, dominated by the Republican Left of Catalonia, and included a member of the Radical Republican Party and another from the UGT trade union, but none from the conservative Regionalist League (on the streets many citizens said against the leader of the League "Long live Macià and death to Cambó!"). The government also had representatives from the Socialist Union of Catalonia and Acció Catalana, and Macià even offered a ministry to the anarchist CNT, but the anarcho-syndicalist organization finally refused to participate, claiming its traditional apoliticism.
The provisional government of the Catalan Republic was formed by:
Three days later, the government of the new Spanish Republic, worried about this proclamation, sent three ministers (Fernando de los Ríos, Lluís Nicolau d'Olwer and Marcel·lí Domingo) to Barcelona in order to negotiate with Macià and the Catalan government. Macià reached an agreement with the ministers, in which the Catalan Republic was renamed Generalitat of Catalonia (Catalan: Generalitat de Catalunya), becoming an autonomous government within the Spanish Republic, that would be granted a Statute of Autonomy after the elections to Spanish Cortes. Francesc Macià would be the President of the Generalitat of Catalonia (as acting until November 1932, when it was elected by the Parliament of Catalonia) until his death in December 1933.
Catalan Republic or Catalan State refers to Catalonia at various times when it was proclaimed either an independent republic or as a republic within a Spanish federal republic:
Catalan Republic (1641), a proclaimed independent state under French protection, but shortly thereafter incorporated into the Kingdom of France.
Catalan State (1873), a proclaimed state within the First Spanish Republic.
Catalan Republic (1931), a proclaimed state declared in anticipation of the imminent formation of a Spanish republic. Within days, this territory voluntarily became an autonomous area within the Second Spanish Republic.
Catalan State (1934), a "Catalan State within the Spanish Federal Republic" proclaimed during the Events of 6 October.
Catalan Republic (2017), a proposed state declared after the Catalan independence referendum, 2017.Francesc Macià
Francesc Macià i Llussà (Catalan: [frənˈsɛzɡ məsiˈa]; 21 September 1859 – 25 December 1933) was the 122nd President of Catalonia and formerly an officer in the Spanish Army.History of Catalonia
The territory that now constitutes the nationality and autonomous community of Catalonia was first settled during the Middle Palaeolithic era. Like the rest of the Mediterranean side of the Iberian Peninsula, the area was occupied by the Iberians and several Greek colonies were established on the coast before the Roman conquest. It was the first area of Hispania conquered by the Romans. It then came under Visigothic rule after the collapse of the western part of the Roman Empire. In 718, the area was occupied by the Umayyad Caliphate and became a part of Muslim ruled al-Andalus. The Frankish Empire conquered the area from the Muslims, ending with the conquest of Barcelona in 801, as part of the creation of a larger buffer zone of Christian counties against Islamic rule known as the Marca Hispanica. In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto.
In 1137, Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona accepted King Ramiro II of Aragon's proposal to marry Queen Petronila, establishing the dynastic union of the County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon, creating the Crown of Aragon, while the County of Barcelona and the other Catalan counties adopted a common political entity known as Principality of Catalonia, which developed an institutional system (Courts, constitutions, Generalitat) that limited the power of the kings. Catalonia contributed to the expansion of the Crown's trade and military, most significantly their navy. The Catalan language flourished and expanded as more territories were added to the Crown of Aragon, including Valencia, the Balearic Islands, Sardinia, Sicily, Naples, and Athens. The crisis of the 14th century, the end of the reign of House of Barcelona and a civil war (1462–1472) weakened the role of the Principality in Crown and international affairs.
The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile in 1469 created a dynastic union between the Crowns of Aragon and Castile, and both realms kept their own laws, institutions, borders and currency. In 1492 the Spanish colonization of the Americas began, political power began to shift away towards Castile. Tensions between Catalan institutions and the Monarchy, alongside the economic crisis and the peasants' revolts, caused the Reapers' War (1640–1652), being briefly proclaimed a Catalan Republic. The Principality of Catalonia retained its political status, but this came to an end after the War of Spanish Succession (1701–1714), in which the Crown of Aragon supported the claim of the Archduke Charles of Habsburg. Following Catalan surrender on 11 September 1714, the king Philip V of Bourbon, inspired by the model of France imposed a unifying administration across Spain, suppressing the Crown of Aragon and enacted the Nueva Planta decrees, banning the main Catalan political institutions and rights and merged into Castile as a province. These led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of government and literature. Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late 18th century when Cádiz's trade monopoly with American colonies ended.
In the 19th century Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. The Napoleonic occupation and subsequent war in Spain began a period of political and economic turmoil. In the second third of the century, Catalonia became a center of industrialization. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements (particularly anarchism) appeared.
In the 20th century, Catalonia enjoyed and lost varying degrees of autonomy. The Second Spanish Republic established Catalan self-governance and the official use of the Catalan language. Like much of Spain, Catalonia fought to defend the Republic in the Civil War of 1936–1939. The Republican defeat established the dictatorship of Francisco Franco, which unleashed a harsh repression and suppressed the autonomy. With Spain devastated and cut off from international trade and the autarkic politics of the regime, Catalonia, as an industrial center, suffered severely; the economic recovery was slow. Between 1959 and 1974 Spain experienced the second fastest economic expansion in the world known as the Spanish Miracle, and Catalonia prospered as Spain's most important industrial and tourist destination. In 1975 Franco died, bringing his regime to an end, and the new democratic Spanish constitution of 1978 recognised Catalonia's autonomy and language. It regained considerable self-government in internal affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there have been growing calls for Catalan independence.List of republics
This is a list of republics. For antiquity (or later in the case of societies that did not refer to modern terminology to qualify their form of government) the assessment of whether a state organisation is a republic is based on retrospective analysis by historians and political theorists. For more recent systems of government, worldwide organisations with a broad political acceptance (such as the United Nations), can provide information on whether or not a sovereign state is referred to as a republic.National Day of Catalonia
The National Day of Catalonia (Catalan: Diada Nacional de Catalunya [diˈaðə nəsi.uˈnal də kətəˈluɲə]) is a day-long festival in Catalonia and one of its official national symbols, celebrated annually on 11 September. It commemorates the fall of Barcelona during the War of the Spanish Succession in 1714 and the subsequent loss of Catalan institutions and laws.