Carmylessus

Carmylessus or Karmylessos (Ancient Greek: Καρμυλησσός) was a town of ancient Lycia, described by Strabo between Telmissus and the mouth of the Xanthus.[1] After Telmissus, he says, then Anticragus (Ancient Greek: Ἀντίκραγος), an abrupt mountain on which is the small place Carmylessus, lying in a ravine.

The editors of the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World identify Kaya, Fethiye as the location of the ancient city,[2] while the Lund University Atlas of the Roman World tentatively place it at Kayaköy.[3]

References

  1. ^ Strabo. Geographica. p. 665. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  2. ^ Richard Talbert. Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. p. 1000. ISBN 0-691-03169-X. Retrieved December 18, 2014.
  3. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Carmylessus" . Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Coordinates: 36°34′28″N 29°05′25″E / 36.574312°N 29.090336°E

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Babadağ (mountain)

Babadağ (ancient Mount Anticragus, Ancient Greek: Ἀντίκραγος) is a mountain near Fethiye, in Muğla Province, southwest Turkey.The mountain has a principal summit at an elevation of 1,969 metres (6,460 ft) and a second one called "Karatepe" at an elevation of 1,400 metres (4,593 ft). These two summits face each other and are separated by a flood valley, which led to the term "mountain range" to be used in some sources in association with Babadağ. The mass is composed mainly of limestone. It is noted for its rich flora, including the endemic Acer undulatum, and forests of Cedrus libani.

It is also notable for the proximity of its summit to the sea (less than 5 km) which is one of the factors that make it particularly suitable and popular for paragliding.

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cestrus

Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Cidyessus

Cidyessus (Κιδύησσος) was a city of some importance, west of Ammonia in west-central Phrygia, in the territory of the Setchanli Ova, or Mouse Plain; this large and fertile valley projects far into Phrygia Salutaris, but the city was in Phrygia Pacatiana.Its site has been determined by an inscription to be modern Küçükhüyük in Turkey, west of Afyonkarahisar. The old native name may have been Kydessos, though it is Kidyessos on its coins.

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Cyaneae

Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.

Docimium

Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.

Drizipara

Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Hisarlik

Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.

List of Lycian place names

This article contains a list of Lycian place names that have survived from ancient Lycia in Anatolia. Names of settlements and geomorphic features are known from ancient literary sources. Ptolemy's Geography lists places in Asia Minor and specifically Lycia. Strabo's Geography has a section on Lycia as well, as does Pliny's Natural History. Stephanus of Byzantium includes a large number of Lycian places in Ethnica. Hierocles in Synecdemus lists the cities in the eparchy of Lycia. William Martin Leake's Journal of his own trips through Anatolia, as well as of those of many other travellers, with analyses of sources, mainly Ptolemy, is still a valuable source of information on the locations and appearances of the Lycian sites. In addition, numerous inscriptions in the Lycian language state some place names in their Lycian forms. The topographical information comes from the Aydin thesis, and was developed from Turkish military maps.This article does not address the task of defining Lycia. Over a thousand or more years, the borders of the historical territory, called Lycia in English, are not likely to have remained invariant. This list includes places named by some source at some time as "Lycian", and also any settlement with a Lycian language name, even though located in some other city-state. "Lycia" therefore represents a maximum territory, to which any historical Lycia was never exactly identical.

Aydin studied 44 out of 78 known ancient settlements. Many more archaeological sites are not identifiable with ancient settlements. Aydin also collected information on 870 Turkish settlements over the same region. The moderns, certainly, populate the region much more densely than the ancients.

Some of the modern place names are given in Turkish. For the most part, the equivalent English, French or German pronunciations are good approximations, but Turkish has some letters not present in those languages. Ğ or ğ is not pronounced, but lengthens the preceding vowel. For example, dağ, "mountain", is pronounced daa. Substitution of an English G or g is false. Ç or ç is a ch as in child, Ş or ş is an sh as in shore. What appear to be an English C or c is a J as in John, while the J or j is pronounced as the z in azure. The vowels have a short rather than a long pronunciation. As Turkish is an agglutinative language, the endings do not have the same meanings; e.g., daği is not the plural of dağ, which is daĝlar (daalar).

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Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Mount Cragus

Mount Cragus or Mount Cragos or Mount Kragos (Greek: Κράγος) – also recorded as Hiera Acra – is a mountain in Turkey, in what was formerly ancient Lycia, Asia Minor. It is identified with the modern Sandak Dağ.

Strabo (p. 665), whose description proceeds from west to east, after the promontory Telmissus, mentions Anticragus, on which is Carmylessus, and then Cragus, which has eight summits (or he may mean capes), and a city of the same name. Pinara, in the interior, was at the base of Cragus. There are coins of the town Cragus of the Roman imperial period, with the epigraph Λυκιων Κρ. or Κρα. or Κραγ. The range of Anticragus and Cragus is represented in the map in Spratt and Forbes as running south from the neighbourhood of Telmissus, and forming the western boundary of the lower basin of the river Xanthus. The southern part is Cragus. The direction of the range shows that it must abut on the sea in bold headlands. In Francis Beaufort's map of the coast of Karamania, the Anticragus is marked 6000 feet high. Beaufort's examination of this coast began at Yediburun (Yedy-Booroon), which means "the Seven Capes", a knot of high and rugged mountains that appear to have been the ancient Mount Cragus of Lycia. The ruins of Pinara are where Strabo describes them, on the east side of this range, about halfway between Telmissus and the termination of the range on the south coast. There is a pass leading between the summits of Cragus and Anticragus. Between the two chief peaks is a plain 4000 feet above the sea; and above it rises the highest peak of Cragus, more than 2500 feet above this elevated plain. The first half of the ascent from the plain is through a thick forest, and the remainder over bare rock. From the summit there is a view of the whole plain of Xanthus, and of the gorges of the Massicytus, which lies east of it. The side towards the sea is so steep, that from this lofty summit the waves are seen breaking white against the base of this precipitous mountain mass. It appears that Strabo is right when he describes a valley or depression as separating Anticragus and Cragus; and the highest part, which towers above the sea at the Seven Capes, seems to be the eight summits that Strabo speaks of. There was a promontory Cragus, according to Scylax and Pliny the Elder (v. 27), which must be the Seven Capes. The Hiera Acra of the Stadiasmus seems also to be the Seven Capes. The position of the Cragus between Xanthus and Telmissus is mentioned by Pomponius Mela (i. 15), and he also probably means the same striking part of the range.

The rocks and forests of Cragus were embellished by poetic fictions as the occasional residence of Diana. Here, according to the authority quoted by Stephanus of Byzantium (s. v. Κράγος), were the so-called θεῶν ἀγρίων ἄντρα.

Phellus

Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.

Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).

Rhodiapolis

Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Tyana

Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

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