Carlos I of Portugal

Dom Carlos I (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈkaɾɫuʃ]; English: Charles) known as the Diplomat (also known as the Martyr); Portuguese: o Diplomata and Portuguese: o Martirizado; 28 September 1863 – 1 February 1908) was the King of Portugal. He was the first Portuguese king to die a violent death since Sebastian in 1578.

Carlos I
Carlos I de Portugal
King of Portugal
Reign19 October 1889 –
1 February 1908
Acclamation28 December 1889
PredecessorLuís I
SuccessorManuel II
Prime Ministers
Born28 September 1863
Ajuda National Palace, Lisbon, Portugal
Died1 February 1908 (aged 44)
Terreiro do Paço, Lisbon, Portugal
Full name
Carlos Fernando Luís Maria Victor Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis José Simão
HouseBraganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[1]
FatherLuís I
MotherMaria Pia of Savoy
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Carlos I's signature

Early life

Baptizado de D. Carlos
The baptism of D. Carlos.
20 Réis à l'effigie de Charles Ier, 1891
Carlos I of Portugal

Carlos was born in Lisbon, Portugal, the son of King Luís and Queen Maria Pia, daughter of King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, and was a member of the House of Braganza.[1] He had a brother, Infante Afonso, Duke of Porto. He was baptised with the names Carlos Fernando Luís Maria Víctor Miguel Rafael Gabriel Gonzaga Xavier Francisco de Assis José Simão.

He had an intense education and was prepared to rule as a constitutional monarch. In 1883, he traveled to Italy, the United Kingdom, France and Germany, where he increased his knowledge of the modern civilization of his time. In 1883, 1886 and 1888, he ruled as regent as his father was traveling in Europe, as had become traditional among the Portuguese constitutional kings. His father Luis I advised him to be modest and to study with focus.

His first bridal candidate was one of the daughters of German Emperor Frederick III, but the issue of religion presented an insurmountable problem, and the pressure of British diplomacy prevented the marriage. He then met and married Princess Amélie of Orléans, eldest daughter of Philippe, comte de Paris, pretender to the throne of France.[2]

King of Portugal

D. Carlos - A. Roque Gameiro (1902)
Carlos painted by A. Roque Gameiro (1902)
Charles of Portugal
Young Carlos I of Portugal
Duke and Duchess of Braganca, Crown Prince and Princess of Portugal with their infant son Don Luis Philippe, 1888
Carlos I and his firstborn son

Carlos became king on 19 October 1889. After the 1890 British Ultimatum, a series of colonial treaties were signed with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. One signed in August 1890 defined African colonial borders along the Zambezi and Congo rivers, whereas another signed on 14 October 1899 confirmed colonial treaties of the 17th century. These treaties stabilised the political balance in Africa, ending Portuguese claims of sovereignty on the Pink Map, a geographical conception of how Portuguese colonies would appear on a map if the territory between the coastal colonies of Angola and Mozambique could be connected with territory in central Africa. These central African territories were taken over by Great Britain, however, a concession that was viewed as humiliating in Portugal. The agreements were thus looked upon as unpopular in Portugal and were felt to be disadvantageous to the country.

Domestically, Portugal was declared bankrupt twice – on 14 June 1892, then again on 10 May 1902 – causing industrial disturbances, socialist and republican antagonism and press criticism of the monarchy. Carlos responded by appointing João Franco as prime minister and subsequently accepting parliament's dissolution.[2]

As a patron of science and the arts, King Carlos took an active part in the celebration of the 500th anniversary of the birth of Prince Henry the Navigator in 1894. The following year he decorated the Portuguese poet João de Deus in a ceremony in Lisbon.

Carlos took a personal interest in deep-sea and maritime exploration and used several yachts named Amélia on his oceanographical voyages. He published an account of his own studies in this area.[2]


On 1 February 1908, the royal family returned from the Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa in Vila Viçosa to Lisbon, where they spent time hunting in Alentejo in the hunting season during the winter. They travelled by train to Barreiro and, from there, they took a steamer to cross the Tagus River and disembarked at Cais do Sodré in central Lisbon. On their way to the royal palace, the open carriage with Carlos I and his family passed through the Terreiro do Paço fronting on the river. While crossing the square, shots were fired from the crowd by two republican activists: Alfredo Luís da Costa and Manuel Buíça.

Buíça, a former army sergeant and sharpshooter, fired five shots from a rifle hidden under his long overcoat. The king died immediately, his heir Luís Filipe was mortally wounded and Prince Manuel was hit in the arm. The queen alone escaped injury. The two assassins were killed on the spot by police and bodyguards; an innocent bystander was also killed in the confusion. The royal carriage turned into the nearby Navy Arsenal, where, about twenty minutes later, Prince Luís Filipe died. Several days later, the younger son, Prince Manuel, was proclaimed king of Portugal; he was the last of the Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha dynasty and the last king of Portugal as well.

Marriage and children

Carlos I was married to Princess Amélie of Orléans in 1886. She was a daughter of Philippe, Count of Paris, and Princess Marie Isabelle of Orléans. Their children were:

A woman known as Maria Pia of Saxe-Coburg and Braganza[3][4] claimed to be the illegitimate daughter of King Carlos I of Portugal with Maria Amélia Laredó e Murça. Maria Pia claimed that King Carlos I legitimized her through a royal decree and placed her in the line of succession with the same rights and honours as the legitimately-born princes of Portugal; however, no undisputed evidence was presented to demonstrate this, and the king did not, constitutionally, have the personal authority to do so. Maria Pia's paternity was never proven and her claim not widely accepted.

Titles, styles and honours

Royal styles of
King Carlos I of Portugal
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Portugal (1640-1910)
Reference styleHis Most Faithful Majesty
Spoken styleYour Most Faithful Majesty
Alternative styleSire

Titles and styles

  • 28 September 1863 – 19 October 1889: His Royal Highness The Prince Royal of Portugal
  • 19 October 1889 – 1 February 1908: His Most Faithful Majesty The King of Portugal and the Algarves
Carlos I's official styling as King of Portugal
By the Grace of God and by the Constitution of the Monarchy, Carlos I, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of this side of the Sea and beyond it in Africa, Lord of Guinea, and of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc.



  1. ^ a b "While remaining patrilineal dynasts of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha according to pp. 88, 116 of the 1944 Almanach de Gotha, Title 1, Chapter 1, Article 5 of the 1838 Portuguese constitution declared, with respect to Ferdinand II of Portugal's issue by his first wife, that 'the Most Serene House of Braganza is the reigning house of Portugal and continues through the Person of the Lady Queen Maria II'. Thus their mutual descendants constitute the Coburg line of the House of Braganza"
  2. ^ a b c Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Carlos I." . Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  3. ^ "Princess Maria Pia of Saxe-Coburg, Duchess of Braganza" in CHILCOTE, Ronald H.; The Portuguese Revolution: State and Class in the Transition to Democracy, page 37. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers; Reprint edition (August 31, 2012).
  4. ^ "...Her Royal Highness D. Maria Pia of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Braganza, the Crown Princess of Portugal" in Jean Pailler; Maria Pia of Braganza: The Pretender. New York: ProjectedLetters, 2006;
  5. ^ "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Justus Perthes, Almanach de Gotha 1908 (1908) page 66
  7. ^ Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 468. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
  8. ^ "Toison Espagnole (Spanish Fleece) – 19th century" (in French), Chevaliers de la Toison D'or. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
  9. ^ Shaw, Wm. A. (1906) The Knights of England, I, London, p. 70
  10. ^ Shaw, p. 416


  • Jean Pailler: D. Carlos I – Rei de Portugal: Destino Maldito de um Rei Sacrificado. Bertrand, Lisbon, 2001, ISBN 978-972-25-1231-2
  • Jean Pailler: Maria Pia: A Mulher que Queria Ser Rainha de Portugal. Bertrand, Lisbon, 2006, ISBN 972-25-1467-9
  • Manuel Amaral: Portugal – Dicionário Histórico, Corográfico, Heráldico, Biográfico, Bibliográfico, Numismático e Artístico, Volume II, 1904–1915, págs. 759
  • Rui Ramos: D. Carlos, Temas e Debates, Lisbon, 2007.
Carlos I of Portugal
Cadet branch of the House of Aviz
Born: 28 September 1863 Died: 1 February 1908
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Luís I
King of Portugal
19 October 1889 – 1 February 1908
Succeeded by
Manuel II
Portuguese royalty
Preceded by
Pedro V
Prince Royal of Portugal
28 September 1863 – 19 October 1889
Succeeded by
Luís Filipe
Duke of Braganza
28 September 1863 – 19 October 1889
1863 in Portugal

Events in the year 1863 in Portugal.

1908 in Portugal

Events in the year 1908 in Portugal.

Amélie of Orléans

Princess Amélie of Orléans (28 September 1865 – 25 October 1951) was the last Queen consort of Portugal. The wife of Carlos I of Portugal, she was known to her husband's subjects as "Maria Amélia de Orleães". As the eldest daughter of Prince Philippe, Count of Paris, and his wife, Princess Marie Isabelle d'Orléans, she was a "Princess of Orléans" by birth.


The Carbonária was originally an anti-clerical, revolutionary, conspiratorial society, originally established in Portugal in 1822 and soon disbanded. It was allied with the Italian Carbonari. A new organization of the same name and claiming to be its continuation was founded in 1896 by Artur Augusto Duarte da Luz de Almeida. This organization agitated against the monarchy and was involved in various anti-monarchist conspiracies. Its operational units, structured into a hierarchy of barracas, choças and vendas, received military training.

On 1 February, 1908 King Carlos I of Portugal and his eldest son and heir Luis Filipe were assassinated by Alfredo Luís da Costa and Manuel Buíça in a conspiracy involving the Carbonária.By 1910 the Carbonária had some 40,000 members and was instrumental in the Republican 5 October 1910 revolution.

Count of Paço de Arcos

The Count of Paço de Arcos (Portuguese: Conde dos Paço de Arcos), or alternately Count of Paço d'Arcos (Portuguese: Conde dos Paço d'Arcos) was a noble title, instituted by King Carlos I of Portugal on 13 October 1890, in favour of Carlos Eugénio Corrêa da Silva for his naval career and diplomatic service within the Portuguese Empire.

Joshua Benoliel

Joshua Benoliel (13 January 1873 - 3 February 1932) was a Portuguese photojournalist. He was the official photographer for King Carlos I of Portugal.

Jubilee Diamond

The Jubilee Diamond, originally known as the Reitz Diamond is a colourless, cushion-shaped diamond weighing 245.35 carats (49.07 grams), making it the sixth largest diamond in the world. It was originally named after Francis William Reitz, the then president of the Orange Free State where the stone was discovered, before being renamed to honour the 60th anniversary of the coronation of Queen Victoria in 1897.

The original stone, a rough octahedron weighing 650.80 carats (130.16 g), was discovered in 1895 at the Jagersfontein Mine in South Africa. A consortium of diamond merchants from London purchased it along with its even larger sister, the Excelsior, in 1896, and sent it to Amsterdam where it was polished by M.B. Barends. A 40 carat (8 g) chunk was removed, which itself yielded a 13.34 carat (2.668 g) pear-shaped gem eventually purchased by Carlos I of Portugal.

Dorabji Tata acquired it around 1900 and gave it to his wife Meherbai. She used to wear it during her visits to the royal courts and public functions. The Jubilee Diamond was the largest in the world until 1905 when a bigger diamond was exhibited. It was sold only after his death in 1932 and the money went to the formation of the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust.

List of ambassadors of Portugal to China

The Portuguese ambassador in Beijing is the official representative of the Government in Lisbon to the Government of the People's Republic of China.

List of ambassadors of Portugal to the United States

The Portuguese ambassador in Washington, D.C. is the official representative of the Government in Lisbon to the Government of the United States.

List of people on the postage stamps of Azores

This is a list of people on stamps of the Azores.

Matias de Albuquerque, Count of Alegrete (1928)

Teresa de Albuquerque (1925)

Afonso I of Portugal (1926)

Brites de Almeida (1927)

Saint Anthony of Padua (1895)

Luiz Vaz de Camoens (1898)

Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal (1925)

Camilo Castelo Branco (1925)

Carlos I of Portugal (1906)

João de Cruz (1925)

Mariana de Cruz (1925)

Saint Gabriel the Archangel (1898)

Vasco da Gama (1898)

Joana de Gouveia (1928)

Prince Henry the Navigator (1894)

João das Regras (1927)

John I of Portugal (1926)

John IV of Portugal (1926)

Luís I of Portugal (1868)

Manuel II of Portugal (1910)

Gonçalo Mendes da Maia (1927)

Gualdim Paes (1928)

João Pinto Ribeiro (1927)

Filipa de Vilhena (1926)

List of people on the postage stamps of Mozambique

This is a list of people on the postage stamps of Mozambique and its predecessor colonies, including the years in which they appeared on a stamp.

This list is complete through 1999.

Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal

D. Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal, Duke of Braganza, (Portuguese pronunciation: [luˈiʃ fɨˈlip(ɨ)]; 21 March 1887 – 1 February 1908) was the eldest son and heir-apparent of King Carlos I of Portugal. He was born in 1887 when his father was still Prince Royal of Portugal and received the usual style of the heirs to the heir of the Portuguese crown: 4th Prince of Beira at birth, with the subsidiary title 14th Duke of Barcelos. After his grandfather King Luís I of Portugal died, he became Prince Royal of Portugal with the subsidiary titles 21st Duke of Braganza, 20th Marquis of Vila Viçosa, 28th count of Barcelos, 25th count of Ourém, 23rd count of Arraiolos and 22nd count of Neiva.

Manuel Buíça

Manuel dos Reis da Silva Buíça (30 December 1876 – 1 February 1908) was a Portuguese schoolteacher and soldier involved in the regicide of King Carlos I of Portugal and Prince Royal, Luís Filipe, during the events that became known as the Lisbon Regicide.

Maria Pia de Saxe-Coburgo e Bragança

Maria Pia de Saxe-Coburgo e Bragança (March 13, 1907 – May 6, 1995), also known by her literary pseudonym Hilda de Toledano, was a Portuguese writer and journalist who claimed to be the bastard daughter of King Carlos I of Portugal. From 1932 she also claimed the right to the title of Duchess of Braganza and to be the rightful heiress to the throne of Portugal.Maria Pia of Braganza claimed that King Carlos I legitimized her through a royal decree and placed her in the line of succession, however no proof was presented to demonstrate this and the King similarly did not have the personal authority to do so. Maria Pia's paternity was never proven and her claim to the throne or of royal ancestry never widely accepted.

Municipal Library Elevator Coup

The Municipal Library Elevator Coup (Portuguese: Golpe do Elevador da Biblioteca), also known as The Elevator Coup (Intentona do Elevador) or 28 January 1908 Coup (Golpe de 28 de Janeiro de 1908), was the name given for the attempted coup d'état by members of the Portuguese Republican Party and Progressive Dissidency against the administrative dictatorship of Prime Minister João Franco (and the political ascendancy of the Liberal Regenerator Party). The event was not confined to the Municipal Library Elevator, but was so named for the arrest of many conspirators at the structure on the afternoon of January 28, 1908. Although the coup was prevented by government forces, it failed to capture all the conspirators, which contributed to the assassination of the monarch Carlos I of Portugal and the heir to the throne, the Prince Royal, Luís Filipe. These events would continue legislative instability and lead to the Portuguese First Republic, the raison d'être of the coup conspirators.

Prince Carlos

Prince Carlos or Carlo may refer to:

Charles, Prince of Viana (1421–1461)

Carlos, Prince of Asturias (1545–1568)

Carlo Gesualdo (1566–1613)

Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia (1701–1773)

Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine (1712–1780)

Infante Charles of Portugal (1716–1730)

Charles III of Spain (1716–1788)

Charles IV of Spain (1748–1819)

Charles Felix of Sardinia (1765–1831)

Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignan (1770–1800)

Carlo, Duke of Calabria (1775–1778)

Carlo Filangieri (1784–1867)

Carlo Emmanuele dal Pozzo, Prince della Cisterna (1787–1864)

Infante Carlos, Count of Molina (1788–1855)

Charles Albert of Sardinia (1798–1849)

Charles Lucien Bonaparte (1803–1857)

Charles Ferdinand, Prince of Capua (1811–1862)

Charles III, Duke of Parma (1823–1854)

Carlos I of Portugal (1863–1908)

Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1870–1949)

Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma (1930–2010)

Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria (1938–2015)

Carlo Alessandro, 3rd Duke of Castel Duino (born 1952)

Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro (born 1963)

Carlos, Duke of Parma (born 1970)

Prince Royal of Portugal

Prince Royal of Portugal (Portuguese: Príncipe Real de Portugal), officially Prince Royal of Portugal and the Algarves (Príncipe Real de Portugal e dos Algarves), was the title held by the heir-apparent or presumptive to the Kingdom of Portugal, from 1825 to 1910. From 1815 to 1825 the title was Prince Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.

Viscount of São Jorge

Viscount of São Jorge (Portuguese: Visconde de São Jorge) is a title was created by Carlos I of Portugal, by decree dated 7 November 1893, in the name of Adriano Auguto d´Oliveira, Knight of the Royal Household, Knight Commander of the Royal Military Order of Our Lady of Conception of Vila Viçosa. Adriano Auguto d´Oliveira married Eleanor Justine du Puy de Montbrun, daughter of the Marquess Lucien de Montbrun and the Marchioness Louise Amelie Marie Soulages de Saint-Marc. He lived in Paris and died in the same city without surviving descendants.

The title is associated with the noble house and estate of São Jorge situated in the Trás-os-Montes municipality of Azinhoso. It belonged in the 18th century (around 1740) to Tómas de Sá Pimentel Moraes Pinto d´Oliveira and his wife, D. Luiza Francisca de Moraes e Távora (from the Counts of São João da Pesqueira and later Marquesses of Távora), daughter of António Osório Pinto d´Oliveira de Moraes, Knight of the Royal Household.

Wendel (Swedish family)

Wendel (de Wendel upon ennoblement) is a Swedish noble family, forming part of the country's unintroduced nobility. Max Richard Wendel (1863–1922), Civil Engineer and Royal Spanish Consul in Gothenborg, was awarded the hereditary primogeniture title of Baron by Carlos I of Portugal in 1895. His eldest son, Carlos Harald Bruno Richard de Wendel (1901–1980), inherited the title upon his death.The family is not related to the French de Wendel family.

Ancestors of Carlos I of Portugal
8. Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
4. Ferdinand II of Portugal
9. Princess Maria Antonia Koháry
2. Luís I of Portugal
10. Pedro I of Brazil and IV of Portugal
5. Maria II of Portugal
11. Archduchess Leopoldina of Austria
1. Carlos I of Portugal
12. Charles Albert of Sardinia
6. Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
13. Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria
3. Princess Maria Pia of Savoy
14. Archduke Rainer of Austria
7. Archduchess Adelaide of Austria
15. Princess Elisabeth of Savoy
House of Burgundy (1139–1383)
House of Aviz (1385–1580)
House of Habsburg (1581–1640)
House of Braganza (1640–1910)
Feudal Dukes
Heir to the Throne
Claimant to the Throne
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2nd generation
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