Carnatic region

The Carnatic region is the region of peninsular South India lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats, in the modern Indian states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh.

CarnaticRegion
Showing the Carnatic Region of what is now India.

Etymology

The name 'Carnatic' or 'Karnatic' is originally a Tamil word which means that 'Karai' (கரை) meaning 'shore' and 'nataka' (நாடக) meaning dance. Since the word 'Carnatic' or 'Karnataka' region and music or 'கரை நாடக சங்கீதம் (Tamil)' is the base of Kaveri-based regions during the chola periods (especially developed in the city of Poompuhar (பூம்புகார் ), which was swallowed during a tsunami - remains still can be seen in Tamil Nadu with the same city name) to improve and to integrate Tamil based dance and music. So comes the name 'carnatic' or 'Karnatic' region / zone, as big landscape covering the whole gamut of kaveri based areas in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and some in Andhra Pradesh. This particular dialect has been introduced during the Chola time period as a proof of in 'Carnatic' or 'Karnatic' zone development. In a later stage, this was combined together with Sanskrit words. The music was patronized by Chola, Pandyan, Rashtrakutas and later Vijayanagar kings.

Further to add, there are several theories as to the derivation of the term. It may derive from the Sanskrit language karņāţakam from karņa = "ear" + aţati = "he pleases" = "that which pleases the ear", thus "Karnāṭaka saṃgīta" = "Karnataka music", which was coined by Sarangadeva. According to Bishop Robert Caldwell, in his Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages, the term is derived from kar, black, and nadu, country, i.e. the black country, which refers to the black soil prevalent on the plateau of the Southern Deccan.[1]

Hattangadi Narayan Rao suggests a derivation from karu, elevated, + nadu, land, "an elevated land", also descriptive of the region's geography.

The English "Carnatic" has been classicalised in spelling.

Geography

The region is located in Southern India, between the Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats and the Coromandel Coast, in the Presidency of Madras.[1] Properly the name is, in fact, applicable only to the country of the Kanarese extending between the Eastern and Western Ghats, over an irregular area narrowing northwards, from Palghat in the south to Gulbarga, Bidar in the north, and including Mysore. The extension of the name to the country south of the Karnataka was probably due to the Muslim conquerors who in the 16th century overthrew the kingdom of Vijayanagar, and who extended the name, which they found used of the country north of the Ghats to that south of them. After this period the plain country of the south came to be as called Karnataka Payanghat, or lowlands, as distinguished from Karnataka Balaghat, or highlands. The misapplication of the name Carnatic was carried by the British a step further than by the Mahommedans, it being confined by them to the country below the Ghats, Mysore not being included. Officially, however, this name is no longer applied, the Carnatic having become a mere geographical term. Administratively, the name Carnatic (or rather Karnataka) is now applied only to the Bombay portion of the original Karnataka, viz, the districts of Belgaum, Dharwar and Bijapur, part of Gulbarga district, North Karnataka, and the native states of the Southern Maharashtra agency and Kolhapur.

Sub-divisions

The region generally known to Europeans as the Carnatic, though no longer a political or administrative division, is of great historical importance.[1] It extended along the eastern coast about 600 kilometers in length, and from 50 to 100 kilometers in breadth. It was bounded on the north by the Guntur circar, and thence it stretched southward to Cape Comorin. It was divided into the Southern, Central and Northern Carnatic. The region south of the river Coleroon, which passes the town of Trichinopoly, was called the Southern Carnatic. The principal towns of this division were Tanjore, Trichinopoly, Madurai, Tranquebar, Negapatam and Tinnevelly. The Central Carnatic extended from the Coleroon river to the river Pennar; its chief towns being Madras, Pondicherry, Arcot, Vellore, Cuddalore, Pulicat, Nellore and a few other towns. The Northern Carnatic extended from the river Pennar to the northern limit of the country; and the chief town was Ongole. The Carnatic, as above defined, comprehended within its limits the maritime provinces of Nellore, Chingleput, South Arcot, Tanjore, Madura and Tinnevelly, besides the inland districts of North Arcot and Trichinopoly. The population of this region consists chiefly of Brahmanical Hindus. Mahommedans are thinly scattered over the country.

History

At the earliest period of which any records exist, the area now known as the Carnatic was divided between the Pandya and Chola kingdoms, which with that of Chera dynasty or Kerala formed the three Tamil kingdoms of southern India.[1] The Pandya kingdom practically coincided in extent with the districts of Madura and Tinnevelly; that of the Cholas extended along the Coromandel coast from Nellore to Pudukottai, being bounded on the north by the Pennar River (Penner River) and on the south by the Southern Vellaru.

The government of the area was shared for centuries with these dynasties by numerous independent or semi-independent chiefs, evidence of whose perennial internecine conflicts is preserved in the multitudes of forts and fortresses, the deserted ruins of which crown almost all the elevated points. In spite, however, of this passion of the military classes for war, the Tamil civilization developed in the country was of a high type. This was largely due to the wealth of the country, famous in the earliest times as now for its pearl fisheries. Of this fishery Korkai (the Greek KhXxot), now a village on the Tambraparni River in Tinnevelly, but once the Pandya capital, was the centre long before the Christian era.[1]

In Pliny's day, owing to the silting up of the harbour, its glory had already decayed and the Pandya capital had been removed to Madura,[2] famous later as a centre of Tamil literature. The Chola kingdom, which four centuries before Christ had been recognized as independent by the Maurya king Ashoka, had for its chief port Kaviripaddinam at the mouth of the Kauvery, every vestige of which is now buried in sand.[1]

For the first two centuries after Christ, a large sea-borne trade was carried on between the Roman empire and the Tamil kingdoms; but after Caracalla's massacre at Alexandria in A.D. 215, this ceased, and with it all intercourse with Europe for centuries also. Henceforward, until the 9th century, the history of the country is illustrated only by occasional and broken lights.[1]

The 4th century saw the rise of the Pallava power, which for some 400 years encroached on, without extinguishing, the Tamil kingdoms. When in A.D. 640 the Chinese traveller Hsuan Tsang visited Kanchi (Conjevaram), the capital of the Pallava king, he learned that the kingdom of Chola (Chu-li-ya) embraced but a small territory, wild, and inhabited by a scanty and fierce population; in the Pandya kingdom (Malakuta), which was under Pallava suzerainty, literature was dead, Buddhism all but extinct, while Hinduism and the naked Jain saints divided the religious allegiance of the people, and the pearl fisheries continued to flourish.[1]

The power of the Pallava kings was shaken by the victory of Vikramaditya Chalukya in AD 740, and shattered by Aditya Chola at the close of the 9th century. From this time onward, the inscriptional records are abundant. The Chola Dynasty, which in the 9th century had been weak, now revived, its power culminating in the victories of Rajaraja the Great, who defeated the Chalukyas after a four years war, and, about AD 994, forced the Pandya kings to become his tributaries. A magnificent temple at Tanjore, once his capital, preserves the records of his victories engraved upon its walls. His career of conquest was continued by his son Rajendra Choladeva I, self-styled Gangaikonda owing to his victorious advance to the Ganges, who succeeded to the throne in AD 1018. The ruins of the new capital which he built, called Gangaikonda Cholapuram, still stand in a desolate region of the Trichinopoly district. His successors continued the eternal wars with the Chalukyas and other dynasties, and the Chola power continued in the ascendant until the death of Kulottunga Chola III in 1278, when a disputed succession caused its downfall and gave the Pandyas the opportunity of gaining for a few years the upper hand in the south.[1]

In 1310, however, the Mahommedan invasion under Malik Kafur overwhelmed the Hindu states of southern India in a common ruin. Though crushed, however, they were not extinguished; a period of anarchy followed, the struggle between the Chola kings and the Mussulmans issuing in the establishment at Kanchi of a usurping Hindu dynasty which ruled till the end of the 14th century, while in 1365 a branch of the Pandyas succeeded in re-establishing itself in part of the kingdom of Madura, where it survived till 1623.[1]

At the beginning of the 15th century, the whole country had come under the rule of the kings of Vijayanagar; but in the anarchy that followed the overthrow of the Vijayanagar empire by the Mussulmans in the 16th century, the Hindu viceroys (nayakkas) established in Madura, Tanjore and Kanchi made themselves independent, only in their turn to become tributary to the kings of Golconda and Bijapur, who divided the Carnatic between them.[1]

Muslim era

Towards the close of the 17th century, the country was reduced by the armies of Aurangzeb, who in 1692 appointed Zulfikar Ali, Nawab of the Carnatic, with his seat at Arcot.Meanwhile, the Marathas power had begun to develop; in 1677 Shivaji had suppressed the last remnants of the Vijayanagar power in Vellore, Gingee and Kurnool, while his brother Venkoji, who in 1674 had overthrown the Nayaks of Tanjavur, established in that city a dynasty which lasted for a century. The collapse of the Delhi power after the death of Aurangzeb produced further changes. The Nawab Saadet-Allah of Arcot (1710–1732) established his independence; his successor Dost Ali (1732–1740) conquered and annexed Madura in 1736, and his successors were confirmed in their position as Nawabs of the Carnatic by the Nizam of Hyderabad after that potentate had established his power in southern India. After the death of Nawab Mahommed Anwar-ud-din (1744–1749), the succession was disputed between Mahommed Ali and Husein Dost. In this quarrel, the French and English, then competing for influence in the Carnatic, took opposite sides. The victory of the British established Mahommed Ali in power over part of the Carnatic till his death in 1795. Meanwhile, however, the country had been exposed to other troubles. In 1741 Madura, which the Nawab Dost Ali (1732–1740) had added to his dominions in 1736 after the demise of the Nayaks of Madurai, was conquered by the marathas; and in 1743 Hyder Ali of Mysore overran and ravaged the central Carnatic.The latter was re-conquered by the British, to whom Madura had fallen in 1758; and, finally, in 1801 all the possessions of the Nawab of the Carnatic were transferred to them by a treaty which stipulated that an annual revenue of several lakhs of pagodas should be reserved to the nawab, and that the British should undertake to support a sufficient civil and military force for the protection of the country and the collection of the revenue. On the death of the nawab in 1853, it was determined to put an end to the nominal sovereignty, a liberal establishment being provided for the family.[1]

The Carnatic region, when first entered into by the British, was ruled by military chieftains called Poligars. In 1805, after the decisive defeat of the Poligars, the Poligar forts and military establishments were destroyed.[1]

Carnatic region was place of Carnatic Wars between Mughan Empire, Britain and France which were ultimately led to British victory and the domination of British Empire over India.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Carnatic" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ Pliny Hist. Nat. vi. cap. XXiii. 26
Anwaruddin Khan

Anwaruddin Khan (1672 – 3 August 1749), a.k.a. Muhammad Anwaruddin, was the 1st Nawab of Arcot of the second Dynasty. He was a major figure during the first two Carnatic Wars.

He was also Subehdar of Thatta(Pakistan) from 1721-1733.

Arcot (disambiguation)

Arcot or Arkat may refer to :

Arcot, Vellore, city near Chennai, in present Tamil Nadu, southern India

the princely Arcot State in the Carnatic region, where the above city was seat of the Nawabs of Arcot, during early British Raj.

Arcot (State Assembly Constituency), in the Tamil Nadu legislative assembly.

North Arcot, former district under Madras Presidency, split in 1989 into present-day Tiruvannamalai District and Vellore District.

South Arcot, former district under Madras Presidency, split in 1993 into Cuddalore District and Villupuram District.

Arcot State

Nawabs of the Carnatic (also referred to as the Nawabs of Arcot) ruled the Carnatic region of South India between about 1690 and 1801. The Carnatic was a dependency of Hyderabad Deccan, and was under the legal purview of the Nizam of Hyderabad, until their demise. They initially had their capital at Arcot in the present-day Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Their rule is an important period in the history of Carnatic and Coromandel regions, in which the Mughal Empire gave way to the rising influence of the Maratha Empire, and later the emergence of the British Raj.

Azam Jah of the Carnatic

Azam Jah (1797 – 12 November 1825) was the Nawab of the Carnatic region of India from 1819 to 1825.

Azam Jah ascended the throne on the death of his father Azim-ud-Daula in 1819. He ruled for a short period of time and died in 1825. Azam Jah was succeeded by his minor son Ghulam Muhammad Ghouse Khan.

Carnatic

Carnatic usually refers to:

Carnatic region, Southern India

Carnatic music, the classical music of Southern IndiaIt may also refer to:

Carnatic Wars, a series of military conflicts in India during the 18th century

HMIS Carnatic (J199), a Bangor class minesweeper of the Royal Indian Navy, that served in World War II

HMS Carnatic (1783), a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched at Deptford in 1783

HMS Carnatic (1823), a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched at Portsmouth Dockyard in 1823

Carnatic was an East Indiaman that made six voyages for the British East India Company between 1788 and 1802

SS Carnatic, a P&O steamer with an early compound engine

Carnatic Wars

The Carnatic Wars (also spelled Karnatic Wars) were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century in India. The conflicts involved numerous nominally independent rulers and their vassals, struggles for succession and territory, and included a diplomatic and military struggle between the French East India Company and the British East India Company. They were mainly fought on the territories in India which were dominated by the Nizam of Hyderabad up to the Godavari delta. As a result of these military contests, the British East India Company established its dominance among the European trading companies within India. The French company was pushed to a corner and was confined primarily to Pondichéry. The East India Company's dominance eventually led to control by the British Company over most of India and eventually to the establishment of the British Raj.

In the 18th century, the coastal Carnatic region was a dependency of Hyderabad. Three Carnatic Wars were fought between 1746 and 1763.

Chanda Sahib

Chanda Sahib (died 12 June 1752) was the Mughal Empire's Sepoy, Divan of the Carnatic, Sipahsalar of the Carnatic, Faujdar and Nawab of the Carnatic between 1749 and 1752. His birth name is Husayn Dost Khan. Initially he was supported by the French. After his defeat at Arcot in 1751. He was captured by the "Marathas of Thanjavur" and executed.

He was the son-in-law of the Nawab of Carnatic Dost Ali Khan, under whom he worked as a Dewan. He belonged the Muslim Nait community which had ruled the Carnatic under the Nawab Zulfiqar Ali Khan during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Chanda Sahib was an ally of the French and annexed the Madurai Nayak and was declared as the Nawab of Tanjore he was weakened by constant Maratha attacks and was defeated by Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah who was allied to Nasir Jung. After his forces were defeated by Robert Clive and the Maratha Empire he attempted to recuperate his losses but was beheaded in a mutiny by Hindu subjects in the Tanjore army.

Henrietta Clive, Countess of Powis

Henrietta Antonia Clive, Countess of Powis (née Lady Henrietta Antonia Herbert; 3 September 1758 – 3 June 1830), was a British writer, mineral collector and botanist. Her time in India, while her husband was Governor of Madras, was inspirational to her for all three of these pursuits.

Karnataka

Karnataka (Karnāṭaka) is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore (Bengaluru).

Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, and Kerala to the south. The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres (74,122 sq mi), or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Marathi, Tulu, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kodava and Beary. Karnataka also has the only 3 naturally Sanskrit-speaking districts in India.

The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Ghataprabha, Vedavathi, Malaprabha, and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka Sharavathi in Shivamogga , and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward, reaching the sea at the Bay of Bengal.

Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the generally accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu nadu may also be read as karu, meaning "black", and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state. The British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna.The economy of Karnataka is the fifth-largest state economy in India with ₹14.08 lakh crore (US$200 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹174,000 (US$2,400). With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka has contributed significantly to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions.

List of battles in medieval India

List of important battles fought in India from 1000 CE up to 1757 CE.

Maratha invasions of Bengal

The Maratha invasions of Bengal, also known as the Maratha expeditions in Bengal, refers to the frequent invasions by the Maratha forces in the Bengal Subah (Bengal, Bihar, parts of Modern Orissa), after their successful campaign in the Carnatic region at the Battle of Trichinopoly. The leader of the expedition was Maratha Maharaja Raghoji Bhonsle of Nagpur. The Marathas invaded Bengal six times from August 1741 to May 1751. Nawab Alivardi Khan succeeded in resisting all the invasions, however, the frequent Maratha invasions caused great destruction in the Bengal Subah, resulting in heavy civilian casualties and widespread economic losses. The invasions came to an end with the signing of a peace treaty between the Maratha Empire and the Nawab of Bengal, which established a Maratha-supported governor in Orissa under nominal control of the Nawab of Bengal. During their occupation, the Marathas perpetrated a massacre against the local population, killing close to 400,000 people in Bengal and Bihar.The Nawab of Bengal became a tributary to the Marathas, with the former agreeing to pay Rs. 1.2 million of tribute annually as the chauth of Bengal and Bihar, and the Marathas agreed not to invade Bengal again. The Nawab of Bengal also paid Rs. 3.2 million to the Marathas, towards the arrears of chauth for the preceding years. The chauth was paid annually by the Nawab of Bengal up to 1758, until the British occupation of Bengal.

Meenakshi (Nayak queen)

Meenakshi (ruled 1731–1736) was the last ruler in the Madurai Nayaks line. She was the granddaughter-in-law of Rani Mangammal.

Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha died in 1731, and was succeeded by his widow Meenakshi, who acted as Queen-Regent on behalf of a young boy she had adopted as the heir of her dead husband. She had only ruled a year or two when an insurrection was raised against her by Vangaru Tirumala, the father of her adopted son, who pretended to have claims of his own to the throne of Madurai. At this juncture representatives of the Mughals appeared on the scene and took an important part in the struggle.

Since 1693, Madurai nominally had been the feudatory of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, and since 1698 the Carnatic region north of the Coleroon (Kollidam) river had been under direct Mughal rule. The local representative of the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah were the Nawab of Arcot, and an intermediate authority was held by the Nizam of Hyderabad, who was in theory both a subordinate of the Mughal Emperors, and the superior of the Nawab.

How regularly the kings of Tanjore and Madura paid their tribute is not clear, but in 1734 — about the time, in fact, that Meenakshi and Vangaru Thirumala were fighting for the crown — an expedition was sent by the then-Nawab of Arcot to exact tribute and submission from the kingdoms of the south. The leaders of this expedition were the Nawab’s son, Safdar Ali Khan, and his nephew and confidential adviser, the well-known Chanda Sahib.

The expedition team took Tanjore by storm and, leaving the stronghold of Trichinopoly untouched, swept across Madurai and Tinnevelly and into Travancore. On their return from this expedition they took part in the quarrel between Meenakshi and Vangaru Tirumala. The latter approached Safdar Ali Khan with an offer of three million rupees if he would oust the queen in favour of himself. Unwilling to attack Trichinopoly, the Arcot prince contented himself with solemnly declaring Vangaru Thirumala to be king and taking the bond for the three millions. He then marched away, leaving Chanda Sahib to enforce his award as best he could. The queen, alarmed at the turn affairs now had taken, had little difficulty in persuading that facile politician to accept her bond for a crore of rupees (ten million) and declare her duly entitled to the throne.

Queen Meenakshi required Chanda Sahib to swear on the Quran that he would adhere faithfully to his engagement, and he accordingly took an oath in front of his Sepoys and Sowars. He was admitted into the Trichinopoly fort and Vangaru Thirumala — apparently with the good will of the queen, who, strangely enough, does not seem to have wished him any harm — went off to Madurai, to rule over that country and Tinnevelly.

Chanda Sahib accepted the crore of rupees and departed to Arcot. Two years later, in 1736 he returned, again was admitted into the fort, and proceeded to make himself master of the kingdom.

Chanda Sahib eventually marched against Vangaru Thirumala, who still was ruling in the south, defeated him at Ammaya Nayakkanur and Dindigul, drove him to take refuge in Sivaganga, and occupied the southern provinces of the Madurai kingdom. Having now made himself master of all of the region he then wrote a letter to the Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur declaring himself the Nawab of Tinnevelly, he later also declared himself the Nawab of Carnatic.

Royapuram

Royapuram is a locality in the northern part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India, most known for the Royapuram Railway Station, the first railway station of south India opened in 1856, and is today the oldest surviving railway station of the Indian subcontinent The St. Peter's Church, Royapuram is one of the most prominent and oldest churches and landmark in the region. Royapuram fishing harbour is one of the largest fishing harbour in the coromandal coast.

Siege of Ponda

The Siege of Ponda was a siege of Ponda, Goa, during the Imperial Maratha Conquests. The siege lasted from 8 April to 6 May 1675.

In his attack on the west coast of India, the forces of the Maratha King Shivaji encircled the fortress of Ponda, held by Bijapuri troops. The fortress was stormed by Shivaji's troops after Mughal commander Bahlol Khan did not send reinforcements. The fortress' commander, Muhammad Khan, was one of the few to escape the massacre of the garrison. The capture of Ponda resulted in the Maratha Empire capturing most of the western part of the Carnatic region.

Siege of Trichinopoly (1743)

The Siege of Trichinopoly took place in 1743 during an extended series of conflicts between the Nizam and the Maratha Empire for control over some parts of southern India. An army led by Asaf Jah I, the Nizam of Hyderabad, besieged the town of Trichinopoly, which was governed by Murarao Ghorpade. After about four months of siege, the Nizam successfully bribed Murrarao to surrender, which he did on 29 August 1743.

Sira Subah

The Province of Sira in southern India was a subah (imperial first-level province) of the Mughal empire, that was established in 1687 by conquering emperor Aurangzeb (like Bijapur in 1686 and Golkonda in 1687) and lasted until 1757. The province, which comprised the Carnatic region south of the Tungabhadra river, had its capital in the town of Sira. Known also as Carnatic-Balaghat, it was composed of seven parganas (districts): Basavapatna, Budihal, Sira, Penukonda, Dod-Ballapur, Hoskote and Kolar; in addition, Harpanahalli, Kondarpi, Anegundi, Bednur, Chitaldroog and Mysore were considered by the Mughals to be tributary states of the province.

Tiruchirapalli Rock Fort

Tiruchirappalli Rockfort is a historic fortification and temple complex built on an ancient rock. It is located in the city of Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India. It is constructed on a 83 metres (272 ft) high rock . There are two Hindu temples inside, the Ucchi Pillayar Temple, Rockfort and the Thayumanaswami Temple, Rockfort. Other local tourist attractions include the famous Pallava-era Ganesha temple and the Madurai Nayak-era fort. The fort complex has witnessed fierce battles between the Madurai Nayakas and Adil Shahi dynasty of Bijapur, Carnatic region and Maratha Imperial forces. The fort played an important part during the Carnatic Wars, helping lay the foundations of the British Empire in India. The Rockfort is the most prominent landmark of the city.

Treaty of Mangalore

The Treaty of Mangalore was signed between Tipu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784. It was signed in Mangalore and brought an end to the Second Anglo-Mysore War.

Upakarma

Upākarma "Beginning" (Sanskrit: उपाकर्म), also called Āvaṇi Aviṭṭam (Tamil: ஆவணி அவிட்டம்) and Janivārada Huṇṇime (Kannada: ಜನಿವಾರದ ಹುಣ್ಣಿಮೆ),Gamha Purnima (Odia: ଗହ୍ମା ପୂର୍ଣିମା), is a Vedic ritual practiced by Hindus of the Vishwakarma Brahmin caste. This ritual is also practiced by the Kshatriya and Vaishya community, who are dvijas and therefore have the rights to do Sandhyavandanam, the daily ablution ritual.

Upākarma is conducted once a year during the shravana or Dhaniṣṭhā nakṣatra of the Hindu calendrical month Śrāvana, when Brahmins ritually change their upanayana thread accompanied by relevant śrauta rituals, making śrāddha offerings to the rishis, whom Hindus believe composed the Vedic hymns. The day, also called Śrāvana Pūrnima "Full Moon of Śrāvana" in other parts of India, usually occurs the day after the Śravana nákṣatra, which also marks the Onam festival of Kerala.

On the following day, usually coinciding with the Raksha Bandhan festival in Northern and Central India, the Gayatri Mantra is recited 1008 times.

Brahmins belonging to the Samaveda do not perform upakarma rituals or change their thread on this day but rather on Bhādrapada tritiya, the third day of the month Bhādrapada with Hastaa nakshatra. Shukla Yajurvedic Brahmins of North India and Odisha do upakarma the previous day if the full moon spans two days.

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