Carlos, Duke of Madrid

Don Carlos, Duke of Madrid (Spanish: Carlos María de los Dolores Juan Isidro José Francisco Quirico Antonio Miguel Gabriel Rafael; 30 March 1848 – 18 July 1909) was the senior member of the House of Bourbon from 1887 until his death. He was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain under the name Carlos VII from 1868 (his father's Spanish abdication), and the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France under the name Charles XI after the death of his father in 1887.

Infante Carlos
Duke of Madrid
Carlos Duke of Madrid
Carlist pretender to the Spanish throne
as Carlos VII
Pretendence3 October 1868 – 18 July 1909
PredecessorJuan III
SuccessorJaime III
Legitimist pretender to the French throne
as Charles XI
Pretendence21 November 1887 – 18 July 1909
PredecessorJean III
SuccessorJacques I
Born30 March 1848
Ljubljana, Carniola
Died18 July 1909 (aged 61)
Varese, Italy
Berthe de Rohan
(m. 1894)
IssueInfanta Blanca
Jaime, Duke of Madrid
Infanta Elvira
Infanta Beatriz
Infanta Alicia
FatherJuan, Count of Montizón
MotherArchduchess Maria Beatrix of Austria-Este


5 Centimos à l'effigie de Charles VII (Charles de Bourbon, prétendant carliste), 1875
coin of Carlos VII

Carlos was born in Ljubljana, the capital of Carniola in what is now Slovenia, the elder son of Juan, Count of Montizón and of his wife Archduchess Maria Beatrix of Austria-Este. His name in full was Carlos María de los Dolores Juan Isidro José Francisco, Quirico Antonio Miguel Gabriel Rafael. As an infant he lived with his family briefly in London where his younger brother Alfonso was born. After their father, considered too liberal for Carlist tastes, left their mother, the boys lived with her in Modena. Her brother Duke Francis V of Modena was largely responsible for the education of the boys and was the chief influence in their early lives. Carlos was known for his traditionalist views, much different from those of his father.


On 4 February 1867, at Frohsdorf in Austria, Carlos married Princess Margherita of Bourbon-Parma, daughter of Duke Charles III of Parma and of his wife, Louise Marie Thérèse of France.[1] The couple had five children:

De facto king

Carlos organized and led the Third Carlist War. Between 1872 and 1876 he effectively ruled much of peninsular Spain, having as much legitimacy as the Presidents of the First Republic.[1]

Carlos (VII.)
Carlos VII, de facto King of Spain

Later life

In January 1893 Carlos' wife, Margarita, died. The following year he decided to remarry. He consulted his mother who suggested two ladies: Princess Theresia of Liechtenstein (daughter of Prince Alfred of Liechtenstein) and Berthe de Rohan (daughter of Prince Arthur de Rohan).

Having met both ladies, Carlos decided on the latter and asked for her hand in marriage.[2]

On 28 April 1894 Carlos and Berthe were married by Cardinal Schönborn in his private chapel in Prague. Berthe had a dominant personality, making the marriage very unpopular among Carlists. "All writers agree that this second marriage was disastrous, not only for the family of Don Carlos and for [Carlos] himself, but also for the [Carlist] party."[3]

Carlos died in Varese in 1909. [1] He is buried in the Cathedral of San Giusto in Trieste. He was succeeded in his Spanish and French claims by his son Jaime.


  1. ^ a b c Chisholm 1911.
  2. ^ Jaime Del Burgo, Carlos VII y su tiempo: Leyenda y realidad (Pamplona: Gobierno de Navarra, 1994), 340.
  3. ^ Del Burgo, 341


  • Del Burgo, Jaime. Carlos VII y su tiempo: Leyenda y realidad. Pamplona: Gobierno de Navarra, 1994.
  • "The Curé Santa Cruz and the Carlist War." Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine (1873).
  • "The Spanish Pretender: Who he is and What he has Been." The New York Times (May 31, 1874).
  • Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Carlos, Don (Prince of Bourbon)" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Carlos, Duke of Madrid
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: March 30, 1848 Died: July 18, 1909
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Juan, Count of Montizón
as Juan III of Spain and
Jean III of France
King of Spain
October 3, 1868 – July 18, 1909
Succeeded by
Jaime, Duke of Madrid
as Jaime III of Spain and
Jacques I of France
King of France and Navarre
November 21, 1887 – July 18, 1909
1869 Spanish general election

General elections to the Cortes Generales were held in Spain on the 15 January 1869. At stake were all 352 seats in the Congress of Deputies, plus 11 Puerto Rican and 18 Cuban additional seats.

Archduchess Dolores of Austria

Archduchess Dolores of Austria German: Dolores Erzherzogin von Österreich-Toskana;(5 May 1891 – 10 April 1974) was a daughter of Archduke Leopold Salvator of Austria. She was member of the Tuscan branch of the Imperial House of Habsburg, an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Tuscany by birth. After the fall of the Austro Hungary Empire, she lived under reduced circumstances with her family in Spain, Austria, and Italy. She died unmarried.

Archduke Anton of Austria

Archduke Anton of Austria (Anton Maria Franz Leopold Blanka Karl Joseph Ignaz Raphael Michael Margareta Nicetas von Habsburg-Lorraine; Vienna, 20 March 1901 – Salzburg, 22 October 1987) was an Archduke of Austria and Prince of Tuscany. He was the seventh of ten children born to Archduke Leopold Salvator of Austria, Prince of Tuscany, and Infanta Blanca of Spain, daughter of Carlos, Duke of Madrid.

Archduke Leopold of Austria, Prince of Tuscany

Archduke Leopold Maria of Austria, Prince of Tuscany German: Leopold, Erzherzog von Österreich-Toskana (born in Zagreb 30 January 1897 - died Willimantic, Connecticut 14 March 1958) was the second son of Archduke Leopold Salvator, Prince of Tuscany and Infanta Blanca of Spain. At the fall of Habsburg monarchy he remained in Austria and recognized the new republic in order to marry Dagmar, Baroness von Nicolics-Podrinska. The couple had one daughter. After divorcing his wife in 1931, Leopold eventually emigrated to the United States where he became a naturalized American citizen under the name Leopold Lorraine, and where he remarried. He died in 1958 in Connecticut.

Archduke Rainer of Austria (1895–1930)

Archduke Rainer of Austria German: Rainer, Erzherzog von Österreich-Toskana; (21 November 1895 – 25 May 1930) was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, a member of the Tuscan branch of the Imperial House of Habsburg, an Archduke of Austria and Prince of Tuscany by birth. He was the eldest son Archduke Leopold Salvator of Austria, Prince of Tuscany. He served as officer in the Austrian army during World War I. At the fall of the Habsburg dynasty, he remained in Vienna and worked for a time as taxi driver. He died unmarried at the age of 34 from blood-poisoning.

Berthe de Rohan

Berthe de Rohan (French: Marie-Berthe Françoise Félicie Jeanne de Rohan, Princesse de Rohan; 21 May 1868 – 19 January 1945) was the ninth and youngest child of Prince Arthur of Rohan and his wife, Countess Gabriela of Waldstein-Wartenberg.Berthe was a Princess of Rohan and member of the House of Rohan by birth. She was born in Teplitz, Kingdom of Bohemia, Austria–Hungary. Through her marriage to Carlos, Duke of Madrid, Carlist claimant to the Spanish throne, Berthe was titular Queen consort of Spain, France, and Navarre.

Carlos de Borbón

Carlos de Borbón may refer to:

Charles III of Spain, King of Spain from 1759 to 1788

Charles IV of Spain, King of Spain from 14 December 1788 until his abdication on 19 March 1808

Infante Carlos, Count of Molina, pretender

Infante Carlos, Count of Montemolin, pretender

Carlos, Duke of Madrid, pretender

Alfonso Carlos of Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime, pretender

Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, nephew of Francis II of Two Sicilies, father of Infante Alfonso, Duke of Calabria

Juan Carlos I of Spain, King of Spain from 1975 to 2014

Dauphin of France

Dauphin of France (French: Dauphin de France [dofɛ̃ də fʁɑ̃s]), originally Dauphin of Viennois (Dauphin de Viennois), was the title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and 1824 to 1830. The word dauphin is French for dolphin. At first the heirs were granted the County of Viennois (Dauphiné) to rule, but eventually only the title was granted.

Don Carlos of Spain

Don Carlos of Spain or Infante Carlos of Spain may refer to:

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1500–1558), also known as Carlos I of Spain, maternal grandson of the Catholic Monarchs King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile.

Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias (1545–1568), eldest son of Philip II of Spain and therefore grandson of the above mentioned Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Don Carlos, Infante of Spain (1607–1632), second surviving son of Philip III of Spain

Baltasar Carlos, Prince of Asturias (1629–1646), eldest son of Philip IV of Spain

Charles II of Spain (1661–1700), last Habsburg King of Spain as Carlos II

Infante Carlos, Count of Molina (1788–1855), pretender as Carlos V (the first claimant king of Spanish Carlism) and second surviving son of Charles IV of Spain

Carlos, Count of Montemolin (1818–1861), Carlist pretender as Carlos VI

Carlos, Duke of Madrid (1848–1909), Carlist pretender as Carlos VII

Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime (1849–1936), Carlist pretender as Alfonso Carlos I

Archduke Karl Pius, Prince of Tuscany (1909–1953), leader of breakaway Carlist movement between 1943 and 1953 and a disputed pretender as Carlos VIII

Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma (1930–2010), former Carlist Prince of Asturias and pretender to the throne of Spain under the name Carlos VIII

Francesc Savalls

Francesc Savalls (1817–1885) also known as Francisco Savalls, was a Spanish Catalan carlist. He was born in the Province of Girona. He fought in all three of the Carlist Wars on the side of the Carlists. After the defeat of Carlos, Duke of Madrid in 1876, he went into exile in France, where he died in Nice on 19 November 1885.

Infanta Blanca of Spain

Infanta Blanca of Spain (7 September 1868 – 25 October 1949) was the eldest child of Carlos, Duke of Madrid, Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain and his wife Princess Margherita of Bourbon-Parma. Blanca was a member of the House of Bourbon and - according to the Carlists - an Infanta of Spain by birth. In 1889 she married Archduke Leopold Salvator of Austria. The couple had ten children. The family left Austria after the end of the Monarchy and finally settled in Barcelona. When the male line of Blanca's family died out at the death of her uncle, Alfonso Carlos, Duke of San Jaime, some of the Carlists recognized her as the legitimate heiress to the Spanish throne.

Juan, Count of Montizón

Don Juan Carlos María Isidro de Borbón, Count of Montizón (French: Jean Charles Marie Isidore de Bourbon, comte de Montizón) (15 May 1822 – 18 November 1887) was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain from 1860 to 1868, and the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France from 1883 to 1887.


The Legitimists (French: Légitimistes) are royalists who adhere to the rights of dynastic succession to the French crown of the descendants of the eldest branch of the Bourbon dynasty, which was overthrown in the 1830 July Revolution. They reject the claim of the July Monarchy of 1830–1848 which placed Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans head of the Orléans cadet branch of the Bourbon dynasty on the throne until he too was dethroned and driven with his family into exile.

Following the movement of Ultra-royalists during the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, Legitimists came to form one of the three main right-wing factions in France, which was principally characterized by its counter-revolutionary views. According to historian René Rémond, the other two right-wing factions were the Orléanists and the Bonapartists.Legitimists hold that the king of France must be according to the traditional rules of succession based on the Salic law. When the direct line of Charles X became extinct in 1883 with the death of his grandson Henri, Count of Chambord, the most senior heir to the throne under these traditional rules was Juan, Count of Montizón, a descendant of Louis XIV through his grandson Philip V of Spain. The fact that all French Legitimist claimants since 1883 have been members of the Spanish royal dynasty remains irrelevant to Legitimism, but it has prompted other French monarchists to pivot to support of the Orléans line.

The current Legitimist pretender is Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou, the senior grandson of Alphonso XIII of Spain by male primogeniture, whose line was excluded from the Spanish throne by a morganatic marriage.

Pascual Cucala

Pascual Cucala (1822 – January 31, 1892) was a Spanish Valencian carlist. He was born in the Province of Castellón in Valencia. He fought against the army of the First Spanish Republic on behalf of Carlos, Duke of Madrid. After the defeat of the carlists in 1876, he went into exile in France, where he died.

Princess Margherita of Bourbon-Parma

Princess Margherita of Bourbon-Parma (Italian: Margherita Maria Teresa Enrichetta, Principessa di Parma; 1 January 1847 – 29 January 1893) was the eldest child and daughter of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of France, the eldest daughter of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry and Princess Caroline Ferdinande Louise of the Two Sicilies.

Margherita was thus a great-granddaughter of Charles X of France. She was born in Lucca, Duchy of Parma. She was a niece of Henri, comte de Chambord, disputedly King of France and Navarre from 2 to 9 August 1830 and afterwards the Legitimist Pretender to the throne of France from 1844 to 1883. Through her marriage to Carlos, Duke of Madrid, Carlist claimant to the Spanish throne, Margherita was titular Queen consort of Spain, France, and Navarre.

Rafael Tristany

Rafael Tristany (1814–1899) was a Spanish Catalan carlist general of the Carlist Wars. He was born in the Province of Lleida in Catalonia. He fought in all three of the Carlist Wars on the side of the Carlists. After the defeat of Carlos, Duke of Madrid in 1876, he went into exile in France, where he died.

The Arrow of Gold

The Arrow of Gold is a novel by Joseph Conrad, published in 1919. It was originally titled "The Laugh" and published serially in Lloyd's Magazine from December 1918 to February 1920. The story is set in Marseille in the 1870s during the Third Carlist War. The characters of the novel are supporters of the Spanish Pretender Carlos, Duke of Madrid. Curiously, the novel features a person referred to as "Lord X", whose activities as arms smuggler resemble those of the Carlist politician Tirso de Olazábal y Lardizábal, Count of Arbelaiz.The narrator of The Arrow of Gold has considerable involvement in the story and is unnamed. The principal theme is a love triangle which comprises the young narrator, Doña Rita and the Confederate veteran Captain Blunt (named for Simon F. Blunt. Doña Rita finances the operations of the narrator's vessel, Tremolino which smuggles ammunition to the Carlist army. Nautical operations are detailed in the Tremolino chapters of The Mirror of the Sea rather than in this novel.

Conrad dedicated the novel to his friend and literary assistant Richard Curle.

Trieste Cathedral

Trieste Cathedral (Italian: Basilica cattedrale di San Giusto Martire), dedicated to Saint Justus, is a Roman Catholic cathedral and the main church of Trieste, in northern Italy. It is the seat of the Bishop of Trieste.

In 1899 Pope Leo XIII granted it the status of a basilica minor.

Ancestors of Carlos, Duke of Madrid
16. Charles III of Spain
8. Charles IV of Spain
17. Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony
4. Infante Carlos, Count of Molina
18. Philip, Duke of Parma
9. Maria Luisa of Parma
19. Princess Louise-Élisabeth of France
2. Juan, Count of Montizón
20. Peter III of Portugal
10. John VI of Portugal and Brazil
21. Maria I of Portugal and Brazil
5. Infanta Maria Francisca of Portugal
22. Charles IV of Spain (= 8)
11. Infanta Charlotte of Spain
23. Maria Luisa of Parma (= 9)
1. Carlos, Duke of Madrid
24. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
12. Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este
25. Maria Theresa of Austria
6. Francis IV, Duke of Modena
26. Ercole III d'Este, Duke of Modena
13. Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este
27. Maria Teresa Cybo-Malaspina
3. Archduchess Maria Beatrix of Austria-Este
28. Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia
14. Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia
29. Maria Antonietta of Spain
7. Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy
30. Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este (= 12)
15. Maria Teresa of Austria-Este
31. Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este (= 13)
Senior Carlists
Bourbon-Parma claimants
Bourbon claimants
Alternative Bourbon claimants
Habsburg claimants
Monarchy in exile (1792–1815)
Legitimist pretenders (1830–present)
Orléanist pretenders (1848–present)
Unionist succession (1830–present)
Bonapartist Prince Imperial (1814–present)
Bonapartist Prince Canino (1832–1924)

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