Carlos Castaneda

Carlos Castaneda (December 25, 1925[nb 1]–April 27, 1998) was an American author.

Starting with The Teachings of Don Juan in 1968, Castaneda wrote a series of books that describe his training in shamanism, particularly with a group whose lineage descended from the Toltecs. The books, narrated in the first person, relate his experiences under the tutelage of a man that Castaneda claimed was a Yaqui "Man of Knowledge" named don Juan Matus. His 12 books have sold more than 28 million copies in 17 languages. Critics have suggested that they are works of fiction; supporters claim the books are either true or at least valuable works of philosophy.

Castaneda withdrew from public view in 1973, living in a large house in Westwood, California from 1973 until his death in 1998, with three colleagues whom he called "Fellow Travellers of Awareness." He founded Cleargreen, an organization that promotes "Tensegrity", which Castaneda described as the modern version of the "magical passes" of the shamans of ancient Mexico.

Carlos Castaneda
Carlos Castaneda in 1962
Carlos Castaneda in 1962
BornDecember 25, 1925
Cajamarca, Peru
DiedApril 27, 1998 (aged 72)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
OccupationAuthor, anthropologist
NationalityAmerican
EducationUCLA (B.A.)
UCLA (Ph.D.)
Period20th century
SubjectAnthropology, ethnography, shamanism

Early life

Castaneda moved to the United States in the early 1950s and became a naturalized citizen on June 21, 1957.[6]

He received his B.A. from UCLA in 1962, and Ph.D. in anthropology in 1973.[7]

Castaneda married Margaret Runyan in Mexico in 1960, according to Runyan's memoirs.[8] Castaneda is listed on the birth certificate of Runyan's son C.J. Castaneda as his father even though his biological father was a different man.[8]

It is unclear whether Carlos and Margaret were divorced in 1960, 1973, or not at all, and his death certificate even stated he had never been married.[8]

Career

Castaneda's first three books – The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge; A Separate Reality; and Journey to Ixtlan – were written while he was an anthropology student at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He wrote these books as his research log describing his apprenticeship with a traditional "Man of Knowledge" identified as don Juan Matus, allegedly a Yaqui Indian from northern Mexico. Castaneda was awarded his bachelor's and doctoral degrees based on the work described in these books.

In 1974 his fourth book, Tales of Power, was published and chronicled the end of his apprenticeship under the tutelage of Matus. Castaneda continued to be popular with the reading public with subsequent publications that unfolded further aspects of his training with don Juan.

Castaneda wrote that don Juan recognized him as the new nagual, or leader of a party of seers of his lineage. Matus also used the term nagual to signify that part of perception which is in the realm of the unknown yet still reachable by man, implying that, for his own party of seers, Matus was a connection to that unknown. Castaneda often referred to this unknown realm as "nonordinary reality."

The term nagual has been used by anthropologists to mean a shaman or sorcerer who claims to be able to change into an animal form, or to metaphorically "shift" into another form through magic rituals, shamanism and experiences with psychoactive drugs (e.g. peyote and jimson weed).[9]

While Castaneda was a well-known cultural figure, he rarely appeared in public forums. He was the subject of a cover article in the March 5, 1973 issue of Time which described him as "an enigma wrapped in a mystery wrapped in a tortilla". There was controversy when it was revealed that Castaneda may have used a surrogate for his cover portrait. When confronted by correspondent Sandra Burton about discrepancies in his personal history, Castaneda responded: "To ask me to verify my life by giving you my statistics ... is like using science to validate sorcery." Following that interview, Castaneda completely retired from public view.[1]

Don Juan Matus

Scholars have debated "whether Castaneda actually served as an apprentice to the alleged Yaqui sorcerer don Juan Matus or if he invented the whole odyssey."[10] Castaneda's books are classified as non-fiction although they have been criticized as fictional.[11][12] In two books, Castaneda's Journey: The Power and the Allegory (Capra Press, 1976) and The Don Juan Papers (Ross-Erickson, 1981), author and Castaneda critic Richard de Mille intimated that Don Juan was imaginary,[13] although de Mille's critiques have also been questioned.[14][15][16] Walter Shelburne contends that "the Don Juan chronicle cannot be a literally true account."[17]

Tensegrity

In the 1990s, Castaneda once again began appearing in public to promote Tensegrity, which was described in promotional materials as "the modernized version of some movements called magical passes developed by Indian shamans who lived in Mexico in times prior to the Spanish conquest." [18][19]

Castaneda, along with Carol Tiggs, Florinda Donner-Grau and Taisha Abelar, created Cleargreen Incorporated in 1995. The organization's stated purpose is "carrying out the instruction and publication of Tensegrity". Tensegrity seminars, books, and other merchandise were sold through Cleargreen.[20]

Death

Castaneda died on April 27, 1998[3] in Los Angeles due to complications from hepatocellular cancer. There was no public service; Castaneda was cremated and the ashes were sent to Mexico. His death was unknown to the outside world until nearly two months later, on 19 June 1998, when an obituary entitled "A Hushed Death for Mystic Author Carlos Castaneda" by staff writer J. R. Moehringer appeared in the Los Angeles Times.[21]

Four months after Castaneda's death, C. J. Castaneda, also known as Adrian Vashon, whose birth certificate shows Carlos Castaneda as his father, challenged Castaneda's will in probate court. C.J. challenged its authenticity. The challenge was ultimately unsuccessful[3]. Carlos' death certificate states metabolic encephalopathy for 72 hours prior to his death, yet the will was purportedly signed 48 hours before Castaneda's death[22].

Castaneda's Associates

After Castaneda stepped away from public view in 1973, he bought a large multi-dwelling property in Los Angeles which he shared with some of his followers. Among those who lived there were Taisha Abelar (formerly Maryann Simko) and Florinda Donner-Grau (formerly Regine Thal). Like Castaneda, Taisha Abelar and Florinda Donner-Grau were students of anthropology at UCLA. Each went on to write books that explored the experience of being followers of Castaneda's teachings from a feminist perspective. Cf. "Related Authors"

Around the time Castaneda died in April 1998, his companions Donner-Grau, Abelar and Patricia Partin informed friends they were leaving on a long journey. Amalia Marquez (also known as Talia Bey) and Tensegrity instructor Kylie Lundahl also left Los Angeles. Weeks later, Partin's red Ford Escort was found abandoned in Death Valley.

Luis Marquez, the brother of Talia Bey, went to police in 1999 over his sister's disappearance, but was unable to convince them that it merited investigation.

In 2006, Partin's sun-bleached skeleton was discovered by a pair of hikers in Death Valley's Panamint Dunes area and was identified by DNA testing. The investigating authorities ruled Partin's death as undetermined.[23][24]

Since his death, Carol Tiggs, a colleague of Castaneda, has spoken at workshops throughout the world, including at Ontario, California in 1998, Sochi, Russia in 2015 and Merida, Yucatan in 2016. Tiggs had the longest association with Castaneda and is written about in some of his books. Today, she serves as a consultant for Cleargreen.

Reception

Although Castaneda's accounts of the Teaching of Don Juan were initially well-received as non-fiction works of ethnography, the books are now widely regarded as works of fiction.[23]

At first, and with the backing of academic qualifications and the UCLA anthropological department, Castaneda's work was mostly praised by reviewers. Edmund Leach praised the book.[25] Anthropologist E. H. Spicer offered a somewhat mixed review of The Teachings of Don Juan, highlighting Castaneda's expressive prose and his vivid depiction of his relationship with Don Juan. However, Spicer noted that the events described in the book were not consistent with other ethnographic accounts of Yaqui cultural practices, concluding it was unlikely that Don Juan had ever participated in Yaqui group life. Spicer also stated: "[It is] wholly gratuitous to emphasize, as the subtitle does, any connection between the subject matter of the book and the cultural traditions of the Yaquis."[26]

In a series of articles, R. Gordon Wasson, the ethnobotanist who made psychoactive mushrooms famous, similarly praised Castaneda's work, while expressing doubts regarding the accuracy of some of the claims.[27] An early unpublished review by anthropologist Weston La Barre was more critical. La Barre questioned the book's accuracy, calling it a "pseudo-profound deeply vulgar pseudo-ethnography." The review, initially commissioned by The New York Times Review of Books, was rejected and replaced by a more positive review from a different anthropologist.[23]

Later reviews were more critical, with several critics positing that the books were fabrications. Beginning in 1976, Richard de Mille published a series of criticisms that uncovered inconsistencies in Castaneda's field notes, as well as several instances of apparent plagiarism.[23] Later, anthropologists specializing in Yaqui Indian culture, such as Jane Holden Kelley, questioned the accuracy of Castaneda's work.[28] Other criticisms of Castaneda's work include the total lack of Yaqui vocabulary or terms for any of his experiences, and his refusal to defend himself against the accusation that he received his PhD from UCLA through deception.[29] Stephen C. Thomas notes[30] that Muriel Thayer Painter, in her book With Good Heart: Yaqui Beliefs and Ceremonies in Pascua Village, gives examples of Yaqui vocabulary associated with spirituality: "morea", an equivalent to the Spanish brujo; "saurino", used to describe persons with the gift of divination; and "seataka", or spiritual power, a word which is "fundamental to Yaqui thought and life."[31] Thomas further states:

It is hard to believe that Castaneda's benefactor, a self-professed Yaqui, would fail to employ these native expressions throughout the apprenticeship. In omitting such intrinsically relevant terms from his ethnography, Castaneda critically undermines his portrait of Don Juan as a bona fide Yaqui sorcerer.

John Dedrick, a Protestant missionary who lived among the Yaqui Indians of Vicam, Sonora, from 1940 to 1979, stated in his letter of May 23, 1989 that:

I've only read "The Teachings of Don Juan", and before I got to the third part of the book I knew that he [Castaneda] did know of the Yaquis and that he had not been to the Rio Yaqui river, or that there is no terminology in the Yaqui language for any of the instructions and explanations that "Don Juan" was giving it to him [Castaneda][32].

Clement Meighan and Stephen C. Thomas,[30] point out that the books largely, and for the most part, do not describe Yaqui culture at all with its emphasis on Catholic upbringing and conflict with the Federal State of Mexico, but rather focus on the international movements and life of Don Juan who was described in the books as traveling and having many connections, and abodes, in the Southwestern United States (Arizona), Northern Mexico, and Oaxaca. Don Juan was described in the books as a shaman steeped in a mostly lost Toltec philosophy and decidedly anti-Catholic.

A March 5, 1973 Time article by Sandra Burton, looking at both sides of the controversy, stated:

... the more worldly claim to importance of Castaneda's books: to wit, that they are anthropology, a specific and truthful account of an aspect of Mexican Indian culture as shown by the speech and actions of one person, a shaman named Juan Matus. That proof hinges on the credibility of Don Juan as a being and Carlos Castaneda as a witness. Yet there is no corroboration beyond Castaneda's writings that Don Juan did what he is said to have done, and very little that he exists at all.

A strong case can be made that the Don Juan books are of a different order of truthfulness from Castaneda's pre-Don Juan past. Where, for example, was the motive for an elaborate scholarly put-on? The Teachings were submitted to a university press, an unlikely prospect for best-sellerdom. Besides, getting an anthropology degree from U.C.L.A. is not so difficult that a candidate would employ so vast a confabulation just to avoid research. A little fudging perhaps, but not a whole system in the manner of The Teachings, written by an unknown student with, at the outset, no hope of commercial success.[1]

David Silverman sees value in the work even while considering it fictional. In Reading Castaneda he describes the apparent deception as a critique of anthropology field work in general – a field that relies heavily on personal experience, and necessarily views other cultures through a lens. According to Silverman, not only the descriptions of peyote trips but also the fictional nature of the work are meant to place doubt on other works of anthropology.[33]

Donald Wieve cites Castaneda to explain the insider/outsider problem as it relates to mystical experiences, while acknowledging the fictional nature of Castaneda's work.[34]

Related and associated authors

  • Octavio Paz, Nobel laureate, poet, and diplomat. Paz wrote the prologue to the Spanish language edition of The Teachings of Don Juan: "La Mirada Anterior" (The Anterior Gaze), Fondo de Cultura, 1974
  • Michael Korda—writer, novelist, editor-in-chief, Simon & Schuster. Castaneda's editor for his first eight books. Wrote essay on Castaneda in, Another Life: A Memoir of Other People, Random House, 1999 ISBN 0-679-45659-7
  • George Lucas, Star Wars. Yoda and Luke Skywalker were inspired in part by don Juan and Castaneda[35][36][37]
  • Taisha Abelar and Florinda Donner-Grau, both students of don Juan Matus and colleagues of Castaneda, wrote memoirs of their experiences - Sorcerers' Crossing by Taisha Abelar and Shabono, and Being-in-Dreaming by Florida Donner-Grau. Their books were endorsed by Castaneda as authentic works. He dismissed others who claimed to share a history with don Juan Matus as pretenders. The two women, along with Carlos Tiggs, were part of Castaneda's inner circle, and he insisted that, along with him, they were the only legitimate students of Matus. They were both graduate students in anthropology at UCLA.
  • Felix Wolf, one of Castaneda's followers and translators, wrote The Art of Navigation: Travels with Carlos Castaneda and Beyond. In his book Wolf details how his life had been transformed by his association with Castaneda. While touching on all aspects of the teachings, Wolf highlights what he perceives to be the overriding and essential transmission that came through Castaneda's work: The Art of Navigation.
  • Amy Wallace wrote Sorcerer's Apprentice: My Life with Carlos Castaneda,[38] an account of her personal experiences with Castaneda and his followers. She died in August, 2013
  • In Carlos Castaneda e a Fenda entre os Mundos – Vislumbres da Filosofia Ānahuacah no Século XXI Brazilian writer Lui Morais analyzes the work of Castaneda, its cultural implications, and its continuation in other authors.
  • Victor Sanchez's first book, The Teachings of Don Carlos: Practical Applications of the Works of Carlos Castaneda (1995). Though he was never a student of Castaneda, his book provides in-depth techniques and commentary on a path of "self-growth" based on the wisdom of the Toltec descendants. His approach in this book is bringing the proposals of Castaneda down to the earth focusing on those parts of Castaneda's book that can be applied in everyday life and used for personal development.

Bibliography

  • The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge, 1968. ISBN 0-520-21757-8. (Summer 1960 to October 1965.)
  • A Separate Reality: Further Conversations with Don Juan, 1971. ISBN 0-671-73249-8. (April 1968 to October 1970.)
  • Journey to Ixtlan: The Lessons of Don Juan, 1972. ISBN 0-671-73246-3. (Summer 1960 to May 1971.)
  • Tales of Power, 1974. ISBN 0-671-73252-8. (Autumn 1971 to the 'Final Meeting' with don Juan Matus in 1973.)
  • The Second Ring of Power, 1977. ISBN 0-671-73247-1. (Meeting his fellow apprentices after the 'Final Meeting'.)
  • The Eagle's Gift, 1981. ISBN 0-671-73251-X. (Continuing with his fellow apprentices; and then alone with La Gorda.)
  • The Fire From Within, 1984. ISBN 0-671-73250-1. (Don Juan's 'Second Attention' teachings through to the 'Final Meeting' in 1973.)
  • The Power of Silence: Further Lessons of Don Juan, 1987. ISBN 0-671-73248-X. (The 'Abstract Cores' of don Juan's lessons.)
  • The Art of Dreaming, 1993. ISBN 0-06-092554-X. (Review of don Juan's lessons in dreaming.)
  • Magical Passes: The Practical Wisdom of the Shamans of Ancient Mexico, 1998. ISBN 0-06-017584-2. (Body movements for breaking the barriers of normal perception.)
  • The Wheel of Time: Shamans of Ancient Mexico, Their Thoughts About Life, Death and the Universe, 1998. ISBN 0-9664116-0-9. (Selected quotations from the first eight books.)
  • The Active Side of Infinity, 1999. ISBN 0-06-019220-8. (Memorable events of his life.)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Castaneda's birth name, as well as the date and location of his birth, are uncertain. According to a 1973 article in Time, U.S. immigration records indicates that Castaneda was born Carlos Cesar Arana Castaneda on December 25, 1925 in Cajamarca, Peru.[1] In the article, Castaneda himself claimed that he had adopted the surname "Castaneda" later in life and that he had been born in São Paulo, Brazil. He also reported his date of birth as December 25, 1935.[1] In other accounts he gave his date of birth as December 25, 1931.[2][3] A 1981 article in The New York Times stated that Castaneda "was born Carlos Arana in a Peruvian mountain town 66 years ago", indicating a 1915 birth.[4] Most sources tend to favor the Peruvian birth and 1925 date.[5]

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d Burton, Sandra; et al. (March 5, 1973). "Don Juan and the Sorcerer's Apprentice". Time. 101 (10). Archived from the original on June 27, 2006. Retrieved 2011-12-23.
  2. ^ Epstein, Benjamin (March 1, 1996). "My Lunch With Carlos Castaneda". Psychology Today. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  3. ^ a b c Applebome, Peter (June 20, 1998). "Carlos Castaneda, Mystical and Mysterious Writer, Dies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 March 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  4. ^ Walters, Ray (January 11, 1981). "Paperback Talk". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 February 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  5. ^ Chávez Candelaria, Cordelia; Garcia, Peter J.; Aldama, Arturo J. (2004). Encyclopedia of Latino Popular Culture, Volume One. Greenwood. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-313-32215-0. Archived from the original on 26 February 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  6. ^ Petition for Naturalization No. 199531, United States Department of Justice
  7. ^ De Mille (1976)
  8. ^ a b c Woo, Elaine (January 30, 2012). "Margaret Runyan Castaneda, Carlos Castaneda's ex-wife, dies at 90". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 6 June 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  9. ^ Castaneda, C: The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge, pp. 88–120, Washington Square Press Publication, 1968 paperback ISBN 0-671-60041-9
  10. ^ Baron, Larry (Spring 1983). "Slipping inside the Crack between the Worlds: Carlos Castaneda, Alfred Schutz, and the Theory of Multiple Realities". Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 23 (2): 52–69. doi:10.1177/0022167883232007.
  11. ^ Clements, William M. (1985). "Carlos Castaneda's the Teachings of Don Juan: A Novel of Initiation". Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction. 26 (3): 122–130. doi:10.1080/00111619.1985.9934668.
  12. ^ Rosenthal, Caroline; Schafer, Stefanie (eds.) (2014). "Lochle, Stefan: "The Imposter as Trickster as innovator: A Rereading of Carlos Castaneda's Don Juan-cycle"". Fake Identity?: The Impostor Narrative in North American Culture. Campus Verlag GmbH. pp. 81–96. ISBN 978-3-593-50101-7.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  13. ^ Siegel, Ronald K. (1982). "Book Review: The Don Juan Papers: Further Castaneda Controversies". Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 14 (3): 253–254. doi:10.1080/02791072.1982.10471937.
  14. ^ Koote, Anton F. - University of Florida (2008). "A Critical Look At Castaneda's Critics".
  15. ^ Desper, James L. Jr. (2012). "Castaneda - Debunking De Mille".
  16. ^ Harner, Michael (1978). "Castaneda Controversy - Michael Harner's reply".
  17. ^ Shelburne, Walter A. (Spring 1987). "Carlos Castaneda: If It Didn't Happen, What Does It Matter?". Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 27 (2): 217–227. doi:10.1177/0022167887272007.
  18. ^ Applebome, Peter (August 19, 1998). "Mystery Man's Death Can't End the Mystery; Fighting Over Carlos Castaneda's Legacy". New York Times. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  19. ^ "Carlos Castaneda's Tensegrity". Retrieved 17 April 2016..
  20. ^ "ABOUT US". Carlos Castaneda's Tensegrity.
  21. ^ "Castaneda Obituary". All Things Considered. National Public Radio. June 19, 1998. Archived from the original on 7 August 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  22. ^ County of Los Angeles Department of Health Services (1998). Carlos Castaneda death certificate
  23. ^ a b c d Marshall, Robert (April 12, 2007). "The dark legacy of Carlos Castaneda". Salon. Salon Media Group. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  24. ^ Flinchum, Robin (2006-02-10). "Remains of guru's disciple identified". Pahrump Valley Times. Archived from the original on 2015-02-22. Retrieved 2015-02-22.
  25. ^ Leach, Edmund (June 5, 1969). "High School". The New York Review of Books. ISSN 0028-7504. Archived from the original on October 13, 2012. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
  26. ^ Spicer, Edward H. (April 1969). "Review: The Teaching of Don Jaun: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge". American Anthropologist. 71 (2): 320–322.
  27. ^ Wasson, R. Gordon. 1969. (Bk. Rev.). Economic Botany vol. 23(2):197. A review of Carlos Castaneda's "The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge.", Wasson, R. Gordon. 1972a. (Bk. Rev.). Economic Botany vol. 26(1):98–99. A review of Carlos Castaneda's "A Separate Reality: Further Conversations with Don Juan."; Wasson, R. Gordon. 1973a. (Bk. Rev.). Economic Botany vol. 27(1):151–152. A review of Carlos Castaneda's "Journey to Ixtlan: The Lessons of Don Juan."; Wasson, R. Gordon. . 1974. (Bk. Rev.). Economic Botany vol. 28(3):245–246. A review of Carlos Castaneda's "Tales of Power."; Wasson, R. Gordon. 1977a. (Mag., Bk. Rev). Head vol. 2(4):52–53, 88–94. November.
  28. ^ Kelley, Jane Holden (1978). Yaqui Women: Contemporary Life Histories. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-8032-0912-1.
  29. ^ Harris, Marvin (2001). Cultural materialism: the struggle for a science of culture. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. p. 322.
  30. ^ a b Thomas, Stephen. "Shamans and Charlatans: Assessing Castaneda's Legacy". Archived from the original on 18 June 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
  31. ^ Painter, Muriel Thayer (1986). With Good Heart: Yaqui Beliefs and Ceremonies in Pascua Village. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. pp. 11, 43–44.
  32. ^ Fikes, Jay Courtney (1993). Carlos Castaneda: Academic Opportunism and the Psychedelic Sixties. Millenia Press. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-0969696001.
  33. ^ David Silverman. Reading Castaneda: A Prologue to the Social Sciences. ISBN 978-0-7100-8146-9
  34. ^ Donald Wieve. "Does Understanding Religion Require Religious Understanding?" In Russel T. McCutcheon (ed.), The Insider/Outsider Problem in the Study of Religion. New York: Bath Press, 1999. p. 263.
  35. ^ Rothman, Joshua (17 December 2014). "The Crazy History of "Star Wars"". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 25 July 2017 – via www.newyorker.com.
  36. ^ "TheForce.Net - Rebel Rouser - SW Essays - Lucas and Castaneda in a Galaxy Far, Far Away". www.theforce.net. Archived from the original on 2016-11-06.
  37. ^ "CARLOS CASTANEDA AND GEORGE LUCAS: Star Wars, Castaneda, and the Force". www.oocities.org.
  38. ^ Amy Wallace (2007). Sorcerer's Apprentice: My Life with Carlos Castaneda. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-58394-206-2. Archived from the original on 2017-02-16. Retrieved 2015-11-12.

References

  • De Mille, Richard (1976). Castaneda's Journey: The Power and the Allegory. Capra Press. ISBN 978-0-88496-067-6.

Further reading

  • Morais Junior, Luis Carlos de Lui Morais. Carlos Castaneda e a Fresta entre os Mundos: Vislumbres da Filosofia Ānahuacah no Século XXI (Carlos Castaneda and the Crack Between the Worlds: Glimpses of Ānahuacah Philosophy in the 21st Century). Rio de Janeiro: Litteris Editora, 2012.
  • Sanchez, Victor. The Teachings of Don Carlos: Practical Applications of the Works of Carlos Castaneda. Bear & Company, 1995. ISBN 1-879181-23-1 (Note: Castaneda won a law case requiring Sanchez to alter his book covers and clarify he was not Castaneda's student.)
  • Williams, Donald. Border Crossings: A Psychological Perspective on Carlos Castaneda's Path of Knowledge Inner City Books, 1981.
  • Collier, Richard "The River That God Forgot" (Background on Julio Cesar Arana, despotic rubber baron, Carlos Castaneda's paternal grandfather) E.P. Dutton & Co., N.Y., 1968. Library of Congress CATALOG CARD NUMBER:68-12451
  • Torres, Armando "Encounters with the Nagual: Conversations with Carlos Castaneda" First Light Press, 2004.
  • Torres, Armando "The Secret of the Plumed Serpent: Further Conversations with Carlos Castaneda" Hade Publishing, 2014 (First published in Spanish as "El Secreto de la Serpiente Emplumada" by Editora Alba, 2010)
  • Desper Jr., James "The End Of History: A Commentary On The Warrior's Way: A System Of Knowledge First Reported In The Books Of Carlos Castaneda" Third Attention Publishing, 2012.

External links

A Separate Reality

A Separate Reality: Further Conversations With Don Juan is a book written by anthropologist/author Carlos Castaneda, published in 1971, concerning the events that took place during his apprenticeship with a Yaqui Indian Sorcerer, Don Juan Matus, between 1960 and 1965.

In the book Castaneda continues his description of his apprenticeship under the tutelage of Don Juan. As in his previous book, The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge, Castaneda describes the experiences he has with Don Juan while under the influence of the psychotropic plants that Don Juan offered him, peyote (Lophophora williamsii) and a smokable mixture of what Castaneda believed to be, among other plants, dried mushroom of the genus Psilocybe. The main focus of the book centered on Don Juan's attempts at getting Carlos to See, a practice best described as, in Castaneda's own words, "perceiving energy directly as it flows through the universe".

The book contains an introduction, an epilogue and two separate parts. Part One, "The Preliminaries of 'Seeing'", describes his re-initiation into the apprenticeship from which he withdrew in late 1965, and also describes his introduction to another brujo (sorcerer) named Don Genaro. Part Two, "The Task of 'Seeing'", elaborates on the mental processes involved with Seeing, and begins with Castaneda realizing that the plants are a necessary tool to arrive at Seeing.

Amy Wallace

Amy Wallace (July 3, 1955 – August 10, 2013) was an American writer. She was the daughter of writers Irving Wallace and Sylvia Wallace and the sister of writer and populist historian David Wallechinsky. She was co-author of the bestselling book, The Book of Lists (1977).

Arkana Publishing

Arkana Publishing (or Penguin Arkana or just Arkana) is a publishing imprint of Penguin Group of mainly esoteric literature.

Carlos Castaneda bibliography

Carlos Castaneda was an American author who graduated from the University of California at Los Angeles with a PhD in Anthropology. Starting with The Teachings of Don Juan in 1968 and ending with The Active Side of Infinity in 1998, he wrote a series of books that described his putative experiences with the characters 'Don Juan Matus' and 'Genaro Flores' from 1960 to 1973.

Carlos Castañeda (footballer)

Carlos Castañeda Mendez (born 4 January 1963) is a former Guatemalan footballer who was a member of the Guatemala national team and represented Guatemala at the 1988 Olympic Games.

Carlos Castañeda (historian)

Carlos Castañeda (11 November 1896 – 3 April 1958) was a historian, specializing in the history of Texas, and a leader in the push for civil rights for Mexican-Americans.Born in Mexico, Castañeda immigrated to the United States with his family in 1908. He gained an undergraduate and master's degree in history from the University of Texas at Austin, and then spent several years teaching Spanish at the College of William and Mary. Castañeda returned to Texas in 1927, serving as the first curator of the Latin American collection at the University of Texas. While he worked as a librarian, Castañeda pursued his doctorate in history, which he finally earned in 1932.

Castañeda's work as a historian focused on the Spanish borderlands, especially Texas. He combed various archives in Mexico to find and copy previously unknown documentation on life in Texas and the southwestern United States. For his work in documenting Catholic history in Texas, Castañeda was named a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre and a Knight Commander in the Order of Isabella the Catholic of Spain.

During World War II, Castañeda took a leave of absence from his teaching position at the University of Texas to work as an investigator for the Fair Employment Practices Committee. He advocated for equal rights for Mexican-Americans, and was promoted to regional director of the FEPC southwest region in 1946.

The Perry–Castañeda Library at the University of Texas is named for him.

Castañeda

Castañeda or Castaneda is a Spanish surname.

The name's meaning is habitational, from any of various places in Santander, Asturias, and Salamanca, derived from castañeda, a collective of castaña "chestnut". The name is believed to be created by the fact that the bourgeois House of Castañeda was situated in a valley of chestnuts, thus meaning "Castle of the Chestnuts."

In non-Hispanic countries, the name is usually spelled Castaneda (without the tilde). In Portuguese, this name is spelled Castanheda.

The surname can be found primarily in Spain, Portugal and the Americas after the Spanish conquest of North and South America.

Centenary, New York

Centenary is a neighborhood in New City, New York, the county seat of Rockland County. Located on the north-easternmost side of the hamlet, just south of Haverstraw, southeast of High Tor State Park, northwest of Dr. Davis Farm, and northeast of the neighborhood of Brownsell Corner. It is one of the most rural parts of New City.

Centenary Church, now desanctified and converted to a residence, marks the historic center at South Mountain Road near the intersection of Old Route 304.

Well-known residents have included Carlos Castaneda, who resided on High Tor Road in the 1970s.

Don Miguel Ruiz

Miguel Ángel Ruiz Macías (born August 27, 1952), better known by his pseudonym as Don Miguel Ruiz, is a Mexican author of Toltec spiritualist and neoshamanistic texts.

His work is best-received among members of the New Thought movement that focuses on ancient teachings as a means to achieve spiritual enlightenment. Ruiz is listed as one of the Watkins 100 Most Spiritually Influential Living People in 2018. Some have associated Ruiz's work with Carlos Castaneda, author of The Teachings of Don Juan.

Journey to Ixtlan

Journey to Ixtlan is the third book by Carlos Castaneda, published as a work of non-fiction by Simon & Schuster in 1972. It is about an apprenticeship to the Yaqui "shaman," Don Juan.The title of this book is taken from an allegory that is recounted to Castaneda by his "benefactor" who is known to Carlos as Don Genaro ( Genaro Flores ), a close friend of his teacher don Juan Matus. "Ixtlan" turns out to be a metaphorical hometown ( or Place / Position of Being ) to which the "sorcerer" or warrior or man of knowledge is drawn to return, trying to get home. After the work of "stopping", his changed perspective leaves him little in common with ordinary people, who now seem no more substantial to him than "phantoms." The point of the story is that a man of knowledge, or sorcerer, is a changed being, or a Human closer to his true state of Being, and for that reason he can never truly go "home" to his old lifestyle again.

In Journey to Ixtlan Castaneda essentially reevaluates the teachings up to that point. He discusses information that was apparently missing from the first two books regarding stopping the world which previously he had only regarded as a metaphor.

He also finds that psychotropic plants, knowledge of which was a significant part of his apprenticeship to Yaqui shaman don Juan Matus, are not as important in the world view as he had previously thought. In the introduction he writes:

My basic assumption in both books has been that the articulation points in learning to be a sorcerer were the states of nonordinary reality produced by the ingestion of psychotropic plants ...

My perception of the world through the effects of those psychotropics had been so bizarre and impressive that I was forced to assume that such states were the only avenue to communicating and learning what Don Juan was attempting to teach me.

That assumption was erroneous.

In the book don Juan takes Carlos on these various degrees of apprenticeship, in response to what he believes are signals from the phenomenological world, "The decision as to who can be a warrior and who can only be a hunter is not up to us. That decision is in the realm of the powers that guide men."The book shows a progression between different states of learning, from hunter, to warrior, to man of knowledge or sorcerer, the difference said to be one of skill level and the type of thing hunted, "... a warrior is an impeccable hunter that hunts power. If he succeeds in his hunting he becomes a man of knowledge."Throughout the book Castaneda portrays himself as skeptical and reserved in his explanations of the phenomena at hand, but by the end of the book Castaneda's rationalist worldview is seen to be breaking down in the face of an onslaught of experiences that he is unable to explain logically.

List of Peruvian writers

This is a list of Peruvian literary figures, including poets, novelists, children's writers, essayists, and scholars.

Martín Adán (1908–1985), poet

Ciro Alegría (1909–1967), indigenous novelist

Marie Arana (born 1949), Peruvian-American novelist, biographer, journalist

José María Arguedas (1911–1969), indigenous novelist and poet

Federico Barreto (1862–1929), poet

Jaime Bayly (born 1965), contemporary novelist

Michael Bentine (1922–1996), Anglo-Peruvian comedian

Alfredo Bryce Echenique (born 1939), novelist

Guillermo Carnero Hoke (1917-1985), writer and journalist

Carlos Castaneda (1925–1998), literary anthropologist

Gamaliel Churata (1897–1957), socialist essayist and journalist

José María Eguren (1874–1942), poet

Jorge Eduardo Eielson (1924–2006), poet

Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (c. 1539–1616), chronicler

Manuel González Prada (1844–1918), modernista poet

Eduardo González Viaña (born 1941), short story writer and novelist

Javier Heraud (1942–1963), poet and would-be guerilla

Rodolfo Hinostroza (born 1941), influential poet, writer, novelist and essayist

Luis Jochamowitz (born 1953), journalist and biographer

José Carlos Mariátegui (1894–1930), socialist essayist and journalist

Jose Luis Mejia (born 1969), poet, novelist

Gloria Macher Peruvian Canadian writer

Clorinda Matto de Turner (1853–1909), novelist

Angélica Palma (1878–1935), writer, journalist and biographer

Clemente Palma (1872–1946). writer of fantastic and horror fiction

Ricardo Palma (1833–1919), folklorist

Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, indigenous chronicler

Santiago Roncagliolo (born 1975), writer, scriptwriter, translator and journalist.

Julio Ramón Ribeyro (1929–1994), short story writer

Isabel Sabogal (born 1958), novelist, poet and translator

Sebastián Salazar Bondy (1924–1964), essayist and poet

José Santos Chocano (1875–1934), poet

Manuel Scorza (1928–1983), novelist and poet

Hernando de Soto (economist) (born 1941), economist and essayist

Carlos Thorne Boas (born 1923), novelist, writer and lawyer

Álvaro Torres-Calderón (1975-), poet

Abraham Valdelomar (1888–1919)

Blanca Varela (1926–2009), poet

Mario Vargas Llosa (born 1936), novelist of the Latin American Boom

Virginia Vargas (born 1945), sociologist

Cesar Vallejo (1892–1938), influential poet, writer, journalist

José Watanabe (1946–2007), poet

McAllen Independent School District

The McAllen Independent School District is a school district headquartered in the city of McAllen, Texas, United States.

In 2009, the school district was rated "academically acceptable" by the Texas Education Agency.

Minister of Foreign Affairs (El Salvador)

This is a list of foreign ministers of El Salvador from 1922 to the present day.

1922–1923: Arturo Ramón Ávila

1923–1927: Reyes Arrieta Rossi

1927–1928: José Gustavo Guerrero

1928–1931: Francisco Martínez Suárez

1931: Héctor David Castro

1931: Reyes Arrieta Rossi

1931–1942: Miguel Ángel Araujo

1942–1944: Arturo Ramón Ávila

1944: Julio Enrique Ávila Villafañe

1944–1945: Reyes Arrieta Rossi

1945: Arturo Argüello Loucel

1945–1946: Héctor Escobar Serrano

1946: Manuel Castro Ramírez

1946–1948: José Antonio Quiroz

1948–1950: Miguel Rafael Urquía

1950–1954: Roberto Edmundo Canessa Gutiérrez

1954–1955: José Guillermo Trabanino Guerrero

1955–1956: Carlos Azúcar Chávez

1956–1960: Alfredo Ortiz Mancía

1960–1961: Rolando Déneke

1961: Raúl Gamero

1961–1962: Rafael Eguizabal Tobías

1962–1965: Héctor Escobar Serrano

1965–1967: Roberto Eugenio Quirós

1967–1968: Alfredo Martínez Moreno

1968–1971: Francisco José Guerrero Cienfuegos

1971–1972: Walter Béneke Medina

1972–1977: Mauricio Borgonovo

1977–1978: Álvaro Ernesto Martínez

1978–1979: José Antonio Rodríguez Porth

1979–1980: Héctor Miguel Antonio Dada Hirezi

1980–1982: José Napoleón Duarte

1982–1984: Fidel Chávez Mena

1984–1985: Jorge Eduardo Tenorio

1985–1986: Rodolfo Antonio Castillo Claramount

1986–1989: Ricardo Acevedo Peralta

1989–1993: José Manuel Pacas Castro

1993–1994: Miguel Ángel Salaverría

1994–1995: Óscar Alfredo Santamaría

1995–1999: Ramón Ernesto González Giner

1999–2004: María Eugenia Brizuela de Ávila

2004–2008: Francisco Laínez

2008–2009: Marisol Argueta de Barillas

2009–2013: Hugo Martínez

2013–2014: Jaime Miranda

2014–2018: Hugo Martínez

2018–present: Carlos Castaneda (acting)

Recapitulation

Recapitulation may refer to:

Recapitulation (music), a section of musical sonata form where the exposition is repeated in an altered form and the development is concluded

Recapitulation theory, a scientific theory influential on but no longer accepted in its original form by both evolutionary and developmental biology, namely, that the congruence in form between the same embryonic developmental stages of different species is evidence that the embryos are repeating the evolutionary stages of their ancestral history

Recapitulation theory of atonement, first clearly expressed by Irenaeus

Recapitulation (Castaneda), a spiritual practice appearing first in the writings of Carlos Castaneda and later in those of Miguel Ángel Ruiz, Victor Sanchez and others

Recapitulation (Dentistry-Endodontics), Recapitulation is the sequential reentry and reuse of each previous instrument. Throughout the debriding or filing process, the root canal must be recapitulated. A smaller diameter file is intermittently and finally inserted to the measured apical length and the small bits of debris that are packed into the apex are removed to ensure total canal debridement. Recapitulation is a necessity for proper endodontic success.

Taisha Abelar

Taisha Abelar, born Maryann Simko, is an American writer and anthropologist who was an associate of Carlos Castaneda.

The Art of Dreaming

The Art of Dreaming is a 1993 book by the anthropologist Carlos Castaneda. It details events and techniques during a period of the author's apprenticeship with the “Yaqui“ Indian Sorcerer, don Juan Matus, between 1960 and 1973.

The Teachings of Don Juan

The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge was published by the University of California Press in 1968 as a work of anthropology, though many critics contend that it is a work of fiction. It was written by Carlos Castaneda and submitted as his Master's thesis in the school of Anthropology. It purports to document the events that took place during an apprenticeship with a self-proclaimed Yaqui Indian Sorcerer, don Juan Matus from Sonora, Mexico between 1960 and 1965.

The book is divided into two sections. The first section, The Teachings, is a first-person narrative that documents Castaneda's initial interactions with don Juan. He speaks of his encounters with Mescalito (a teaching spirit inhabiting all peyote plants), divination with lizards and flying using the "yerba del diablo" (lit. "Devil's Weed"; Jimson weed), and turning into a blackbird using "humito" (lit. "little smoke"; a smoked powder containing Psilocybe mexicana). The second, A Structural Analysis, is an attempt, Castaneda says, at "disclos[ing] the internal cohesion and the cogency of don Juan’s Teachings."The 30th-anniversary edition, published by the University of California Press in 1998, contains commentary by Castaneda not present in the original edition. He writes of a general discouragement from the project by his professors (besides Clement Meighan, a professor who supported the project early in its conception. In the foreword, Castaneda gives "full credit" for the approval of his dissertation to Meighan). He offers a new thesis on a mind-state he calls "total freedom" and claims that he used the teachings of his Yaqui shaman as "springboards into new horizons of cognition". In addition, it contains a foreword by anthropologist Walter Goldschmidt, who was a professor of anthropology at UCLA during the time the books were written, and an introduction by the author. A 40th anniversary edition was published by the University of California Press in 2008.

The Teachings is referenced in the 2013 film A Case of You, in which the protagonist reads the book to impress his dream girl.

Thomas Karlsson

Thomas Karlsson (born 1972) is a Swedish occultist and esoteric author, with a PhD in the History of Religions from the Stockholm University. In 2007 he held the first Swedish university course in Western Esotericism.

In 1989, he and six other magicians founded Dragon Rouge, a Left-Hand Path initiatory organization and a Draconian Tradition Order, led by Karlsson. As a book author he concentrates on occult, philosophy and paranormal topics. The Dragon Rouge website cites Carlos Castaneda, Julius Evola and Kenneth Grant as some of the magical writers whose work is read by the order, as are texts by classical philosophers such as Herakleitos, Plato and Plotinos, as well as modern philosophers like Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger and Henri Bergson. Karlsson is also associated with metal bands Therion and Shadowseeds. His personal influences include Sumerian mythology, Alchemy, Tantra, the Goetia, and the Qliphoth. In an interview dated in 2003, he claims he experienced astral projections as a child but did not think of them as supernatural experiences until he started formally exploring the occult.

Winds of Nagual

Winds of Nagual is a 1985 composition for wind ensemble by the North American composer Michael Colgrass. It has become a standard of the wind ensemble/concert band repertoire. Based on the writings of Carlos Castaneda, the work consists of seven movements.

In 1985 the piece won the William D. Revelli Composition Contest and Sudler International Composition Competition.

Carlos Castaneda
Books

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