Cartoon

A cartoon is a type of illustration, possibly animated, typically in a non-realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage usually refers to either: an image or series of images intended for satire, caricature, or humor; or a motion picture that relies on a sequence of illustrations for its animation. Someone who creates cartoons in the first sense is called a cartoonist,[1] and in the second sense they are usually called an animator.

The concept originated in the Middle Ages, and first described a preparatory drawing for a piece of art, such as a painting, fresco, tapestry, or stained glass window. In the 19th century, beginning in Punch magazine in 1843, cartoon came to refer – ironically at first – to humorous illustrations in magazines and newspapers. In the early 20th century, it began to refer to animated films which resembled print cartoons.[2]

Dr. Seuss WikiWorld
Example of a modern cartoon. The text was excerpted by cartoonist Greg Williams from the Wikipedia article on Dr. Seuss

Fine art

A cartoon (from Italian: cartone and Dutch: karton—words describing strong, heavy paper or pasteboard) is a full-size drawing made on sturdy paper as a study or modello for a painting, stained glass, or tapestry. Cartoons were typically used in the production of frescoes, to accurately link the component parts of the composition when painted on damp plaster over a series of days (giornate).[3]

Such cartoons often have pinpricks along the outlines of the design so that a bag of soot patted or "pounced" over a cartoon, held against the wall, would leave black dots on the plaster ("pouncing"). Cartoons by painters, such as the Raphael Cartoons in London, and examples by Leonardo da Vinci, are highly prized in their own right. Tapestry cartoons, usually colored, were followed with the eye by the weavers on the loom.[2][4]

Print media

SubstanceandShadow
John Leech, Cartoon no.1: Substance and Shadow, 1843, satirized preparatory cartoons for frescoes in the Palace of Westminster, creating the modern meaning of "cartoon"

In print media, a cartoon is an illustration or series of illustrations, usually humorous in intent. This usage dates from 1843, when Punch magazine applied the term to satirical drawings in its pages,[5] particularly sketches by John Leech.[6] The first of these parodied the preparatory cartoons for grand historical frescoes in the then-new Palace of Westminster. The original title for these drawings was Mr Punch's face is the letter Q and the new title "cartoon" was intended to be ironic, a reference to the self-aggrandizing posturing of Westminster politicians.

Cartoons can be divided into gag cartoons, which include editorial cartoons, and comic strips.

Modern single-panel gag cartoons, found in magazines, generally consist of a single drawing with a typeset caption positioned beneath, or—less often—a speech balloon.[7] Newspaper syndicates have also distributed single-panel gag cartoons by Mel Calman, Bill Holman, Gary Larson, George Lichty, Fred Neher and others. Many consider New Yorker cartoonist Peter Arno the father of the modern gag cartoon (as did Arno himself).[8] The roster of magazine gag cartoonists includes Charles Addams, Charles Barsotti, and Chon Day.

Bill Hoest, Jerry Marcus, and Virgil Partch began as magazine gag cartoonists and moved to syndicated comic strips. Richard Thompson is noteworthy in the area of newspaper cartoon illustration; he illustrated numerous feature articles in The Washington Post before creating his Cul de Sac comic strip. The sports section of newspapers usually featured cartoons, sometimes including syndicated features such as Chester "Chet" Brown's All in Sport.

Editorial cartoons are found almost exclusively in news publications and news websites. Although they also employ humor, they are more serious in tone, commonly using irony or satire. The art usually acts as a visual metaphor to illustrate a point of view on current social or political topics. Editorial cartoons often include speech balloons and sometimes use multiple panels. Editorial cartoonists of note include Herblock, David Low, Jeff MacNelly, Mike Peters, and Gerald Scarfe.[2]

Comic strips, also known as cartoon strips in the United Kingdom, are found daily in newspapers worldwide, and are usually a short series of cartoon illustrations in sequence. In the United States, they are not commonly called "cartoons" themselves, but rather "comics" or "funnies". Nonetheless, the creators of comic strips—as well as comic books and graphic novels—are usually referred to as "cartoonists". Although humor is the most prevalent subject matter, adventure and drama are also represented in this medium. Some noteworthy cartoonists of humorous comic strips are Scott Adams, Steve Bell, Charles Schulz, E. C. Segar, Mort Walker and Bill Watterson.[2]

Political cartoons

Political cartoons are like illustrated editorial that serve visual commentaries on political events. They offer subtle criticism which are cleverly quoted with humour and satire to the extent that the criticized does not get embittered.

The pictorial satire of William Hogarth is regarded as a precursor to the development of political cartoons in 18th century England.[9] George Townshend produced some of the first overtly political cartoons and caricatures in the 1750s.[9][10] The medium began to develop in the latter part of the 18th century under the direction of its great exponents, James Gillray and Thomas Rowlandson, both from London. Gillray explored the use of the medium for lampooning and caricature, and has been referred to as the father of the political cartoon.[11] By calling the king, prime ministers and generals to account for their behaviour, many of Gillray's satires were directed against George III, depicting him as a pretentious buffoon, while the bulk of his work was dedicated to ridiculing the ambitions of revolutionary France and Napoleon.[11] George Cruikshank became the leading cartoonist in the period following Gillray, from 1815 until the 1840s. His career was renowned for his social caricatures of English life for popular publications.

Tammany Ring, Nast crop
Nast depicts the Tweed Ring: "Who stole the people's money?" / "'Twas him."

By the mid 19th century, major political newspapers in many other countries featured cartoons commenting on the politics of the day. Thomas Nast, in New York City, showed how realistic German drawing techniques could redefine American cartooning.[12] His 160 cartoons relentlessly pursued the criminal characteristic of the Tweed machine in New York City, and helped bring it down. Indeed, Tweed was arrested in Spain when police identified him from Nast's cartoons.[13] Sir John Tenniel was the toast of London.[14]

Political cartoons can be humorous or satirical, sometimes with piercing effect. The target of the humor may complain, but they can seldom fight back. Lawsuits have been very rare; the first successful lawsuit against a cartoonist in over a century in Britain came in 1921, when J. H. Thomas, the leader of the National Union of Railwaymen (NUR), initiated libel proceedings against the magazine of the British Communist Party. Thomas claimed defamation in the form of cartoons and words depicting the events of "Black Friday", when he allegedly betrayed the locked-out Miners' Federation. To Thomas, the framing of his image by the far left threatened to grievously degrade his character in the popular imagination. Soviet-inspired communism was a new element in European politics, and cartoonists unrestrained by tradition tested the boundaries of libel law. Thomas won the lawsuit and restored his reputation.[15]

Scientific cartoons

Cartoons such as xkcd have also found their place in the world of science, mathematics, and technology. Cartoons related to chemistry are, for example, the Wonderlab, which looked at daily life in the lab. In the U.S., one well-known cartoonist for these fields is Sidney Harris. Not all, but many of Gary Larson's cartoons have a scientific flavor.

Comic books

Books with cartoons are usually magazine-format "comic books," or occasionally reprints of newspaper cartoons.

In Britain in the 1930s adventure magazines became quite popular, especially those published by DC Thomson; the publisher sent observers around the country to talk to boys and learn what they wanted to read about. The story line in magazines, comic books and cinema that most appealed to boys was the glamorous heroism of British soldiers fighting wars that were exciting and just.[16] D.C. Thomson issued the first The Dandy Comic in December 1937. It had a revolutionary design that broke away from the usual children's comics that were published broadsheet in size and not very colourful. Thomson capitalized on its success with a similar product The Beano in 1938.[17]

On some occasions, new gag cartoons have been created for book publication, as was the case with Think Small, a 1967 promotional book distributed as a giveaway by Volkswagen dealers. Bill Hoest and other cartoonists of that decade drew cartoons showing Volkswagens, and these were published along with humorous automotive essays by such humorists as H. Allen Smith, Roger Price and Jean Shepherd. The book's design juxtaposed each cartoon alongside a photograph of the cartoon's creator.

Animation

Animhorse
An animated cartoon horse, drawn by rotoscoping from Eadweard Muybridge's 19th-century photos

Because of the stylistic similarities between comic strips and early animated movies, cartoon came to refer to animation, and the word cartoon is currently used in reference to both animated cartoons and gag cartoons.[18] While animation designates any style of illustrated images seen in rapid succession to give the impression of movement, the word "cartoon" is most often used as a descriptor for television programs and short films aimed at children, possibly featuring anthropomorphized animals,[19] superheroes, the adventures of child protagonists or related themes.

In the 1980s, cartoon was shortened to toon, referring to characters in animated productions. This term was popularized in 1988 by the combined live-action/animated film Who Framed Roger Rabbit, followed in 1990 by the animated TV series Tiny Toon Adventures.

See also

References

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster's Dictionary.
  2. ^ a b c d Becker 1959
  3. ^ Constable 1954, p. 115.
  4. ^ Adelson 1994, p. 330.
  5. ^ Punch.co.uk. "History of the Cartoon". Archived from the original on 2007-11-11. Retrieved 2007-11-01.
  6. ^ Adler & Hill 2008, p. 30.
  7. ^ Bishop 2009, p. 92.
  8. ^ Maslin, Michael (May 5, 2016). "The Peter Arno Cartoons That Help Rescue The New Yorker". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2018-09-16.
  9. ^ a b Press 1981, p. 34.
  10. ^ Chris Upton. "Birth of England's pocket cartoon". The Free Library.
  11. ^ a b Rowson 2015.
  12. ^ Adler & Hill 2008, p. 24.
  13. ^ Adler & Hill 2008, pp. 49–50.
  14. ^ Morris & Tenniel 2005, p. 344.
  15. ^ Samuel S. Hyde, "'Please, Sir, he called me “Jimmy!' Political Cartooning before the Law: 'Black Friday,' J.H. Thomas, and the Communist Libel Trial of 1921," Contemporary British History (2011) 25#4 pp 521-550
  16. ^ Ernest Sackville Turner, Boys Will Be Boys: The Story of Sweeney Todd, Deadwood Dick, Sexton Blake, Billy Bunter, Dick Barton et al. (3rd ed. 1975).
  17. ^ M. Keith Booker (2014). Comics through Time: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas [4 volumes]: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas. p. 74.
  18. ^ Walasek 2009, p. 116.
  19. ^ Wells 2008, p. 41.

Bibliography

External links

Adult Swim

Adult Swim (stylized as [adult swim]) is the adult-oriented nighttime programming block of the American children's cable network Cartoon Network and its own television production studio Williams Street Productions. It broadcasts every night from 8 p.m.-6 a.m. (Eastern and Pacific Time). Williams Street also produces Toonami and formerly produced Miguzi.

Debuting in 2001, Adult Swim serves as the nighttime identity of Cartoon Network, and was established as alternative programming during the late night hours when Cartoon Network's primary target audience, children between the ages of 6–15, would normally be sleeping. Much of Adult Swim's general content is known for their experimental, risqué, unorthodox, crude, dry, and improvisational humor, along with purposefully cheap-looking animation, and often bizarre presentation. In 2005, the block was granted its own Nielsen ratings report from Cartoon Network due to targeting a separate demographic. The block features stylistically varied animated and live-action shows including original programming, syndicated series mainly consisting of Fox animated programming (namely American Dad!, Family Guy, and Bob's Burgers), short films, original video animation, and anime, generally with minimal or no editing for content.

In the United States, Adult Swim has frequently aired adult animation features, anime, mockumentaries, sketch comedy, live action, and pilots. Shows may have sexual themes, frank sexual discussion, nudity, strong language, and graphic violence; in other words, programs that would be deemed inappropriate if aired during the day on Cartoon Network, when children would be watching. While the network features comedic and dramatic programs of all types, many of its programs are aesthetically experimental, transgressive, improvised, and surrealist in nature. Thus, Adult Swim has become a source of conflict, with some saying that it is too controversial, while others noting that its ability to question the norm brings a level of surrealism and experimentalism that is welcome. Adult Swim has contracted with various studios known for their productions in absurd and shock comedy.As with Cartoon Network, Adult Swim's reach through various services totals 94 million American households.

Adventure Time

Adventure Time is an American fantasy animated television series created by Pendleton Ward for Cartoon Network. Produced by Frederator Studios and Cartoon Network Studios, the series follows the adventures of a boy named Finn (voiced by Jeremy Shada) and his best friend and adoptive brother Jake (John DiMaggio)—a dog with the magical power to change shape and size at will. Finn and Jake live in the post-apocalyptic Land of Ooo, where they interact with Princess Bubblegum (Hynden Walch), the Ice King (Tom Kenny), Marceline the Vampire Queen (Olivia Olson), BMO (Niki Yang), and others. The series is based on a 2007 short produced for Nicktoons and Frederator Studios' animation incubator series Random! Cartoons. After the short became a viral hit on the Internet, Cartoon Network commissioned a full-length series, which previewed on March 11, 2010, and officially premiered on April 5, 2010.

The series drew inspiration from a variety of sources, including the fantasy role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons and video games. It was produced using hand-drawn animation; action and dialogue for episodes are decided by storyboarding artists based off rough outlines. Because each episode took roughly eight to nine months to complete, multiple episodes were worked on concurrently. The cast members recorded their lines in group recordings, and the series regularly employed guest actors for minor and recurring characters. Each episode runs for about eleven minutes; pairs of episodes are often telecast to fill half-hour program slots. On September 29, 2016, it was announced that the series would conclude in 2018, after the airing of its tenth season.§ The series finale aired on September 3, 2018.

Adventure Time has been a ratings success for Cartoon Network and some episodes have attracted over 3 million viewers; despite being aimed primarily at children, it has developed a following among teenagers and adults. The show has received positive reviews from critics and won awards including: eight Primetime Emmy Awards, a Peabody Award, three Annie Awards, two British Academy Children's Awards, a Motion Picture Sound Editors Award, a Pixel Award, and a Kerrang! Award. The series has also been nominated for three Critics' Choice Television Awards, two Annecy Festival Awards, a TCA Award, and a Sundance Film Festival Award, among others. Of the many comic book spin-offs based on the series, one received an Eisner Award and two Harvey Awards. Various forms of licensed merchandise, including books, video games and clothing, have been inspired by the series.

Animated cartoon

An animated cartoon is a film for the cinema, television or computer screen, which is made using sequential drawings, as opposed to animation in general, which include films made using clay, puppets, 3D modeling and other means. Animated cartoons are still created for entertainment, commercial, educational and personal purposes.

Animated series

An animated series is a set of animated works with a common series title, usually related to one another. These episodes should typically share the same main characters, some different secondary characters and a basic theme. Series can have either a finite number of episodes like a miniseries, a definite end, or be open-ended, without a predetermined number of episodes. They can be broadcast on television, shown in movie theatres, released direct-to-video or on the internet. Like animated films, animated series can be of a wide variety of genres and can also have different target audiences, from children to adults.

Ben 10

Ben 10 is an American animated television series and a media franchise created by Man of Action Studios and produced by Cartoon Network Studios. The franchise revolves around a boy named Ben Tennyson who acquires a watch-like alien device, the Omnitrix, which allows him to transform into ten different alien creatures. The Ben 10 franchise has received wide critical acclaim, winning three Emmy Awards. The franchise consists primarily of five television series and four films, the latter of which aired between August 2007 and March 2012. Spanning thirteen years, it is Cartoon Network's longest-running franchise to date. There is also a Ben 10 toy line manufactured by Bandai for the first 4 shows and Playmates Toys for the reboot. Worldwide, the franchise has grossed over $6 billion in retail sales.

Cartoon Network

Cartoon Network (CN for short) is an American pay television channel owned by Turner Broadcasting System, a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

The channel was launched on October 1, 1992 and primarily broadcasts animated television series, mostly children's programming, ranging from action to animated comedy. It operates daily from 6:00 AM to 8:00 PM. (ET) and primarily aimed at children and young teenagers between the ages of 7 to 15, and targets older teens and adults with mature content during its late night daypart block, Adult Swim, which is treated as a separate entity for promotional purposes and as a separate channel by Nielsen for ratings purposes. A Spanish language audio track for select programs is accessible via second audio programing (SAP); some cable and satellite companies offer the Spanish feed as a separate channel by removing the main English-language audio track. It is also the sister channel of Boomerang.

As of January 2016, Cartoon Network is available to approximately 94.0 million pay television households (80.7% of households with television) in the United States.

Character (arts)

A character (sometimes known as a fictional character) is a person or other being in a narrative (such as a novel, play, television series, film, or video game). The character may be entirely fictional or based on a real-life person, in which case the distinction of a "fictional" versus "real" character may be made. Derived from the ancient Greek word χαρακτήρ, the English word dates from the Restoration, although it became widely used after its appearance in Tom Jones in 1749. From this, the sense of "a part played by an actor" developed. Character, particularly when enacted by an actor in the theatre or cinema, involves "the illusion of being a human person". In literature, characters guide readers through their stories, helping them to understand plots and ponder themes. Since the end of the 18th century, the phrase "in character" has been used to describe an effective impersonation by an actor. Since the 19th century, the art of creating characters, as practiced by actors or writers, has been called characterisation.A character who stands as a representative of a particular class or group of people is known as a type. Types include both stock characters and those that are more fully individualised. The characters in Henrik Ibsen's Hedda Gabler (1891) and August Strindberg's Miss Julie (1888), for example, are representative of specific positions in the social relations of class and gender, such that the conflicts between the characters reveal ideological conflicts.The study of a character requires an analysis of its relations with all of the other characters in the work. The individual status of a character is defined through the network of oppositions (proairetic, pragmatic, linguistic, proxemic) that it forms with the other characters. The relation between characters and the action of the story shifts historically, often miming shifts in society and its ideas about human individuality, self-determination, and the social order.

Comic strip

A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative, often serialized, with text in balloons and captions. Traditionally, throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, these have been published in newspapers and magazines, with horizontal strips printed in black-and-white in daily newspapers, while Sunday newspapers offered longer sequences in special color comics sections. With the development of the internet, they began to appear online as webcomics. There were more than 200 different comic strips and daily cartoon panels in South Korea alone each day for most of the 20th century, for a total of at least 7,300,000 episodes.Strips are written and drawn by a comics artist or cartoonist. As the name implies, comic strips can be humorous (for example, "gag-a-day" strips such as Blondie, Bringing Up Father, Marmaduke, and Pearls Before Swine).

Starting in the late 1920s, comic strips expanded from their mirthful origins to feature adventure stories, as seen in Popeye, Captain Easy, Buck Rogers, Tarzan, and The Adventures of Tintin. Soap-opera continuity strips such as Judge Parker and Mary Worth gained popularity in the 1940s. All are called, generically, comic strips, though cartoonist Will Eisner has suggested that "sequential art" would be a better genre-neutral name.In the UK and the rest of Europe, comic strips are also serialized in comic book magazines, with a strip's story sometimes continuing over three pages or more. Comic strips have appeared in American magazines such as Liberty and Boys' Life and also on the front covers of magazines, such as the Flossy Frills series on The American Weekly Sunday newspaper supplement.

Hanna-Barbera

Hanna-Barbera Productions, Inc. (simply known as Hanna-Barbera and also referred to as H-B Enterprises, H-B Production Company and Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc.) was an American animation studio. It was founded in 1957 by former Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer animation directors and Tom and Jerry creators William Hanna and Joseph Barbera, in partnership with film director George Sidney.For more than three decades in the mid-20th century, it was a prominent force in American television animation. The studio is known for creating a wide variety of popular animated characters and for 30 years, it produced a succession of cartoon shows, including The Flintstones, The Yogi Bear Show, The Jetsons, Wacky Races, Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! and The Smurfs.Hanna and Barbera together won seven Academy Awards, a Governors Award, eight Emmy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame and were inducted into the Television Academy Hall of Fame in 1993. On December 29, 1966, with Hanna-Barbera established as a successful company, Hanna, Barbera and original investor Sidney sold it to Taft Broadcasting, which continued to operate the studio for the next quarter-century.Hanna-Barbera's fortunes declined in the mid-1980s when the profitability of Saturday morning cartoons was eclipsed by weekday afternoon syndication. In late 1991, it was purchased from Taft (by then renamed Great American Broadcasting) by Turner Broadcasting System, which used much of its back catalog as programming for its new channel, Cartoon Network.After Turner purchased the company, Hanna and Barbera continued to serve as creative consultants and mentors. The studio became a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Animation in 1996 following Turner Broadcasting's merger with Time Warner, and was ultimately absorbed into Warner Bros. Animation in 2001.

As of 2019, Warner Bros., which uses the Hanna-Barbera brand to market properties and productions associated with it's library, now owns the rights to Hanna-Barbera's back catalogue.

Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy

The Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy (or Muhammad cartoons crisis) (Danish: Muhammedkrisen) began after the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten published 12 editorial cartoons on 30 September 2005, most of which depicted Muhammad, a principal figure of the religion of Islam. The newspaper announced that this was an attempt to contribute to the debate about criticism of Islam and self-censorship. Muslim groups in Denmark complained, and the issue eventually led to protests around the world, including violent demonstrations and riots in some Muslim countries.Islam has a strong tradition of aniconism, and it is considered highly blasphemous in most Islamic traditions to visually depict Muhammad. This, compounded with a sense that the cartoons insulted Muhammad and Islam, offended many Muslims. Danish Muslim organisations that objected to the depictions responded by petitioning the embassies of Islamic countries and the Danish government to take action in response, and filed a judicial complaint against the newspaper, which was dismissed in January 2006. After the Danish government refused to meet with diplomatic representatives of the Muslim countries and would not intervene in the case, a number of Danish imams visited the Middle East in late 2005 to raise awareness of the issue. They presented a dossier containing the twelve cartoons from the Jyllands-Posten, and other information some of which was found to be falsified.As a result, the issue received prominent media attention in some Muslim-majority countries, leading to protests across the world in late January and early February 2006. Some escalated into violence resulting in more than 200 reported deaths, attacks on Danish and other European diplomatic missions, attacks on churches and Christians, and a major international boycott. Some groups responded to the outpouring of protest by endorsing the Danish policies, launching "Buy Danish" campaigns and other displays of support. The cartoons were reprinted in newspapers around the world both in a sense of journalistic solidarity and as an illustration in what became a major news story.

Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen described the controversy as Denmark's worst international relations incident since the Second World War. The incident came at a time of heightened political and social tensions between Muslim majority countries and Western countries, following several, high-profile Islamic terrorist attacks in the West—including the September 11 attacks—and Western military interventions in Muslim countries, such as Iraq and Afghanistan. The cartoons and the reaction to them aggravated already-strained relations. The relationship between Muslims in Denmark and the broader society was similarly at a low-point, and the conflict came to symbolize the misunderstandings between the Islamic community and the rest of society. In the years since, terrorist plots claiming to be in retaliation for the cartoons have been planned, and some executed, against targets affiliated with newspapers that published the cartoons or Denmark.

Supporters said that the publication of the cartoons was a legitimate exercise of free speech regardless of the validity of the expression, that it was important to openly discuss Islam without fear or that the cartoons made important points about topical issues. The Danish tradition of relatively high tolerance for freedom of speech became a focus of some attention. The controversy ignited a debate about the limits of freedom of expression in all societies, religious tolerance and the relationship of Muslim minorities with their broader societies in the West, and relations between the Islamic World in general and the West.

List of programs broadcast by Cartoon Network

This is a list of television programs currently or formerly broadcast by Cartoon Network in the United States. The network was launched on October 1, 1992, and airs mainly animated programming, ranging from action to animated comedy.

In its early years, Cartoon Network's programming was predominantly made up of reruns of Looney Tunes, Tom and Jerry, and Hanna-Barbera shows such as Quick Draw McGraw, The Flintstones, The Jetsons, Johnny Quest, and Scooby-Doo. Cartoon Network's first original series were The Moxy Show and the late-night satirical animated talk show, Space Ghost Coast to Coast. The What a Cartoon! series of showcase shorts brought about the creation of a number of Cartoon Network original series, the first of which made into a full-fledged series was Dexter's Laboratory (created by Genndy Tartakovsky) in 1996, followed by Johnny Bravo (created by Van Partible) and Cow and Chicken in 1997 (as well as its spinoff, I Am Weasel later in 1999) (created by David Feiss), The Powerpuff Girls (created by Craig McCracken) in 1998, and Courage the Cowardly Dog (created by John R. Dilworth) in 1999, which debuted alongside Mike, Lu & Og (created by Charles Swenson). Another popular series, Ed, Edd n Eddy (created by Danny Antonucci) was one of the first to air without a What a Cartoon! pilot, debuting in 1999. Dexter's Laboratory creator Tartakovsky went on to create two more series for Cartoon Network: Samurai Jack and Star Wars: Clone Wars, and Powerpuff Girls creator McCracken later produced Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends for the network. Other series to be greenlit from programs similar to What a Cartoon! include Whatever Happened to Robot Jones? (created by Greg Miller), Codename: Kids Next Door (created by Mr. Warburton), and The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy (created by Maxwell Atoms).

Following the resignation of Jim Samples after the 2007 Boston Mooninite panic, Cartoon Network began airing live-action original series such as Destroy, Build, Destroy and Dude, What Would Happen as part of the CN Real block. Cartoon Network began moving away from live-action series with the 2010 premieres of Adventure Time (created by Pendleton Ward) and Regular Show (created by J. G. Quintel).

Cartoon Network has also broadcast a number of feature films, mostly animated or containing animated sequences, under its "Cartoon Theater" block, later renamed "Flicks".

Pokémon (anime)

Pokémon (ポケモン, Pokemon), abbreviated from the Japanese title of Pocket Monsters (ポケットモンスター, Poketto Monsutā) and currently advertised in English as Pokémon the Series, is a Japanese anime television series, which has been adapted for the international television markets, concurrently airing in 124 countries worldwide. It is part of the Pokémon media franchise, based on Nintendo's Pokémon video game series. New episodes and movies air in the United States on Disney XD, with the entire library available on the DisneyNow app.

The Pokémon animated series is split up into six chronologically sequential series in Japan, split up by the version of the video game series the anime takes inspiration from: the original series, the Advanced Generation series, the Diamond & Pearl series, the Best Wishes! series, the XY series, and the newest, the Sun & Moon series. In the international broadcasts, these six series are split into 21 separate seasons.

These anime series are accompanied by spin-off programming, consisting of Pokémon Chronicles, a series of side stories featuring characters in the anime that are not its current cast of main characters, and the live action variety and Pokémon-related news shows of Weekly Pokémon Broadcasting Station, Pokémon Sunday, Pokémon Smash!, and Pokémon Get TV, premiering in late 2013.

The Pokémon anime series was largely credited for allowing anime to become more popular and familiar around the world, especially in the United States, where the two highest-grossing anime films are both Pokémon films. It was also considered to be one of the first anime series on television to reach this level of mainstream success with Western audiences, as well as being credited with allowing the game series to reach such a degree of popularity, and vice versa. The anime series is also regarded as the most successful video game adaptation of all time, with over 1,000 episodes. Pokémon is also globally one of the most widely watched shows on Netflix, as of 2016.In a 2018 interview, the creators of Detective Pikachu, which features a talking Pikachu, revealed that the original intention for the anime was to have the Pokémon talk, but OLM, Inc. were unable to come up with a concept that Game Freak were accepting of.

Scooby-Doo

Scooby-Doo is an American animated franchise, comprising many animated television series produced from 1969 to the present day. Writers Joe Ruby and Ken Spears created the original series, Scooby-Doo, Where Are You!, for Hanna-Barbera Productions in 1969. This Saturday-morning cartoon series featured four teenagers—Fred Jones, Daphne Blake, Velma Dinkley, and Norville "Shaggy" Rogers—and their talking brown Great Dane named Scooby-Doo, who solve mysteries involving supposedly supernatural creatures through a series of antics and missteps.Following the success of the original series, Hanna-Barbera and its successor Warner Bros. Animation have produced numerous follow-up and spin-off animated series and several related works, including television specials and made-for-TV movies, a line of direct-to-video films, and two Warner Bros.–produced theatrical feature films. Some versions of Scooby-Doo feature different variations on the show's supernatural theme, and include characters such as Scooby's cousin Scooby-Dum and nephew Scrappy-Doo in addition to or instead of some of the original characters.

Scooby-Doo was originally broadcast on CBS from 1969 to 1975, when it moved to ABC. ABC aired the show until canceling it in 1986, and presented a spin-off featuring the characters as children, A Pup Named Scooby-Doo, from 1988 until 1991. New Scooby-Doo series aired as part of Kids' WB on The WB Network and its successor, The CW Network, from 2002 until 2008. Scooby-Doo! Mystery Incorporated aired on Cartoon Network from 2010 to 2013, and Be Cool, Scooby-Doo! aired on Cartoon Network from 2015 to 2018. Repeats of the various Scooby-Doo series are broadcast frequently on Cartoon Network's sister channel Boomerang in the United States as well as other countries.

In 2013, TV Guide ranked Scooby-Doo the fifth greatest TV cartoon.

Steven Universe

Steven Universe is an American animated television series created by Rebecca Sugar for Cartoon Network. It premiered on May 21, 2013 with its pilot, then on November 4, 2013 with its first season. It is Cartoon Network's first animated show created solely by a woman. It is the coming-of-age story of a young boy, Steven Universe (voiced by Zach Callison), who lives with the Crystal Gems—magical, humanoid aliens named Garnet (Estelle), Amethyst (Michaela Dietz), and Pearl (Deedee Magno Hall)—in the fictional town of Beach City. Steven, who is half-Gem, has adventures with his friends and helps the Gems protect the world from their own kind. The themes of the series include love, family, and the importance of healthy interpersonal relationships. Books, comics and video games based on the series have been released, and a television film is in development.

Sugar based the lead character on her younger brother Steven, who is an artist for the series. She developed Steven Universe while she was a writer and storyboard artist on Adventure Time, which she left when Cartoon Network commissioned her series for full production. The series is storyboard-driven; when episodes are being produced the show's storyboard artists are responsible for writing the dialogue and blocking out the action. The series has developed a broad fan base and has been critically acclaimed for its design, music, voice acting, characterization, prominence of LGBTQ themes and science fantasy worldbuilding. It has been nominated for four Emmy Awards and five Annie Awards. Its fifth season concluded in January 2019.

Teen Titans (TV series)

Teen Titans is an American animated superhero television series created by Glen Murakami, based on the DC Comics characters of the same name. It is based primarily on the run of stories by Marv Wolfman and George Pérez from the early 1980s New Teen Titans comic book series.

Teen Titans premiered on Cartoon Network on July 19, 2003, and also premiered on Kids' WB!. Initially, only four seasons were planned, but the popularity of the series led to Cartoon Network ordering a fifth season. The final half-hour episode of the show, "Things Change", aired on January 16, 2006; it was later followed by a TV movie, Teen Titans: Trouble in Tokyo, that premiered on September 15, 2006, serving as the series finale.

Teen Titans became one of Cartoon Network's most beloved and critically acclaimed series, renowned for its character development and serious themes. During its run, the series was nominated for three Annie Awards and one Motion Picture Sound Editors Award. Spin-off media included comics, DVD releases, video games, music albums, and collectible toys. Reruns have aired on Cartoon Network's retro animation sister channel Boomerang until June 1, 2014. In 2013, the show spawned a spin-off, titled Teen Titans Go!, which received a theatrical film released on July 27, 2018, titled Teen Titans Go! To the Movies. After almost five years since the last rerun in October 2012, the 2003 Teen Titans returned to Cartoon Network for reruns on August 7, 2017.

The Powerpuff Girls

The Powerpuff Girls is an American superhero animated television series created by animator Craig McCracken and produced by Hanna-Barbera (later Cartoon Network Studios) for Cartoon Network. The show follows Blossom, Bubbles and Buttercup, three colorful kindergarten-age girls with superpowers, as well as their father and creator, a scientist named Professor Utonium. The girls all live in the fictional city of Townsville, USA, and are frequently called upon by the Mayor of Townsville to use their powers to help fight local criminals, including Mojo Jojo, Fuzzy Lumpkins, Him, and Princess Morebucks.

McCracken originally developed the show in 1992 as a cartoon short series entitled Whoopass Stew! while in his second year at CalArts. Following a name change, Cartoon Network featured the first The Powerpuff Girls pilots in its animation showcase program What a Cartoon! in 1995 and 1996. The series made its official debut as a Cartoon Cartoon on November 18, 1998, with the final episode airing on March 25, 2005. Excluding the two pilot episode shorts, the series ran for a total of six seasons, totaling 78 episodes. Along with the episodes, a Christmas special, and a feature film were also made concurrently. Two additional specials were made after the show ceased to air in 2005, which included the tenth anniversary special (intended by McCracken to be the series finale) in 2008 and a CGI special in 2014 (which was made with McCracken's approval but without his input).

Various spin-off media for the show include: an anime, three CD soundtracks, a home video collection, comic books, a series of video games, as well as various licensed merchandise. The Powerpuff Girls was nominated for six Emmy Awards, nine Annie Awards, and a Kids' Choice Award during its run. In all, the series won four awards and generally received positive critical reception.

Tom and Jerry

Tom and Jerry is an American comedy slapstick cartoon series created in 1940 by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera. It centers on a rivalry between the title characters Tom, a cat, and Jerry, a mouse. Many episodes also feature several recurring characters.

In its original run, Hanna and Barbera produced 114 Tom and Jerry shorts for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer from 1940 to 1958. During this time, they won seven Academy Awards for Animated Short Film, tying for first place with Walt Disney's Silly Symphonies with the most awards in the category. After the MGM cartoon studio closed in 1957, MGM revived the series with Gene Deitch directing an additional 13 Tom and Jerry shorts for Rembrandt Films from 1961 to 1962. Tom and Jerry then became the highest-grossing animated short film series of that time, overtaking Looney Tunes. Chuck Jones then produced another 34 shorts with Sib Tower 12 Productions between 1963 and 1967. Three more shorts were produced, The Mansion Cat in 2001, The Karate Guard in 2005, and A Fundraising Adventure in 2014, making a total of 164 shorts.

A number of spin-offs have been made, including the television series The Tom and Jerry Show (1975), The Tom and Jerry Comedy Show (1980–82), Tom and Jerry Kids (1990–93), Tom and Jerry Tales (2006–08), and The Tom and Jerry Show (2014–present). The first feature-length film based on the series, Tom and Jerry: The Movie, was released in 1992, and 13 direct-to-video films have been produced since 2002.

Toonami

Toonami ( too-NAH-mee) is a television programming block that primarily consists of Japanese anime and American animation. It was created by Sean Akins and Jason DeMarco and produced by Williams Street, a division of Turner Broadcasting System, which is owned by AT&T's WarnerMedia. The name is a portmanteau of the words "cartoon" and "tsunami".Toonami initially ran as an afternoon and evening block on Cartoon Network, aimed at teens aged 12–15 from 1997 to 2008. In its original run, the block was known for showcasing action anime that became widely popular with American audiences. It was also recognized for its distinctive space-themed backdrop, anime music videos, drum and bass-flavored soundtrack, and host (a robot named T.O.M., short for Toonami Operations Module).

On May 26, 2012, Cartoon Network relaunched Toonami as part of its Adult Swim block—which continues as a Saturday night action block from its forerunner, Midnight Run. Shows from the older lineup have occasionally returned, along with newer shows.

Turner Broadcasting System

Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. is an American media conglomerate that is a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia, and manages the collection of cable television networks and properties initiated or acquired by Ted Turner. The company was founded in 1965, and merged with Time Warner on October 10, 1996. It now operates as a semi-autonomous unit of WarnerMedia. The company's assets include CNN, TBS, TNT, Turner Classic Movies, Cartoon Network, Adult Swim, Boomerang, Hulu (10%), Audience, Game Show Network (42%), AT&T SportsNet and TruTV. The headquarters of Turner's properties are located in both the CNN Center in Downtown Atlanta and the Turner Broadcasting campus off Techwood Drive in Midtown Atlanta, which also houses Turner Studios. Across Interstate 75/85 from the Techwood campus is the original home of Turner's WTBS superstation (now separated into its TBS cable network and Peachtree TV), which today houses the headquarters of Adult Swim and Williams Street Productions.

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