Castleton, Derbyshire

Castleton is a village in the High Peak district of Derbyshire, England, at the western end of the Hope Valley on the Peakshole Water, a tributary of the River Noe, between the Dark Peak to the north and the White Peak to the south. The population was 642 at the 2011 Census.[1]

Castleton
Castleton, Derbyshire - geograph.org.uk - 682874

Castleton
Castleton is located in Derbyshire
Castleton
Castleton
Location within Derbyshire
Population649 2001 UK census
District
Shire county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townHOPE VALLEY
Postcode districtS33
Dialling code01433
PoliceDerbyshire
FireDerbyshire
AmbulanceEast Midlands
EU ParliamentEast Midlands
UK Parliament

History

St Edmund's church, Castleton
St Edmund's Church in a 1955 snowfall

Castleton village was mentioned as Pechesers in Domesday Book in 1086 where "Arnbiorn and Hundingr held the land of William Peverel's castle in Castleton".[2] This land and Peverel's castle were amongst the manors belonging to William Peverel that also included Bolsover and Glapwell.

St Edmund's Norman church was restored about 1837. It has late 13th-century tracery and an ashlar-faced Perpendicular tower. Its box pews are dated 1661, 1662, 1663 and 1676.[3]

A medieval leper hospital (the Hospital of Saint Mary in the Peak) is thought to have been on the eastern boundary of Castleton, though some locals believe it to have been just south of the Speedwell Cavern footpath from the village. Sheffield University archaeologists are investigating ‘Castle of the Peak’, which was reputedly founded by the wife of one of the William Peverels before 1153, and continued until about the 1543 Dissolution. They say the earliest documents referring to Spital Field are a grant and a Charter from the early 14th century. They are also investigating the 12th-century planned town at the foot of the castle hill.[4]

Castleton later prospered from lead mining; the Odin Mine, one of the oldest lead mines in the country, is situated 1.5 kilometres (0.9 mi) west of the village (see also Derbyshire lead mining history). This created and enlarged local caverns, four of which are now open to the public as Peak Cavern, Blue John Cavern, Speedwell Cavern and Treak Cliff Cavern. A small amount of Blue John is mined locally.

Since the 1920s the main mineral industry in the area has been cement. Hope Cement Works is closer to Hope, but its quarry is closer to Castleton.[5]

Geography

Castleton is situated between the gritstone plateau of the Dark Peak to the north and the gentler limestone scenery of the White Peak to the south. It lies at the western end of the Hope Valley and consequently is surrounded on three sides by hills. Most prominent is the ridge to the north. This is called Great Ridge; it runs east from Mam Tor to Back Tor and Lose Hill, via the pass (hause) of Hollins Cross, where paths from many directions converge and cross over to Edale. Alexander von Humboldt visited caves near Castleton and Buxton in June 1790 to investigate the region's geological structures.[6]

Roads

Castleton used to be on the A625 road from Sheffield to Chapel-en-le-Frith, on the way to Manchester. Leaving Castleton, the western road used to go over Mam Tor, but after continual collapses and repairs (Mam Tor is called the "Shivering Mountain" because of its very loose shales), it was eventually abandoned.

The only westbound exit from Castleton is now the unclassified road over the narrow Winnats, more frequently called "Winnats Pass". This road is very narrow and steep and unsuitable for heavy vehicles or high volumes. Road signage has been designed to discourage through traffic by showing only local destinations. Thus, most traffic enters and leaves the village on the eastern (Hope-Hathersage-Sheffield) road; for traffic going west, that involves a long diversion via the villages of Bradwell and Peak Forest.

Education

Caslteton Church of England Primary School is located within the village. It was rated as 'good' in its 2017 Ofsted inspection. From October 2017 the school and surrounding area was featured in the Channel 4's new ident.[7][8]

The nearest secondary school is Hope Valley College.

Public transport

Castleton has a small bus station from where buses depart hourly to Sheffield (services 272 [2] and 4 times a day via Ladybower to Sheffield (273 & 274 [3]) and to Tideswell and Bakewell (service 173 [4]). A few less frequent bus services also serve Castleton, including services 68 [5] to Buxton and 174 [6] from Baslow, which run just once a day, 200 [7] on schooldays to Chapel-en-le-frith and Edale and 276 [8] on Fridays to Chesterfield.

There is no railway station, but Hope station is about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) away, and train tickets to Hope and Edale are valid on connecting buses to Castleton.

Photo gallery

Peveril castle

Peveril Castle dominates the southern Castleton skyline

Castleton-Castle Hotel

The Castle Hotel

The Three Roofs Café 201307 052

The Three Roofs Café

Castleton school

The school in Castleton

GarlandKing&Consort

The Castleton Garland King and his consort

Mam-tor-from-castleton

Looking west, Mam Tor towers above the main street of Castleton

Castleton panaroma

Panoramic view of Castleton from Peveril castle

Castleton Methodist Church - geograph.org.uk - 405288

Castleton Methodist Church

Tourism

Castleton attracts large numbers of tourists, and there are many pubs (some with accommodation), tea shops and guest houses to supply their needs. There is also a large car park, an information centre which houses Castleton Museum (closed for refurbishment until May 2017),[9][10] several outdoors shops and a youth hostel.[11] Many schools visit the area for educational studies such as GCSE fieldwork. It is also a major walking centre, where routes up Cave Dale, Winnats Pass, Mam Tor and Hollins Cross meet. There are four "show caves" to visit, Blue John Cavern, Peak Cavern, Treak Cliff Cavern and Speedwell Cavern which includes an underground boat ride and at least one of them is open all year.[12][13][14][15][16] Castleton has a combined post office and general shop.

Events

On Castleton Garland Day (Oak Apple Day – 29 May), a Garland King is paraded around the streets wearing an extremely large garland of flowers,[17] followed by local girls dressed in white with flowers. The village is also famous for its display of Christmas lights and decorations during the festive season.

In 2013 it was the venue for the Linuxbierwanderung.

Notable people

Walking

Castleton is popular with walkers: there is plenty of accommodation, and there are many public footpaths leading from the village. There are easy walks along the river to Hope, Brough, Bamford and (rather further) Hathersage, and there is a short strenuous walk up onto the Great Ridge, where views can be enjoyed before descending to Edale or returning to Castleton. Hayfield is a short day's walk away beyond Rushup Edge. A two- or three-day trail, the Limestone Way, starts in Castleton and runs south down Cave Dale (past the rear of the castle) before climbing out of the village and heading for Monyash, Youlgreave, and Matlock.

In fiction

The village was featured in episode 3 of Most Haunted: Midsummer Murders where the team "investigates" the 18th-century murder of an engaged couple. Much of the "investigation" takes place in Speedwell Cavern. One of the conspirators, James Ashton, is said to have confessed to the murders on his deathbed after being haunted by the dead couple. He also implicated others involved. Castleton also featured in national news reports in the early 1980s following the murder of Susan Renhard near the battlements of Peveril Castle.

The local caves were used as the filming location for the underworld, ruled by the evil Lady of the Green Kirtle, in the 1990 BBC adaptation of The Silver Chair (one of the Narnia books written by C.S. Lewis).[19] Cave Dale features in the films The Princess Bride (1987) and The Other Boleyn Girl (2008).

The town is also featured briefly in the play The Devil is an Ass by Ben Jonson, first performed in 1616.

References

  1. ^ "Civil Parish population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  2. ^ Domesday Book: A Complete Translation. London: Penguin, 2003. ISBN 0-14-143994-7 p.750
  3. ^ Pevsner, Nikolaus (1978). The Buildings of England: Derbyshire. revised Elizabeth Williamson. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-071008-6.
  4. ^ http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/archaeology/fieldwork/castleton
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Alexander von Humboldt, Ueber die unterirdischen Gasarten und die Mittel, ihren Nachtheil zu vermindern. Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1799, p. 40.
  7. ^ "Castleton C of E Primary School - Home". www.castletonschool.co.uk. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  8. ^ "Channel 4 reveals 'Giant' rebranding with new idents designed to "champion diversity and provoke change"". Radio Times. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  9. ^ "Visitor Centres - Castleton: Peak District National Park". Peak District National Park. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  10. ^ "Museum". Castleton Historical Society. 5 September 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  11. ^ "YHA Castleton Losehill Hall | Cheap Peak District Hostel". www.yha.org.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  12. ^ "Local Attractions". www.visitcastleton.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  13. ^ "Blue John Stone, Treak Cliff Cavern, Working Blue John Mine With Stalactites And Stalagmites, Blue John Jewellery And Ornaments". www.bluejohnstone.com. Archived from the original on 23 February 2018. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  14. ^ "Speedwell Cavern – Welcome to Peak and Speedwell Caverns at Castleton". speedwellcavern.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  15. ^ "Peak Cavern – Welcome to Peak and Speedwell Caverns at Castleton". peakcavern.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  16. ^ netbizsolutions.co.uk. "Blue John Cavern: Family Days Out and School Trips at our Caves in the Peak District". www.bluejohn-cavern.co.uk. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  17. ^ Roy Hattersley on Oak Apple Day Daily Mail 2007
  18. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
  19. ^ Filming Locations for The Silver Chair, https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0098912/locations, at the Internet Movie Database, retrieved 13 December 2011

External links

Blue John

Blue John may refer to:

Blue John, Kentucky, United States

Blue John (mineral), a form of fluorite mined in Derbyshire, England

Blue John Cavern, a cavern in Castleton, Derbyshire where fluorite is mined

Blue John Canyon, a canyon in Utah, United States, site of the Aron Ralston accident

Blue John (album), an album by organist John Patton

Lance-Constable Bluejohn, a character in the Discworld series, a member of Ankh-Morpork City Watch

Blue John Gap, a fictional location in Arthur Conan Doyle's short story The Terror of Blue John Gap

Blue John Cavern

The Blue John Cavern is one of the four show caves in Castleton, Derbyshire, England.

Charles Roe

Charles Roe (7 May 1715 – 3 May 1781) was an English industrialist. He played an important part in establishing the silk industry in Macclesfield, Cheshire and later became involved in the mining and metal industries.

Debbie Rush

Debbie Rush (born March 29, 1966) is an English actress, best known for playing the role of Anna Windass in Coronation Street for 10 years from 2008 to 2018.After training at the Manchester School of Acting when she was in her thirties, she has also starred in Shameless and Hollyoaks in the City. Rush also filmed the role of Pam in the horror film Salvage alongside Neve McIntosh.

In December 2010, Rush released her own fitness DVD, Debbie Rush's Bulge Buster Workout.In March 2015, Rush was nominated in the category of "Best Actress" at The British Soap Awards 2015.

Drenge

Drenge may refer to:

Boys (1977 film), a 1977 Danish film, originally Drenge

Drenge (band), a band formed in 2011 in Castleton, Derbyshire

Drenge (album)

Drenge (band)

Drenge are an English three-piece rock band made up of Eoin Loveless, on guitar and vocals, his younger brother Rory, on drums, and Rob Graham on bass. The brothers grew up in Castleton, Derbyshire, where they formed the band in 2010, relocating to Sheffield in 2014. The band take their name from something "that would sound like a noise that we would be playing onstage." Their name also translates into "Boys" in Danish. They have released three albums, Drenge (2013), Undertow (2015), and Strange Creatures (2019).

Drenge discography

Drenge are an English three-piece rock band made up of Eoin Loveless, on guitar and vocals, his younger brother Rory, on drums, and Rob Graham on bass. The brothers grew up in Castleton, Derbyshire, where they formed the band in 2010, relocating to Sheffield in 2014. They have released two albums, Drenge in 2013 and Undertow in 2015.

Hincks and Burnell

Hincks and Burnell (originally Hinchliffe, Hincks and Burnell) were a firm of stained glass designers and manufacturers based in Nottingham in the early years of the 20th century.

Honour of Peverel

The Honour of Peverel (also known as the Feudal Barony of the Peak) is a geographic area in the north of England comprising part of the historic feudal barony held by the Norman Peverel family. The honour was granted to William Peverel (c. 1050 – c. 1115) by William the Conqueror.The Honour is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086, and consisted of substantial lands comprising 162 manors including:

Bolsover Castle - which became the seat of the Peverel family

Nottingham Castle

Codnor Castle

Pinxton

Duston

Peveril Castle in Castleton, Derbyshire

Glapwell

Eastwood, Nottinghamshire

Langar HallWilliam Peverel's son, William Peverel the Younger, inherited the honour, but, accused of treason by King Henry II, forfeited it, and the king then passed it to Ranulph de Gernon, 2nd Earl of Chester, who died before he could take possession.

Isaac Ambrose

Isaac Ambrose (1604 – 20 January 1664) was an English Puritan divine. He graduated with a BA. from Brasenose College, Oxford, on 1624. He obtained the curacy of St Edmund’s Church, Castleton, Derbyshire, in 1627. He was one of king's four preachers in Lancashire in 1631. He was twice imprisoned by commissioners of array. He worked for establishment of Presbyterianism; successively at Leeds, Preston, and Garstang, whence he was ejected for nonconformity in 1662. He also published religious works.

John Broadbent

Colonel John Broadbent (4 September 1872 – 9 June 1938) was a British army officer and Conservative politician.

Broadbent was educated at Stamford Academy, Ashton-under-Lyne. In 1895 he received a commission in the 3rd Volunteer Battalion of the Manchester Regiment. Broadbent served as part of the detachment the battalion sent to serve with the regular army during the Second Boer War.When the Territorial Force was created in 1908, the 3rd VB of the Manchesters became the 9th Battalion (TF). Broadbent, by this time holding the rank of major, transferred to the new force. He resigned his commission in 1912, but rejoined the battalion in 1914 on the outbreak of the First World War. He went on to be promoted to lieutenant-colonel and command the battalion.After the war he became involved in politics, becoming the president of the Ashton Conservative Association. At the 1929 general election, he was the party's candidate in Ashton-under-Lyne, but lost by a margin of over 3,000 votes to the sitting Labour MP, Albert Bellamy.

However, Bellamy died in March 1931, causing a by-election. Broadbent was again the Conservative candidate, and he campaigned vigorously on the issue of trade tariffs. He hired a shop window in the centre of the town which he filled with a display of imported textiles and goods that he claimed were displacing locally produced goods. In the event, Broadbent was elected with a majority of 1,415, helped by a split in the Labour vote caused by the presence of a candidate for Oswald Mosley's New Party. He held the seat at the 1931 general election, with an increased majority. However,at the 1935 general election he was defeated by the Labour Party candidate Fred Simpson by a majority of only 114 votes.

Broadbent was a large landowner in Derbyshire's Hope Valley, and he died at his residence in the area, "Bella Vista", Castleton in June 1938, aged 65.

John Foster (composer)

John Foster (1752–1822) of High Green in the parish of Ecclesfield, South Yorkshire was a coroner and amateur musician. He composed two books of sacred music in a 19th-century classical style published between 1817 and 1822, Sacred Music and A 2d Collection of Sacred Music. Both books were published in York by Samuel Knapton (the father of the organist and composer Philip Knapton). They comprise 17 settings of metrical psalm and hymn texts (8 in the first book and 9 in the second), with orchestral and keyboard accompaniments, and are dedicated to Richard Lumley-Saunderson, 6th Earl of Scarbrough. There are copies of both books in the Sheffield Local Studies Library.

Foster is now best known as the composer of a tune known as Old Foster, to which the words While shepherds watched their flocks by night are sung in the South Yorkshire pub carolling tradition (for example, at the Fountain Inn at Ingbirchworth). A version of the tune is also sung at Castleton, Derbyshire, where it is known as Prince of Orange and used with the words Hark, the glad sound! the Saviour comes, by Philip Doddridge. The tune was originally published in A 2d Collection of Sacred Music as a setting of Psalm 47 in the metrical version by John Hopkins, Ye people all with one accord: the pub carol tradition is thought to originate from the ejection of 'west gallery' choirs and bands from parish churches in the mid-nineteenth century.Foster is credited by Alfred Gatty, vicar of Ecclesfield from 1839 to 1903, with the suppression of dog- and cock-fighting in the local area.Commercial recordings of two of Foster's works, with full orchestral accompaniments, have been made by the group 'Psalmody' conducted by Peter Holman. Their first CD While shepherds watched includes While shepherds watched their flocks by night sung to the 'Old Foster' or Ps. 47 tune, while their CD Haydn and his English Friends includes The God of Gods, the Lord, also taken from A 2d Collection of Sacred Music.

Linux Bier Wanderung

The Linux Beer Hike (a.k.a. "LBW") is a week-long event which takes place in a different European country each summer, drawing together open-source software enthusiasts from more than a dozen different countries, for a combination of talks, presentations, hands-on mini-projects, outdoor exercise, and good food and drink.

The name Linux Bier Wanderung comes from the fact that the first event was held in Pottenstein in Germany (in 1999) in the form of a traditional German "Bierwanderung" for Linux enthusiasts. Since then the event has been held at the following locations:

2000: Coniston, Cumbria, England

2001: Bouillon, Belgium

2002: Doolin, Ireland

2003: Tajov, Slovakia

2004: Schin op Geul, Netherlands

2005: Killin, Scotland

2006: Palūšė, Lithuania

2007: Hersonissos, in Heraklion Prefecture, Crete, Greece. LBW was organised by Hellenic Linux User Group, and was held on 2–9 September 2007.

2008: Switzerland (9–17 August)

2009: Helmbrechts, Upper Franconia, Bavaria

2010: Alfriston, Sussex, England

2011: Lanersbach (near Tux), Austria

2012: Diksmuide, Belgium.

2013: Castleton, Derbyshire in the Peak District, England.

2014: Talybont-on-Usk in the Brecon Beacons, Wales.

2015: Wiltz, Luxembourg.

2016: Laxey, Isle of Man

2017: St. Martin in Passeier, South Tyrol

2018: Jedovnice, Moravia, Czech Republic

Peak Cavern

The Peak Cavern, also known as the Devil's Arse (so called because of the flatulent-sounding noises from inside the cave when flood water is draining away), is one of the four show caves in Castleton, Derbyshire, England. Peakshole Water flows through and out of the cave.

Randolph Osborne Douglas

Randolph Osborne Douglas (31 March 1895 – 5 December 1956) was a British silversmith, artist and amateur escapologist, who worked under the stage name 'The Great Randini'. Douglas is said to have devised tricks for Harry Houdini. He later created a museum of curios in Castleton in Derbyshire.

Speedwell Cavern

The Speedwell Cavern is one of the four show caves in Castleton, Derbyshire, England.

It consists of a horizontal lead miners' adit (a level passageway driven horizontally into the hillside) leading to the cavern itself, a limestone cave. The adit is permanently flooded, resulting in Speedwell Cavern's (locally unique) feature: after descending a long staircase, the visitor makes the journey into the cave by boat. Originally the guide propelled the boat by pushing against the walls with his hands, later the boat was legged through, and now it is powered by an electric motor.

At the end of the adit, the visitor alights from the boat and walks into the cave to see the fluorspar veins, the stalactites and stalagmites, and the so-called "Bottomless Pit". This pit is an extremely deep vertical shaft, now choked to within 20 metres (66 ft) of the surface by rock spoil dumped by miners. The original depth of the shaft has been estimated, from the amount of spoil placed in the shaft over the years, at around 150 metres (490 ft).

A connection was discovered in 1999 between the Speedwell Cavern system and Titan, the largest natural shaft in the UK, which is 141.5 metres (464 ft) high.

St Edmund’s Church, Castleton

St Edmund's Church, Castleton is a Grade II* listed parish church in the Church of England in Castleton, Derbyshire.

William Peverel

William Peverell (c. 1040 – c. 1115, Latinised to Gulielmus Piperellus), was a Norman knight granted lands in England following the Norman Conquest.

Borough of High Peak
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