Carura or Karoura (Ancient Greek: Κάρουρα) was an ancient town of Asia Minor on the north-eastern border of ancient Caria.[1][2] Its position east of the range of Cadmus assigns it to Phrygia, under which country Strabo describes it. It was on the south side of the Maeander River, 20 miles west of Laodicea to Ephesus. The place is identified by hot springs approximately 12 miles northwest of Denizli, that have been described by the scholars Pococke and Chandler. Strabo observed that Carura contained many inns (πανδοχεῖα), which is explained by the fact of its being on a line of great traffic, by which the wool and other products of the interior were transported to the coast. He added that it has hot springs, some in the Maeander, and some on the banks of the river.

This tract of land is subject to earthquakes. In a story reported by Strabo, a brothel keeper was lodging in the inns with a great number of his women, they were all swallowed up one night by the earth opening. Henry William Chandler observed on the spot a jet of hot water, which sprung up several inches from the ground; and also the remains of an ancient bridge over the river. On the road between Carura and Laodicea was the temple of Men Carus, a Carian deity; and in the time of Strabo there was a noted Herophilean school of medicine here, under the presidency of Zeuxis, and then Alexander Philalethes.[3] Chandler discovered some remains on the road to Laodicea, which, he supposes, may be the traces of this temple; but he states nothing that confirms this conjecture.

Herodotus mentions a place called "Cydrara", to which Xerxes came on his road from Colossae to Sardes.[4] It was the border between Lydia and Phrygia, and the Lydian king Croesus fixed a stele there with an inscription on it, which declared the boundary. Classical scholar William Martin Leake thought that the Cydrara of Herodotus may be Carura.[5] It could not be far off; but the boundary between Lydia and Phrygia should perhaps not be located south of the Maeander in this region.

Modern scholars locate Carura near Tekke, in Asiatic Turkey.[6][7]


  1. ^ Strabo. Geographica. p. 663. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  2. ^ Long, George (1857), "Carura", in Smith, William (ed.), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, 1, London: Walton & Maberly, p. 554
  3. ^ Strabo, p. 580
  4. ^ Herodotus, vii. 30
  5. ^ William Martin Leake, Asia Minor p. 251
  6. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 65, and directory notes accompanying.
  7. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Carura". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Coordinates: 37°56′25″N 28°49′23″E / 37.940338°N 28.822929°E

Alexander Philalethes

Alexander Philalethes (Gr. Ἀλέξανδρος Φιλαλήθης) was an ancient Greek physician, whom Priscian called Alexander Amator Veri (Alexander Truth-Lover), and who was probably the same person quoted by Caelius Aurelianus under the name of Alexander Laodicensis. He lived probably towards the end of the 1st century BC, as Strabo speaks of him as a contemporary. He was a pupil of Asclepiades of Bithynia, succeeded an otherwise unknown Zeuxis as head of a celebrated Herophilean school of medicine, established in Phrygia between Laodicea and Carura, and was tutor to Aristoxenus and Demosthenes Philalethes. He is several times mentioned by Galen and also by Soranus, and appears to have written some medical works, which are no longer extant. The view, once current, that Alexander's Areskonta served as a doxographical basis for such authors as Anonymus Londinensis, Aetius the doxographer, Soranus of Ephesus, and Anonymus Bruxellensis is an inference on the basis of flimsy evidence.


Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Aristoxenus (physician)

Aristoxenus (Gr. Ἀριστόξενος) was a Greek physician of Asia Minor who was quoted by Caelius Aurelianus. He was a pupil of Alexander Philalethes and contemporary of Demosthenes Philalethes, and must therefore have lived around the 1st century BC. He was a follower of the teachings of Herophilos, and studied at the celebrated Herophilean school at the village of Men-Carus, between Laodicea and Carura. He wrote a work Περὶ τῆς Ἡροφίλου Αἱρέσεως (On the Herophilean Sect, Latin: De Herophili Secta), of which the thirteenth book is quoted by Galen, but which is no longer extant.


The Asturicani are a tribe mentioned by Ptolemy (v. 9. § 7) as dwelling adjacent to the Pontus Euxinus (Black Sea). A source cited this tribe as one of those located in Anatolia along with Ancyra, Balbura, and Carura, among others. The settlement's believed proximity to the Sea of Azov also William Smith equates them with the Aspurgiani. There are scholars who explain that this association could be based on the way the settlement may not be a tribe but a political party or a military colony. Aspurgiani is also believed to be the same.


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.


Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.

Demosthenes Philalethes

Demosthenes Philalethes (Gr. Δημοσθένης ὁ Φιλαλήθης) was an ancient Greek physician of Asia Minor who was one of the pupils of Alexander Philalethes, a contemporary of Aristoxenus, and a follower of the teachings of Herophilos. He succeeded Alexander as the head of the Herophilean school of medicine in Carura. He probably lived around the beginning of the 1st century, and was especially celebrated for his skill as an oculist. He was the author of the most influential ophthalmological work of antiquity, the Ophthalmicus, on diseases of the eye, which appears to have been still extant in the Middle Ages, but of which nothing now remains, although some extracts are preserved by Aëtius Amidenus, Paul of Aegina, Rufus of Ephesus, and other later writers. He also wrote a work on the pulse, which is quoted by Galen. Demosthenes was the last known Herophilean in Asia Minor.


Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.


Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.


Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.

Holmi (Phrygia)

Holmi or Holmoi (Ancient Greek: Ὅλμοι) was a town of ancient Phrygia. It is mention by Strabo as lying on the main road from Carura to Lycaonia near that road's entry into the mountainous region.Its site is unlocated.


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.


Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.

Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).


Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.


Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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