Cast net

A cast net, also called a throw net, is a net used for fishing. It is a circular net with small weights distributed around its edge.

The net is cast or thrown by hand in such a manner that it spreads out while it's in the air before it sinks into the water. This technique is called net casting or net throwing. Fish are caught as the net is hauled back in.[1] This simple device is particularly effective for catching small bait or forage fish, and has been in use, with various modifications, for thousands of years.

Murad-Net Casting
Casting the Net, by pioneering Iraqi photographer Murad al-Daghistani, 1930s

Construction and technique

Normal Atos-7-059
The net as it falls into the water

Contemporary cast nets have a radius which ranges from 4 to 12 feet (1.2 to 3.6 metres). Only strong people can lift the larger nets once they are filled with fish. Standard nets for recreational fishing have a four-foot hoop. Weights are usually distributed around the edge at about one pound per foot (1.5 kilograms per metre). Attached to the net is a handline, one end of which is held in the hand as the net is thrown. When the net is full, a retrieval clamp, which works like a wringer on a mop, closes the net around the fish. The net is then retrieved by pulling on this handline. The net is lifted into a bucket and the clamp is released, dumping the caught fish into the bucket.[2]

Cast nets work best in water no deeper than their radius. Casting is best done in waters free of obstructions. Reeds cause tangles and branches can rip nets. The net caster may choose to stand with one hand holding the handline, and with the net draped over the other arm so that the weights dangle, or, with most of the net being held in one hand and only a part of the lead line held in the other hand so the weights dangle in a staggered fashion (approximately half of the weights in the throwing hand being held higher than the rest of the weights). The line is then thrown out to the water, using both hands, in a circular motion rather as in hammer throwing. The net can be cast from a boat, or from the shore, or by wading.[1]

Kerala fisherman

Fisherman casting from rocks

Fishing with cast-net from a boat near Kozhikode Beach

From a boat in India

Tank fishing near Unnichai, Batticaloa

In a pond in Sri Lanka

Katang youth casts fishing net in Laos

Boy casting from a riverbank

Menjaring asa

On a lake in Indonesia

Iraq (Babylonia). Euphrates River, fisherman throwing net, sunset scene LOC matpc.23035

Throwing a net on the Euphrates

There are also optional net throwers that can make casting easier. These look like a lid from a trash can, including the handle on top. The outside circumference has a deep gutter. The net is loaded along the gutter and the weights are placed inside the gutter. The net is then tossed into the water using the thrower.

Biology

Astyanax vs Kalendio mosaic
4th century BC mosaic showing a retiarius or "net fighter" with a trident and cast net, fighting a secutor

Net-casting spiders (or retiarius spiders) are stick-like spiders that build webs suspended between their front legs. When prey approaches, the spider stretches its net till it is much larger, and then propels itself onto its prey, entangling it in the web.[3]

History

In Ancient Rome, in a parody of fishing, a type of gladiator called a retiarius or "net fighter" was armed with a trident and a cast net. The retiarius was traditionally pitted against a secutor.[4]

Between 177 and 180 the Greek author Oppian wrote the Halieutica, a didactic poem about fishing. He described various means of fishing including the use of nets cast from boats. References to cast nets can also be found in the New Testament.[5]

In Norse mythology the sea giantess Rán cast a fishing net to trap lost sailors.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Dunbar
  2. ^ Burnley, pp 63–64.
  3. ^ Net-casting or Retarius spiders Queensland Museum. Uploaded 24 Dec 2018.
  4. ^ * Auguet, Roland [1970] (1994). Cruelty and Civilization: The Roman Games. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-10452-1.
  5. ^ Luke 5:4-6; John 21:3-7a

References

External links

Bite indicator

A bite indicator is a mechanical or electronic device which indicates to an angler that something is happening at the hook end of the fishing line.

Clonk (fishing)

A clonk is a fishing tool which has been used in Europe to fish for Wels catfish. It consists of a stick with three parts: handle, fork and heel. Originally it was made of wood but nowadays there are clonks made of plastic or metal too because they are easier to produce than wood.

The process of clonking may look an easy job at first, but it requires some practice. The air bubble produced when the clonk strikes the water is cut by the fork and this produces a unique sound similar to opening a wine bottle. This sound stimulates the defensive instinct in nearby catfish and they attack the "intruder", which in this case is the bait.

Fishing bait

Fishing bait is any substance used to attract and catch fish, e.g. on the end of a fishing hook, or inside a fish trap. Traditionally, nightcrawlers, insects, and smaller bait fish have been used for this purpose. Fishermen have also begun using plastic bait and more recently, electronic lures, to attract fish.

Studies show that natural baits like croaker and shrimp are more recognized by the fish and are more readily accepted. Which of the various techniques a fisher may choose is dictated mainly by the target species and by its habitat. Bait can be separated into two main categories: artificial baits and natural baits.

Fishing basket

A fishing basket is a basket used for fishing.

Fishing gaff

In fishing, a gaff is a pole with a sharp hook on the end that is used to stab a large fish and then lift the fish into the boat or onto shore. Ideally, the hook is placed under the backbone. Gaffs are used when the weight of the fish exceeds the breaking point of the fishing line or the fishing pole. A gaff cannot be used if it is intended to release the fish unharmed after capture, unless the fish is skilfully gaffed in the lip, jaw, or lower gill using a thin gaff hook.

A "flying gaff" is a specialized type of gaff used for securing and controlling very large fish. The hook part of the gaff (the head) detaches when sufficient force is used, somewhat like a harpoon's dart. The head is secured to the boat with a length of heavy rope or cable.

Fishing net

A fishing net is a net used for fishing. Nets are devices made from fibers woven in a grid-like structure. Some fishing nets are also called fish traps, for example fyke nets. Fishing nets are usually meshes formed by knotting a relatively thin thread. Early nets were woven from grasses, flaxes and other fibrous plant material. Later cotton was used. Modern nets are usually made of artificial polyamides like nylon, although nets of organic polyamides such as wool or silk thread were common until recently and are still used.

Fishing sinker

A fishing sinker or knoch is a weight used in conjunction with a fishing lure or hook to increase its rate of sink, anchoring ability, and/or casting distance. Fishing sinkers may be as small as 1 gram for applications in shallow water, and even smaller for fly fishing applications, or as large as several pounds or considerably more for deep sea fishing. They are formed into nearly innumerable shapes for diverse fishing applications. Environmental concerns surround the usage of lead and other materials in fishing sinkers.

Hand net

A hand net, also called a scoop net or dip net, is a net or mesh basket held open by a hoop. It may or may not be on the end of a handle. Hand nets have been used since antiquity and can be used for scooping fish near the surface of the water, such as muskellunge or northern pike.

A hand net with a long handle is often called a dip net. There are popular contemporary dip net Sockeye Salmon fisheries in Chitina, Kenai River, and Kasilof River Alaska, typically lasting two to three weeks, and is regarded as a subsistence fishery for Alaska residents only. Dip nets can also be used to scoop crabs in shallow water. The basket is made of wire or nylon mesh, rather than cloth mesh, since crabs fight, bite, twist and turn when they are caught.When a hand net is used by an angler to help land a fish it is called a landing net.Because hand netting is not destructive to fish, hand nets are often used for tag and release, or to capture aquarium fish.

Handline fishing

Handline fishing, or handlining, is a fishing technique where a single fishing line is held in the hands. It is not to be confused with handfishing. One or more fishing lures or baited hooks are attached to the line. A hook, fishing lure, or a fishing jig and many times a weight and/or a fishing float can be attached to the line. Handlining is among the oldest forms of fishing and is commonly practiced throughout the world today.

The fishing bait can be still fished, trolled or jigged up and down in a series of short movements. Often handling is done close to the bottom of the body of water but can also be done near or on the surface.

Hawaiian sling

The Hawaiian sling is a device used in spearfishing. The sling operates much like a bow and arrow does on land, but energy is stored in rubber tubing rather than a wooden or fiberglass bow.

Hip boot

Hip boots, or hip waders as they are sometimes called, are a type of tall boot initially designed to be worn by river fishermen. Hip boots are typically made out of rubber, and completely cover the legs, up to the tops of the thighs or all the way up to the waist. Hip boots are designed to protect the fisherman from water, and allow wading out into deeper waters in hopes of getting a bigger catch. They also help to keep the feet and legs warm in autumn and winter. Hip boots are also worn by many ecologists and environmental scientists who do tests in swamps or lakes to determine the quality of water.

Hip boots are necessary footwear during flooding, and can be a part of everyday city raingear in order to protect from heavy showers (currently most popular in Japan and Russia as female footwear, usually worn with jeans and raincoat).

Hookset

In recreational fishing terminology, the hookset (setting the hook or striking) is a motion made with a fishing rod in order to "set" a fish hook into the mouth of a fish once it has bitten a fishing lure or bait. That is, in order to secure the fish on the hook, a sharp motion is performed to push the barb of the hook into the fish's mouth, preferably in the corner. If this motion were not performed, while it is possible for a fish to set itself, the likelihood of successfully landing the fish is minimal since, without the barb of the hook secured, the fish could shake the hook out of its mouth. The motion is usually a sharp, sweeping motion of the rod, either upwards or to the side, depending on the orientation of the rod at the moment the fish bites. Some fishermen will perform several hooksets in quick succession to ensure that the fish is securely hooked, especially on fish with tough mouths such as some saltwater species. In contrast, anglers using circle hooks needn't set the hook, since the hook's design allows it to set itself when the angler reels in.

Lift net

Lift nets, also called lever nets, are a method of fishing using nets that are submerged to a certain depth and then lifted out of the water vertically. The nets can be flat or shaped like a bag, a rectangle, a pyramid, or a cone. Lift nets can be hand-operated, boat-operated, or shore-operated. They typically use bait or a light-source as a fish-attractor. Lift nets are also sometimes called "dip nets", though that term applies more accurately to hand nets.

Muroami

The muro-ami fishing technique, employed on coral reefs in Southeast Asia, uses an encircling net together with pounding devices. These devices usually comprise large stones fitted on ropes that are pounded into the coral reefs. They can also consist of large heavy blocks of cement that are suspended above the sea by a crane fitted to the vessel. The pounding devices are repeatedly and violently lowered into the area encircled by the net, literally smashing the coral in that area into small fragments in order to scare the fish out of their coral refuges. The "crushing" effect of the pounding process on the coral heads has been described as having long-lasting and practically totally destructive effects.

Power pro

Power Pro a type of braided fishing line made out of a material called Spectra fibers. It has an equivalent diameter of nearly 1/5 of monofilament. Thus the diameter of a piece of Power Pro testing at 50 pounds is equivalent to monofilaments' diameter testing at around 12 pounds. It lacks stretch that monofilament has, giving the fisherman a better "feel" and also helps set the hook faster. Environmentalists have criticized the use of spectra fiber, as it takes a long time to degrade thus harming the environment. Spectra is a form of gel-spun polyethylene.

One note in using Power Pro, the drag has to be set at a much lighter strength than compared to monofilament due to the propensity for Power Pro to dig into itself while fighting large fish.

Sandsinker

Sandsinkers are lead-free fishing sinkers made of fabric and filled with sand. Although they do not cast as easily or as far for surf fishing, they are a healthy alternative to lead for fishing from jetties or any situation where casting distance is not a prime consideration.

Shrimp baiting

Shrimp baiting is a method used by recreational fisherman for of catching shrimp. In the 1980s the sport became popular in the southeastern coastal states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Since then, several local state regulations have been implemented to better regulate catch limits, methods, and seasons.

Tangle net

Similar to a gillnet, the tangle net, or tooth net, is a type of nylon fishing net. Left in the water for no more than two days, and allowing bycatch to be released alive, this net is considered to be less harmful that other nets. The tangle net is used in the Philippines by commercial fishermen, as well as by the scientific community. When spent, these nets can be bundled, and left on the sea floor to collect smaller species. These bundles are known locally as lumen lumen nets.

Trident

Trident is a three-pronged spear. It is used for spear fishing and historically as a polearm.

The trident is the weapon of Poseidon, or Neptune, the God of the Sea in classical mythology. In Hindu mythology, it is the weapon of Shiva, known as

trishula (Sanskrit for "triple-spear"). It has been used by farmers as a decorticator to remove leaves, seeds, and buds from the stalks of plants such as flax and hemp.

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