A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown to sell for profit. It is typically purchased by parties separate from a farm. The term is used to differentiate marketed crops from subsistence crops, which are those fed to the producer's own livestock or grown as food for the producer's family. In earlier times cash crops were usually only a small (but vital) part of a farm's total yield, while today, especially in developed countries, almost all crops are mainly grown for revenue. In the least developed countries, cash crops are usually crops which attract demand in more developed nations, and hence have some export value.
Prices for major cash crops are set in commodity markets with global scope, with some local variation (termed as "basis") based on freight costs and local supply and demand balance. A consequence of this is that a nation, region, or individual producer relying on such a crop may suffer low prices should a bumper crop elsewhere lead to excess supply on the global markets. This system has been criticized by traditional farmers. Coffee is an example of a product that has been susceptible to significant commodity futures price variations.
Issues involving subsidies and trade barriers on such crops have become controversial in discussions of globalization. Many developing countries take the position that the current international trade system is unfair because it has caused tariffs to be lowered in industrial goods while allowing for low tariffs and agricultural subsidies for agricultural goods. This makes it difficult for a developing nation to export its goods overseas, and forces developing nations to compete with imported goods which are exported from developed nations at artificially low prices. The practice of exporting at artificially low prices is known as dumping, and is illegal in most nations. Controversy over this issue led to the collapse of the Cancún trade talks in 2003, when the Group of 22 refused to consider agenda items proposed by the European Union unless the issue of agricultural subsidies was addressed.
The Arctic climate is generally not conducive for the cultivation of cash crops. However, one potential cash crop for the Arctic is Rhodiola rosea, a hardy plant used as a medicinal herb that grows in the Arctic. There is currently consumer demand for the plant, but the available supply is less than the demand (as of 2011).
Cash crops grown in regions with a temperate climate include many cereals (wheat, rye, corn, barley, oats), oil-yielding crops (e.g. grapeseed, mustard seeds), vegetables (e.g. potatoes), tree fruit or top fruit (e.g. apples, cherries) and soft fruit (e.g. strawberries, raspberries).
In regions with a tropical climate, coffee, cocoa, sugar cane, bananas, oranges, cotton and jute (a soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads), are common cash crops. The oil palm is a tropical palm tree, and the fruit from it is used to make palm oil.
Around 60 percent of African workers are employed in the agricultural sector, with about three-fifths of African farmers being subsistence farmers. For example, in Burkina Faso 85% of its residents (over two million people) are reliant upon cotton production for income, and over half of the country's population lives in poverty. Larger farms tend to grow cash crops such as coffee, tea, cotton, cocoa, fruit and rubber. These farms, typically operated by large corporations, cover tens of square kilometres and employ large numbers of laborers. Subsistence farms provide a source of food and a relatively small income for families, but generally fail to produce enough to make re-investment possible.
The situation in which African nations export crops while a significant number of people on the continent struggle with hunger has been blamed on developed countries, including the United States, Japan and the European Union. These countries protect their own agricultural sectors, through high import tariffs and offer subsidies to their farmers, which some have contended is leading to the overproduction of commodities such as cotton, grain and milk. The result of this is that the global price of such products is continually reduced until Africans are unable to compete in world markets, except in cash crops that do not grow easily in temperate climates.
Africa has realized significant growth in biofuel plantations, many of which are on lands which were purchased by British companies. Jatropha curcas is a cash crop grown for biofuel production in Africa. Some have criticized the practice of raising non-food plants for export while Africa has problems with hunger and food shortages, and some studies have correlated the proliferation of land acquisitions, often for use to grow non-food cash crops with increasing hunger rates in Africa.
Australia produces significant amounts of lentils. It was estimated in 2010 that Australia would produce approximately 143,000 tons of lentils. Most of Australia's lentil harvest is exported to the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East.
Italy's Cassa per il Mezzogiorno in 1950 led to the government implementing incentives to grow cash crops such as tomatoes, tobacco and citrus fruits. As a result, they created an over abundance of these crops causing an over saturation of these crops on the global market. This caused these crops to depreciate in value
Cash cropping in the United States rose to prominence after the baby boomer generation and the end of World War II. It was seen as a way to feed the large population boom and continues to be the main factor in having an affordable food supply in the United States. According to the 1997 U.S. Census of Agriculture, 90% of the farms in the United States are still owned by families, with an additional 6% owned by a partnership. Cash crop farmers have utilized precision agricultural technologies combined with time-tested practices to produce affordable food. Based upon United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) statistics for 2010, states with the highest fruit production quantities are California, Florida and Washington.
Coconut palms are cultivated in more than 80 countries of the world, with a total production of 61 million tonnes per year. The oil and milk derived from it are commonly used in cooking and frying; coconut oil is also widely used in soaps and cosmetics.
Approximately 70% of the world's food is produced by 500 million smallholder farmers. For their livelihood they depend on the production of cash crops, basic commodities that are hard to differentiate in the market. The great majority (80%) of the world's farms measure 2 hectares or less. These smallholder farmers are mainly found in developing countries and are often unorganized, illiterate or enjoyed only basic education. Smallholder farmers have little bargaining power and incomes are low, leading to a situation in which they cannot invest much in upscaling their businesses. In general, farmers lack access to agricultural inputs and finance, and do not have enough knowledge on good agricultural and business practices. These high level problems are in many cases threatening the future of agricultural sectors and theories start evolving on how to secure a sustainable future for agriculture. Sustainable market transformations are initiated in which industry leaders work together in a pre-competitive environment to change market conditions. Sustainable intensification focuses on facilitating entrepreneurial farmers. To stimulate farm investment, projects on access to finance for agriculture are also popping up. One example is the SCOPE methodology, an assessment tool that measures the management maturity and professionalism of producer organizations as to give financing organizations better insights in the risks involved in financing. Currently agricultural finance is always considered risky and avoided by financial institutions.
Coca, opium poppies and cannabis are significant black market cash crops, the prevalence of which varies. In the United States, cannabis is considered by some to be the most valuable cash crop. In 2006, it was reported in a study by Jon Gettman, a marijuana policy researcher, that in contrast to government figures for legal crops such as corn and wheat and using the study's projections for U.S. cannabis production at that time, cannabis was cited as "the top cash crop in 12 states and among the top three cash crops in 30". The study also estimated cannabis production at the time (in 2006) to be valued at $35.8 billion USD, which exceeded the combined value of corn at $23.3 billion and wheat at $7.5 billion.
Dumping, i.e. bringing a product onto the market of another country at a price less than the normal value of that product is condemned but not prohibited in WTO law.
Agriculture in Nigeria is a branch of the economy in Nigeria, providing employment for about 30% of the population as of 2010. The sector is being transformed by commercialization at the small, medium and large-scale enterprise levels.Agriculture in Tanzania
Agriculture is the main part of Tanzania's economy. As of 2016, Tanzania had over 44 million hectares of arable land with only 33 percent of this amount in cultivation. Almost 70 percent of the poor population live in rural areas, and almost all of them are involved in the farming sector. Land is a vital asset in ensuring food security, and among the nine main food crops in Tanzania are maize, sorghum, millet, rice, wheat, beans, cassava, potatoes, and bananas. The agricultural industry makes a large contribution to the country's foreign exchange earnings, with more than US$1 billion in earnings from cash crop exports.The 7 main cash crops are as follows;
TobbaccoAt one point in its agricultural history, Tanzania was the largest producer of sisal in the world.The agriculture sector faces various challenges and had been the governments top priority to develop to reduce poverty and increase productivity. Farming efficiently has been a challenge for many farmers, and lack of finances and farming education has caused many to remain subsistence farmers. Farm sizes remain very small with an average plot size being around 2.5 ha.Challenges on the Agriculture Industry of Tanzania include lack of agricultural technology, droughts, floods, and agriculture temperature shocks. These pose severe challenges to the living standards of most of people involved in the Agriculture Industry in Tanzania and create huge increases in unemployment, hunger, malnutrition and starvation, and diseases rates.Large declines in commodity prices, decreased export revenues, increased trade and budget deficits all amount to hindering the growth of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). The Agriculture Industry in Tanzania represents 32.4 percent of GDP of Tanzania.Cachoeira de Pajeú
Cachoeira de Pajeú is a municipality in the northeast of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Its population in 2007 was 9,089 inhabitants in a total area of 674 km².
It belongs to the Pedra Azul statistical microregion. The elevation of the municipal seat is 729 meters. It became a municipality in 1989 being called André Fernandes when it was a district of Pedra Azul. This municipality is located just south of the important Br-251 and a short distance west of BR-116. The nearest population center with more services is Medina.
Neighboring municipalities are: Pedra Azul and Águas Vermelhas.
The main economic activities are cattle raising and subsistence farming. The GDP was R$48,031,000 (2005). There was 01 banking agency in 2006. In the rural area there were 599 farms with around 1,500 people involved in the agricultural sector. There was a planted area of around 8,000 hectares. The main cash crop was coffee. There were 23 tractors, a ratio of one tractor for every 30 farms. In the health sector there were 07 health clinics and 01 hospital with 30 beds. The score on the Municipal Human Development Index was 0.622. This ranked the city 800 out of 853 municipalities in the state, with Poços de Caldas in first place with 0.841 and Setubinha in last place with 0.568. See Frigoletto for the complete list.Cannabis in Lesotho
Cannabis in Lesotho is illegal for any use, but largely tolerated. Cannabis is widely produced in the country, being the nation's most significant cash-crop. In the 2000s it was estimated that 70% of the cannabis in South Africa originated in Lesotho. In 2017 Lesotho became the first African nation to grant a license for the cultivation of medical cannabis.
Cannabis is known as "matekoane" in Sesotho language.Cash Crop (album)
Cash Crop is an album by Canadian hip hop group Rascalz, released in 1997 on ViK. Recordings. The album is the group's most successful record to date and was certified gold by CRIA with sales of over 50,000 copies across Canada.Charas
Charas (Hindustani) is the name given to a hashish form of cannabis which is handmade in the Indian subcontinent and Jamaica. It is made from the resin of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica). The plant grows wild throughout Northern India along the stretch of the Himalayas (its putative origin) and is an important cash crop for the local people. The difference between charas and hashish is that hashish is made from a dead cannabis plant and charas is made from a live one.Chiro Zuria
Nannawa Chiro is one of the Aanaas in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia. Part of the Dhiha hararghe Zone, Chiro is bordered on the south by Kuni, on the west by Guba Koricha, on the northwest by Mieso, on the north by Doba, on the northeast by Tulo, and on the east by the Galetti River which separates it from Mesela and the Baha hararghe Zone. It is part of former Chiro woreda what was divided for Chiro Zuria and Gemechis woredas and Chiro Town.
The highest peak in Chiro is Mount Arba Gugu (3574 meters). Khat is an important cash crop of this woreda, but because it is a very perishable commodity and must be cultivated not too far from major markets or good roads, it is grown along the main road. Coffee is another important cash crop, with over 5,000 hectares is planted with this crop.Cotton Belt
The Cotton Belt is a region of the Southern United States where cotton was the predominant cash crop from the late 18th century into the 20th century.Before the invention of the cotton gin in 1793, cotton production was limited to coastal plain areas of South Carolina and Georgia, and, on a smaller scale, along the lower Mississippi River. The cotton gin allowed profitable processing of short-staple cotton, which could be grown in the upland regions of the Deep South. After 1793 the Natchez District rapidly became the leading cotton-producing region in Mississippi. Natchez planters developed new cotton plant hybrids and a mechanized system that fueled the spread of the cotton plantation system throughout the Old Southeast. The demand by European Americans for land to develop for upland cotton drove the removal of Native American tribes from the Southeast after 1830. The central part of this area, extending into Texas, became known as the Black Belt for the fertility of the soil and later the high proportion of slave population.
By the middle of the 19th century, the Cotton Belt extended from Maryland to East Texas. The most intensive cotton production occurred in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, Arkansas and Mississippi, together with parts of Florida, Louisiana and Texas. High productivity depended on the plantation system and slavery combined with fertile soils and a favorable climate.After the Civil War and the abolition of slavery, many freedman families worked as sharecroppers rather than hire out as laborers; this generally replaced slavery as the primary source of agricultural labor. Cotton production in the region declined in the 20th century due to soil depletion, invasion by the boll weevil, development of alternative markets, and social changes in the region as urban, industrial areas developed. Cotton is still grown in parts of the region, but agricultural land in the region is now used primarily for commodity crops such as corn, wheat, soybeans, and livestock; and commercial timber production.Dey Chopan District
Dey Chopan, also spelled as Daichopan (Persian: دای چوپان ), is the northern most district in Zabul Province of Afghanistan. this district belong to Hazaras which was occupied by king Abdul Rahman in 19th century. It has a population of about 38,300 as of 2013.Its economy is completely dependent on almonds raised as a cash crop. The majority is brought to Qalat, the provincial capital.John Rolfe
John Rolfe (1585–1622) was one of the early English settlers of North America. He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia.Jordânia
Jordânia is a Brazilian municipality located in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais. The city belongs to the mesoregion of Jequitinhonha and to the microregion of Almenara. As of 2007 the population was 10,751 in a total area of 549 km².
Jordânia is located on the state boundary with Bahia. It is linked to the major population center of Almenara by poor roads. The elevation is 198 meters. It became a municipality in 1948.
The main economic activities are cattle raising and subsistence farming. The GDP was R$27,629,000 in 2005. The main cash crop was coffee. There were 143 automobiles in 2007. No banking agencies were listed for that year. In the rural zone there were 611 producers with a total planted area of 1,500 hectares. Most of the land was in natural pasture or woodland. Only 10 of the farms had tractors in 2006.
Municipal Human Development Index: .647 (2000)
State ranking: 754 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000
National ranking: 3,818 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000
Degree of urbanization: 71.55% (2000)--the rate for Minas Gerais was 82.0%
Illiteracy rate: 30.16% (15 years old or older) The rate for Minas Gerais was 11.96%; the rate for Brazil was 13.63%
Urban area covered by sewage system: 79.10%--the rate for Minas Gerais was 81.39%
Infant mortality rate: 15.15—the rate for Minas Gerais was 17.40
Health centers, and hospitals: 03 health centers and 01 hospital with 40 beds.Mata Verde
Mata Verde is a Brazilian municipality located in the state of Minas Gerais. As of 2007 the population was 7,458 and the area was 230.
The city belongs to the mesoregion of Jequitinhonha and to the microregion of Almenara. The elevation is 865. It became a municipality in 1993. It is located on the boundary with the state of Bahia and is connected by dirt road to Divisópolis. To the north there are road connections with Encruzilhada in the state of Bahia. Neighboring municipalities are: Bahia, Divisópolis and Bandeira.
The main economic activities are cattle raising and subsistence farming. The GDP was R$19,450,000 in 2005. The main cash crop was coffee with 550 hectares planted in 2006. There were 73 automobiles in 2007. One banking agency was listed for the same year. In the rural zone there were 202 producers with a total planted area of 900 hectares. Most of the land was in natural pasture or woodland. Only 07 of the farms had tractors in 2006. There was one public health center.
Municipal Human Development Index: .604 (2000)
State ranking: 826 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000
National ranking: 4,593 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000
Degree of urbanization: 80.30
Illiteracy rate: 38.22 (population older than 15)
Percentage of urban homes connected to sewage system: 73.60%
Infant mortality rate: 33.06Narok County
Narok County is a county in Kenya and has a population of 850,920. Its capital and largest town is Narok. The governor of Narok county is Samuel Kuntai Ole Tunai.
Kenya was divided into eight provinces, prior to 2013, which were subdivided into 47 counties. It is situated in the southern parts of the Rift Valley Province. In 1994, Trans Mara District was split from Narok District.
The main cash crop grown in Narok County is wheat.
Along with Kisii County, Narok County has been identified as having the highest level of practice of female genital cutting in the country, despite the practice being outlawed in 2001.Port Royal, Virginia
Port Royal is an incorporated town in Caroline County, Virginia, United States. The population was 126 at the 2010 census.Port Royal was established in the mid-17th century in the Colony of Virginia primarily as a port at the head of the navigable reach of the Rappahannock River for export of tobacco, Virginia's cash crop. The town was also set along an early stage road, which brought passengers and freight for embarkation upon the river there. It still remains a crossroads along the busy modern highways of U.S. Route 17 and U.S. Route 301.Rascalz
The Rascalz are a Canadian hip-hop group from Vancouver, British Columbia, who played a crucial role in the artistic and commercial development of Canadian hip hop. The group consists of emcees Red1 and Misfit, and record producer DJ Kemo. Breakdancers, Zebroc and Dedos were also part of the group.Rio do Prado
Rio do Prado is a municipality in the northeast of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Its population in 2007 was 4,489 inhabitants in a total area of 479 km².
Rio do Prado belongs to the Almenara statistical microregion. The elevation of the municipal seat is 350 meters. It became a municipality in 1953. This municipality is located in the valley of the Rubim do Sul River, a tributary of the Jequitinhonha River.
Neighboring municipalities are: Palmópolis, Rubim, Bertópolis, and Felisburgo.
The main economic activities are cattle raising, and subsistence farming. The GDP was R$15,723,000 (2005). There were no banking agencies in 2006. There were 113 automobiles in 2007. The main cash crop was coffee. In the health sector there were 04 health clinics. The score on the Municipal Human Development Index was 0.626 (medium). This ranked Rio do Prado 793 out of 853 municipalities in the state, with Poços de Caldas in first place with 0.841 and Setubinha in last place with 0.568. See Frigoletto for the complete list.
In October 2010 Celio Vieira de Oliveira created the first entertainment site in the city of Rio do Prado, MG http://riodoprado.com/ (www.RioDoPrado.com)
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Statistics from IBGE
Rubim is a municipality in the northeast of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Its population in 2007 was 9,561 inhabitants in a total area of 969 km².
Rubim belongs to the Almenara statistical microregion. The elevation of the municipal seat is 254 meters. It became a municipality in 1943. This municipality is located in the valley of the Rubim do Sul River, a tributary of the Jequitinhonha River.
Neighboring municipalities are: Almenara, Jacinto, Santa Maria do Salto, Palmópolis, Rio do Prado, Jequitinhonha, and Felisburgo. The distance to Almenara, the regional center, is 36 km. to the northwest.
The main economic activities are cattle raising, and subsistence farming. The GDP was R$31,596,000 (2005). There was 01 banking agency in 2006. There were 216 automobiles in 2007. The main cash crop was coffee. In the health sector there were 6 health clinics and 1 hospital with 58 beds. The score on the Municipal Human Development Index was 0.625 (medium). This ranked Rubim 797 out of 853 municipalities in the state, with Poços de Caldas in first place with 0.841 and Setubinha in last place with 0.568. See Frigoletto for the complete list.
In 2006 there were 454 rural farms with 500 hectares of planted area. Most of the rural area was natural pasture or woodland. Only 05 of the farms had tractors.
Illiteracy rate: 32.30%
Infant mortality rate: 19.23
Degree of urbanization: 77.94%
Life expectancy: 61.3 (average of male and female)
Percentage of urban residences connected to sewage system: 60.40 (All data are from 2000)References
Statistics from IBGE
Social indicators for RubimSanta Maria do Salto
Santa Maria do Salto is a municipality in the northeast of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Its population in 2007 was 5,724 inhabitants in a total area of 442 km².
Santa Maria do Salto belongs to the Almenara statistical microregion. The elevation of the municipal seat is 220 meters. It became a municipality in 1962. This municipality is located south of the Jequitinhonha River and is bordered by the state of Espírito Santo on the east.
Neighboring municipalities are: Eunápolis, Salto da Divisa, and Jacinto. There are poor highway connections with Salto da Divisa, 68 km to the northeast, which has paved connections to the important BR-101, 48 km to the east.
The main economic activities are cattle raising, and subsistence farming. The GDP in 2005 was R$16,530,000. There were no banking agencies listed in 2006. There were 88 automobiles in 2007. The main cash crop was coffee and there was production of bananas and sugarcane. In the health sector there were 02 health clinics and no hospitals. The score on the Municipal Human Development Index was 0.633 (medium). This ranked Santa Maria do Salto 784 out of 853 municipalities in the state, with Poços de Caldas in first place with 0.841 and Setubinha in last place with 0.568. In 2006 there were 201 rural farms with 600 hectares of planted area. Most of the rural area was natural pasture or woodland. Only three of the farms had tractors. There was a cattle herd of 8,000 heads, the cattle being raised mainly for meat.Umling Gewog
Umling Gewog (Dzongkha: ཨུམ་གླིང་) is a gewog (village block) of Sarpang District, Bhutan.Umling Geog is situated in the central Southern foothills of Sarpang Dzongkhag, bordering Assam, India in the
South, and Chuzagang Geog in the West, Tareythang Geog in the East and Zhemgang Dzongkhag in the North.
Its total geographical area is approximately 122 km2 out of which 1480 acres is an arable land. It has undulated terrain with an elevation ranging from 190m to 400m above sea level. It has warm and humid climatic condition in winter and hot and rainy climatic conditions in summer.
It is approximately 33 km away from the Dungkhag headquarters (Gelephu) and is connected with the farm road which is inaccessible in the monsoon season due to heavy downpour. It has a total population of 3129 with almost hundred percent people dependent upon agriculture.Arecanut and ginger are grown as principal cash crop while paddy and maize are cultivated as main crop by the farmers. Beside farmers also rear domestic animals like cows, oxen, goats, sheep, etc. which ultimately add to their livelihood.
Until 2011 Local Government election, the Geog had eight Chiwogs, namely: Chhuborthang, Daangling, Doongmin, Gaden, Lingar, Rijoog, Tashithang and Thongjazor and was merged into five Chiwogs, namely: Daangling, Doongmin, Gaden, Rijoog and Tashithang after the first LG Election. The Geog is administratively headed by Gelephu Dungkhag and subsequently by Sarpang Dzongkhag.