Carol J. Oja

Carol J. Oja (born 1953 in Hibbing, Minnesota) is a musicologist and scholar of American Studies. Since 2003, she has held the post of William Powell Mason Professor at Harvard University. She is currently Chair of Harvard's Department of Music and Leonard Bernstein Scholar-in-Residence with the New York Philharmonic. [1] Her previous appointments have been at the College of William and Mary (1997–2003) and the City University of New York (1988–97), where she was professor of music at Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center, as well as director of the Institute for Studies in American Music (1993–97). She attended St. Olaf College (B.A.), the University of Iowa (M.A.), and the Graduate School of the City University of New York (Ph.D.).

Her main fields of study include 20th-century American modernism, musical theater, and cross-cultural composition, and her work positions composers and their music within broad historical contexts. She often explores sites of musical intersection and hybridity, whether having to do with race, genre, cultural hierarchy, or geographic origin, and she probes institutional frameworks for music-making, as well as patronage (especially by women). The composers she has written about include Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland, Henry Cowell, George Gershwin, Colin McPhee, Ruth Crawford Seeger, William Grant Still, and Virgil Thomson. Her principal books include:

"Bernstein Meets Broadway: Collaborative Art in a Time of War" (2014) [2]

"Crosscurrents: American and European Music in Interaction, 1900-2000," edited with Felix Meyer, Wolfgang Rathert, and Anne C. Shreffler (2014) [3]

Copland and his World, edited with Judith Tick (2005)[4]

Making Music Modern: New York in the 1920s (2000)[5]

Colin McPhee: Composer in Two Worlds (1990)[6]

A Celebration of American Music: Words and Music in Honor of H. Wiley Hitchcock, edited with Richard Crawford and R. Allen Lott (1990)

American Music Recordings: A Discography of 20th Century U.S. Composers (1982)

Stravinsky in "Modern Music" (1924–1946) (1982)

Oja is recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship, the Lowens Book Award from the Society for American Music, three separate ASCAP-Deems Taylor Book Awards, and an award for “Best Reference Book” from the Music Library Association. She also received the Everett S. Mendelsohn Excellence in Mentoring Award from Harvard's Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Oja was president of the Society for American Music (2003–05), and she collaborated with Lucius Wyatt (Prairie View A&M University) to found the Cultural Diversity Committee of the American Musicological Society. Together with Judith Clurman, she directed the Harvard festival, “Leonard Bernstein: Boston to Broadway” in 2006.[7]


  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-11-19. Retrieved 2010-12-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Bernstein Meets Broadway". Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  3. ^ "Crosscurrents - Boydell and Brewer". Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  4. ^ "Oja, C. and Tick, J., eds.: Aaron Copland and His World (Paperback)". Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-23. Retrieved 2010-12-29.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Oja, Carol J. "UI Press - Carol J. Oja - Colin McPhee: Composer in Two Worlds". Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  7. ^ “Symposia to Explore Life, Music of Conductor Leonard Bernstein,” Harvard University Gazette, October 5, 2006,
Concertino (composition)

Concertino is the diminutive of concerto, thus literally a small or short concerto.

Dane Rudhyar

Dane Rudhyar (March 23, 1895 – September 13, 1985), born Daniel Chennevière, was a French-born American author, modernist composer and humanistic astrologer. He was a pioneer of modern transpersonal astrology.

Fancy Free (ballet)

Fancy Free is a ballet by Jerome Robbins, subsequently ballet master of New York City Ballet, made on Ballet Theatre, predecessor of American Ballet Theatre, to a score by Leonard Bernstein, with scenery by Oliver Smith, costumes by Kermit Love and lighting by Ronald Bates. The premiere took place on Tuesday, 18 April 1944 at the old Metropolitan Opera House, New York. The NYCB premiere took place Thursday, 31 January 1980. Fancy Free was the inspiration for a successful musical, On the Town, and a portion of the score was also used in the opening scenes of Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window.

Henry Cowell

Henry Dixon Cowell (; March 11, 1897 – December 10, 1965) was an American composer, music theorist, pianist, teacher, publisher, and impresario. His contribution to the world of music was summed up by Virgil Thomson, writing in the early 1950s:

Henry Cowell's music covers a wider range in both expression and technique than that of any other living composer. His experiments begun three decades ago in rhythm, in harmony, and in instrumental sonorities were considered then by many to be wild. Today they are the Bible of the young and still, to the conservatives, "advanced."... No other composer of our time has produced a body of works so radical and so normal, so penetrating and so comprehensive. Add to this massive production his long and influential career as a pedagogue, and Henry Cowell's achievement becomes impressive indeed. There is no other quite like it. To be both fecund and right is given to few.

Hibbing, Minnesota

Hibbing is a city in Saint Louis County, Minnesota, United States. The population was 16,361 at the 2010 census. The city was built on the rich iron ore of the Mesabi Iron Range. At the edge of town is the largest open-pit iron mine in the world, the Hull–Rust–Mahoning Open Pit Iron Mine. U.S. Highway 169, State Highway 37, State Highway 73, Howard Street, and 1st Avenue are five of the main routes in Hibbing. The Range Regional Airport offers daily commercial flights between Hibbing and Minneapolis-St. Paul, as well as hosting many private pilots and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources fire fighting aircraft.

Leonard Bernstein

Leonard Bernstein ( BURN-styne; August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist. He was among the first conductors born and educated in the US to receive worldwide acclaim. According to music critic Donal Henahan, he was "one of the most prodigiously talented and successful musicians in American history."His fame derived from his long tenure as the music director of the New York Philharmonic, from his conducting of concerts with most of the world's leading orchestras, and from his music for West Side Story, Peter Pan, Candide, Wonderful Town, On the Town, On the Waterfront, his Mass, and a range of other compositions, including three symphonies and many shorter chamber and solo works.

Bernstein was the first conductor to give a series of television lectures on classical music, starting in 1954 and continuing until his death. He was a skilled pianist, often conducting piano concertos from the keyboard. He was also a critical figure in the modern revival of the music of Gustav Mahler, the composer he was most passionately interested in.As a composer he wrote in many styles encompassing symphonic and orchestral music, ballet, film and theatre music, choral works, opera, chamber music and pieces for the piano. Many of his works are regularly performed around the world, although none has matched the tremendous popular and critical success of West Side Story.

List of California Institute of the Arts people

Lists of notable alumni, faculty, and visiting artists of the California Institute of the Arts.

List of Guggenheim Fellowships awarded in 2012

List of Guggenheim Fellowships awarded in 2012: Guggenheim Fellowships have been awarded annually since 1925, by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation to those "who have demonstrated exceptional capacity for productive scholarship or exceptional creative ability in the arts."

Mary Howe

Mary Howe (April 4, 1882 – September 14, 1964) was an American composer and pianist.

Mesabi Range

The Mesabi Iron Range is an elongate trend containing large deposits of iron ore, and the largest of four major iron ranges in the region collectively known as the Iron Range of Minnesota. Discovered in 1866, it is the chief iron ore mining district in the United States. The district is located in northeast Minnesota, largely in Itasca and Saint Louis counties. It was extensively worked in the earlier part of the 20th century. Extraction operations declined throughout the mid-1970s but rebounded in 2005. China's growing demand for iron, along with the falling value of the U.S. dollar versus other world currencies, have made taconite production profitable again, and some mines that had closed have been reopened, while current mines have been expanded.


Musicology (from Greek, Modern μουσική (mousikē), meaning 'music', and -λογία (-logia), meaning 'study of') is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music. Musicology departments traditionally belong to the humanities, although music research is often more scientific in focus (psychological, sociological, acoustical, neurological, computational). A scholar who participates in musical research is a musicologist.Traditionally, historical musicology (commonly termed "music history") has been the most prominent sub-discipline of musicology. In the 2010s, historical musicology is one of several large musicology sub-disciplines. Historical musicology, ethnomusicology, and systematic musicology are approximately equal in size. Ethnomusicology is the study of music in its cultural context. Systematic musicology includes music acoustics, the science and technology of acoustical musical instruments, and the musical implications of physiology, psychology, sociology, philosophy and computing. Cognitive musicology is the set of phenomena surrounding the computational modeling of music. In some countries, music education is a prominent sub-field of musicology, while in others it is regarded as a distinct academic field, or one more closely affiliated with teacher education, educational research, and related fields. Like music education, music therapy is a specialized form of applied musicology which is sometimes considered more closely affiliated with health fields, and other times regarded as part of musicology proper.

Symphony on a Hymn Tune

Symphony on a Hymn Tune is a four-movement orchestral composition by the American composer Virgil Thomson. The work was Thomson's first symphony and was composed between 1926 and 1928 while Thomson studied with the composer Nadia Boulanger in Paris. However, the work was not premiered until February 22, 1945, with Thomson leading the Philharmonic Symphony Society in New York City.

Tonight Quintet

The "Tonight Quintet" is a number from the musical West Side Story (1957), with music by Leonard Bernstein and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim. Carol J. Oja has written that, "with the 'Tonight' quintet, Bernstein once again created a masterpiece of ensemble, one that rivals the best of such moments in European opera." Her remark echoes the earlier view of Will Crutchfield. In his review of the 1984 studio performance of West Side Story, which was conducted by Bernstein himself, Crutchfield wrote that the release of the recording "is above all an occasion for celebrating one of the great operas of our century. ... This idea is hotly resisted, but the best argument for it is here on the records in the music itself. I can see no reason why the 'Tonight' ensemble should not be compared to the quartet from Rigoletto."Based on the duet between Maria and Tony earlier in the musical, "Tonight", the five parts of the quintet are sung by the Jets, the Sharks, Tony, Maria, and Anita. The song begins with the parts sung in turn, and then overlapping and building to the final line, "Tonight," sung by the ensemble with multiple harmonies. The Jets and the Sharks are rival gangs anticipating the "rumble" which will settle a territorial feud that has been brewing between them for some time now. Both groups are confident that the fight will end in their favor. The song is used to show anticipation to the coming night, which will end up being the climactic part of the play.

Anita sings of her anticipation for her boyfriend, Bernardo, the leader of the Sharks, to return after the rumble. She knows that he is usually riled up after a fight like this and she looks forward to having some intimate time together and "getting her kicks." In the 1961 film version of West Side Story, Anita sings "He'll walk in hot and tired, poor dear / No matter if he's tired, as long as he's here" rather than "He'll walk in hot and tired, so what / No matter if he's tired, as long as he's hot."Tony, a member of the Jets, has fallen in love with Maria, Bernardo's sister. At Maria's request, he plans to go to the rumble and stop the fight. Maria and Tony sing about their eagerness to see each other after Tony returns; they believe that after Tony stops the fight, the tension surrounding their forbidden love will finally vanish and the night will be "endless." They are frustrated by the seemingly slow place of the present day while they are anticipating the coming night. The dramatically contrasting elements in this scene and their corresponding presentation in music have been compared to the trio "Cosa sento!" from Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro.Part of the song was parodied in a promo to the 2005 WWE Royal Rumble event where the Superstars from Raw and Smackdown gather for a rumble until Vince McMahon wakes up from the dream sequence and says that's not the rumble he had in mind.

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