Carnidae

Carnidae, also known as Bird flies or Filth flies, is a family of flies (Diptera). There are 6 genera, containing about 93 species worldwide.[3]

Most of the species are very small at 1–2 mm.

Carnidae
Carnus hemapterus
Carnus hemapterus
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Superfamily:
Family:
Carnidae

Newman, 1834
Genera

External links

Dedicated site [1]

References

  1. ^ a b Chandler, Peter J. (1998). Checklists of Insects of the British Isles (New Series) Part 1: Diptera. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects. New Series. 12. London: Royal Entomological Society of London. pp. 1–234. ISBN 0-901546-82-8.
  2. ^ Buck, M; Marshall, S. A. (2007). "Enigmocarnus chloropiformis gen. et sp. nov., and parallel evolution of protandrial symmetry in Carnidae (Diptera)" (PDF). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Entomological Society of America. 100 (1): 9–18. doi:10.1603/0013-8746(2007)100[9:ecgesn]2.0.co;2. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  3. ^ Brake, Irina (2011). "World Catalog of the Family Carnidae (Diptera, Schizophora)" (PDF). MYIA. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
Acalyptratae

The Acalyptratae or Acalyptrata are a subsection of the Schizophora, which are a section of the order Diptera, the "true flies". In various contexts the Acalyptratae also are referred to informally as the acalyptrate muscoids, or acalyptrates, as opposed to the Calyptratae. All forms of the name refer to the lack of calypters in the members of this subsection of flies. An alternative name, Acalypterae is current, though in minority usage. It was first used by Justin Pierre Marie Macquart in 1835 for a section of his tribe Muscides; he used it to refer to all acalyptrates plus scathophagids and phorids, but excluding Conopidae.

The confusing forms of the names stem from their first usage; Acalyptratae and Acalyptrata actually are adjectival forms in New Latin. They were coined in the mid 19th century in contexts such as "Muscae Calyptratae and Acalyptratae" and "Diptera Acalyptrata", and the forms stuck.The Acalyptratae are a large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception: no known acalyptrates are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though blood feeding at various stages of the life history is common throughout other Dipteran sections.

Asilomorpha

The Brachyceran infraorder Asilomorpha is a large and diverse group of flies, containing the bulk of the nonmuscoid Brachycera. The larvae of asilomorphs are extremely diverse in habits, as well.

Calyptratae

Calyptratae is a subsection of Schizophora in the insect order Diptera, commonly referred to as the calyptrate muscoids (or simply calyptrates). It consists of those flies which possess a calypter that covers the halteres, among which are some of the most familiar of all flies, such as the house fly.

About 18,000 described species are in this group, or about 12% of all the flies yet described.

Carnoidea

Carnoidea are a superfamily of Acalyptratae flies.

Carnus (fly)

Carnus is a genus of flies (Diptera) with 5 described species, all of which are parasites of birds. The adult flies locate a suitable host nest, then shed their wings and feed on the blood of the developing nestlings. Mature female flies lay their eggs in the nest, where their larvae develop on organic detritus.

Carnus hemapterus

Carnus hemapterus is a Dipteran insect, a small-bodied and partly black-coloured carnid fly. In their adult stage of life, they are blood-sucking ectoparasites of nestling birds. Within the genus Carnus, this is the only species widespread across Europe and the cold and temperate regions of Asia and North America. Female body length is about 1.5 mm, males are smaller. It typically occurs in the nests of medium- to large-bodied birds, provided that the nest is not on the ground. It is particularly common on the chicks of owls, falcons, rollers, bee-eaters and starlings. Females give birth to larvae that live within the nest and feed on organic debris and the pupae also overwinter there. The emergence of imagines is synchronized to the hatch of host nestlings in the subsequent year. They prefer larger chicks within the nest. Adult flies have a winged and an unwinged variety, the latter being much commoner. In fact, unwinged flies still carry the basal part of their wings, but the majority of the wing is broken off (see a close view of the above photo). Flies live only on the nestlings before and during the development of the plumage, and disappear later on.Infestations by Carnus hemapterus appear to be rather harmless for the host chicks. In spite of that, barn owl females advertise their resistance genes by the dark spots on their breast and belly; nestlings of heavily spotted females tend to be more resistant. In this study, potential environmental confounding effects were controlled for by cross-fostering chicks.

The faeces and blood remains from these ectoparasitic flies make spots on the eggshell surface of host birds. This contamination appear to increase abundance and diversity of eggshell bacterial loads and, consequently, increase the chance of embryo death.

Chironomoidea

The Chironomoidea are a superfamily within the order Diptera, suborder Nematocera, infraorder Culicomorpha. This superfamily contains the families Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Simuliidae, and Thaumaleidae. One of the more important characteristics used to define them is the form of the larval mouthparts.

Culicoidea

The Culicoidea are a superfamily within the order Diptera. The following families are included within the Culicoidea:

Dixidae – meniscus midges

Corethrellidae – frog-biting midges

Chaoboridae – phantom midges

Culicidae – mosquitoes

Culicomorpha

The Culicomorpha are an infraorder of Nematocera, including mosquitoes, black flies, and several extant and extinct families of insects.

Enigmocarnus

Enigmocarnus is a genus of flies (Diptera). There is 1 described species.

Hemeromyia

Hemeromyia is a genus of flies (Diptera). There are 8 described species.

Meoneura

Meoneura is a genus of carnid flies (Diptera).

Meoneurites

Meoneurites is an extinct genus of flies (Diptera). There is 1 described species.

Milichiidae

Milichiidae are a family of flies. Most species are very small and dark. Details of their biology have not yet been properly studied, but they are best known as kleptoparasites of predatory invertebrates, and accordingly are commonly known as freeloader flies or jackal flies. However, because of the conditions under which many species breed out, they also are known as filth flies.

Neomeoneurites

Neomeoneurites is a genus of flies (Diptera). There are 2 described species.

Oestroidea

Oestroidea is a superfamily of Calyptratae including the blow flies, bot flies, flesh flies, and their relatives.The superfamily includes the families:

Calliphoridae

Mesembrinellidae (formerly included in Calliphoridae)

Mystacinobiidae

Oestridae

Rhiniidae (formerly included in Calliphoridae)

Rhinophoridae

Sarcophagidae

Tachinidae

Ulurumyiidae

Tabanoidea

Superfamily Tabanoidea are insects in the order Diptera.

Tephritoidea

The Tephritoidea are a superfamily of flies. The following families are included:

Pallopteridae — flutter flies

Piophilidae — skippers

Platystomatidae — signal flies

Pyrgotidae

Richardiidae

Tephritidae — fruit flies

Ulidiidae (Otitidae) — picture-winged fliesThe Tachiniscinae, formerly ranked as the family Tachiniscidae, are now included in the Tephritidae.

Tipulomorpha

The Tipulomorpha are an infraorder of Nematocera, containing the crane flies, a very large group, and allied families.

One recent classification based largely on fossils splits this group into a series of extinct superfamilies (below), and includes members of other infraorders, but this has not gained wide acceptance.

Extant Diptera families

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