Carloman (German: Karlmann, Latin: Karlomannus; c. 830 – 22 March 880) was a Frankish king of the Carolingian dynasty. He was the eldest son of Louis the German, king of East Francia, and Hemma, daughter of a Bavarian count. His father appointed him margrave of Pannonia in 856, and upon his father's death in 876 he became King of Bavaria. He was appointed by King Louis II of Italy as his successor, but the Kingdom of Italy was taken by his uncle Charles the Bald in 875. Carloman only conquered it in 877. In 879 he was incapacitated, perhaps by a stroke, and abdicated his domains in favour of his younger brothers: Bavaria to Louis the Younger and Italy to Charles the Fat.
Carloman (Karlomannus rex Bawariae), from a 12th-century manuscript
|King of Bavaria|
|Reign||28 August 876 – 879|
|King of Italy|
|Died||22 March 880|
Carloman's birth date is unknown, but was probably around 828 or 830. His naming can be connected to his father's push to rule Alemannia around the time of his father's assembly of Worms in 829. The first member of the Carolingian dynasty named Carloman had ruled Alemannia in 741–48, and subjugated it to the Franks.
Carloman was old enough to participate in the civil war of 840–43, waged between his father and his uncles, Lothair and Charles the Bald. His first record public appearance is as the leader of an army of reinforcements from Bavaria and Alemannia which he brought to his father at Worms in 842. He subsequently led them in battle alongside his father and uncle (Charles the Bald) against his other uncle (Lothair). It was the beginning of a warlike career. Notker of Saint Gall, who bewailed the decline of the dynasty a generation later, called Carloman bellicosissimus (literally "most warlike", or in historian Eric Goldberg's words a "real ass-kicker").
In October 848, Carloman was present at his father's council in Regensburg, where the Slavic commander (dux) Pribina was rewarded for his service in defending the Bavarian frontier. In the charter confirming the grant, Carloman signed his name first among the secular magnates (after the ecclesiastics).
In the 840s, Carloman had a liaison with Liutswind, daughter of the Bavarian count Ratolt and sister-in-law of Count Sigihard of the Kraichgau. This was Carloman's first politically independent action, and it confirms his close connexion to Bavaria. Around 850, Liutswind bore him a son, Arnulf. This name was chosen because it was distinctly dynastic (the founder of the Carolingian family was Bishop Arnulf of Metz), yet had never been used by a reigning king and was thus appropriate for an illegitimate eldest son. The choice of the name is the surest evidence that Liutswind and Carloman were not legally married. Around 860, Arnulf and his cousin, Hugh, the illegitimate son of Carloman's brother Louis, were both in Koblenz at the court of their grandfather, who was probably overseeing their military education and also holding them to ensure the good behaviour of their fathers.
In 856, Louis first associated Carloman with his rule by appointing him prefect to the Pannonian March, the Bavarian borderland fronting Great Moravia and Lower Pannonia. He did not give Carloman the traditional prefect's seat at Tulln in Pannonia. Instead, according to the Annales Fuldenses (863), he was given the title "prefect of the Carantanians" (praelatus Carantanis) and posted further south, in a more peripheral region, perhaps in a design to keep him from trying to seize power from his father. From 857 on Carloman and his brother were occasional witnesses to their father's charters. In 862 Carloman revolted and tried to extend the territory under his control, but was defeated.
In 865 the partition of East Francia "along ethnic lines" which Louis had been preparing was publicised at Frankfurt: all three of his sons had been given positions of importance along the frontiers and had been married into the local aristocracy of the regions marked out for them. Carloman married the daughter of a Bavarian military leader (dux) named Ernest, whom the Annales Bertiniani describe as "the greatest of all the king's great men". This marriage must have taken place before Ernest's disgrace and dismissal in 861, for Louis the German strongly disapproved of his second son's seeking a marriage with family that had likewise been disgraced in 858–59. Carloman was not given the title king during his father's lifetime, and the latter retained control over bishoprics, counties, fiscal lands and important judicial cases. Carloman's letter to his father from 869 survives, describing conditions on the frontier.
By the 870s, according to the Annales Bertiniani, at the time being composed by Archbishop Hincmar of Reims, Carloman's mother, Emma, was encouraging her husband to favour Carloman over his brothers. This is the first recorded involvement of Emma in politics, and it may relate to Louis's illness during 869–70. On the other hand, historian Ernst Dümmler thought Carloman must have been a "mamma's boy" (Muttersöhnchen).
On 12 August 875, Louis II of Italy died and his kingdom was claimed by Louis the German for his sons Carloman and Charles and by Charles the Bald. Pope John VIII, dealing with the constant threat of raiders from Muslim Sicily, sided with Charles the Bald. Carloman led an army into Italy, where he granted a diploma to the monastery of San Clemente a Casauria, one of Louis II's most favoured houses. In the diploma Carloman declared himself Louis's chosen successor. According to the Annales Fuldenses, Charles had to offer him "a huge sum in gold and silver and precious stones" to get him to leave Italy. On 28 August 876, Louis died and his sons became kings in their allotted kingdoms. On 6 October 877, Charles the Bald died and later that month Carloman succeeded in having himself elected King of Italy by the nobles assembled in Pavia. The lure of Italy was "the looting which was apparently acceptable when a king first took over a kingdom", providing rewards that could be shared out among followers and more than offset the cost of raising an army and crossing the Alps. Carloman was one of only two Carolingian kings of Italy—his brother and successor Charles being the other—who did not issue a capitulary at the beginning of his reign in order to proclaim his legitimacy and affirm his keeping to traditions of good government.
In Italy, Carloman confirmed his predecessor's act that made bishops permanent missi dominici (royal representatives) in their dioceses. He added to the new regulation by expanding the jurisdiction of individual bishops to gain their loyalty. His grant to Bishop Wibod of Parma of the districtio, or temporal authority in the district outside the city walls, was the first grant of its kind to a bishop. By the time of Carloman's death, the confirmation of a predecessor's concessions to the episcopate and the negotiating of new ones in exchange for support had become an Italian tradition. In 876, Charles had granted Pope John jurisdictional rights in the duchies of Spoleto and Camerino. After his succession, Carloman supported the dukes, Lambert I and Guy III, who had always claimed the rights as royal representatives which Charles had offered the pope.
In 879, Carloman donated land to the monastery of Santa Cristina by the royal palace at Olona. Although the monastery was reportedly built during the eighth century, the first record of its dedication to Cristina is found in Carloman's charter. In a letter of 7 June 879, Pope John, having failed to convince Louis the Stammerer, Charles the Bald's heir, to come to Italy for its defence, appealed to Carloman, whom he had previously rejected. It was too late; by then Carloman was incapacitated. Shortly before his abdication, he granted a complex of estates around Olona to the church of San Sisto, which had been founded by Queen Engelberga in Piacenza.
In Italy, Carloman had denarii (pennies) minted at Milan and Pavia. Those minted at Milan generally bore the inscription CARLOMAN REX, while those of Pavia bore HCARLEMANNVS RE. All had a sylised temple on one side. Carloman did not issue coinage in Bavaria.
In Bavaria, Carloman re-founded the palace and monastery at Ötting. He dedicated it to the Virgin Mary and "numerous other saints whose relics we were able to collect with God's help". He appointed his father's friend, the linguistic scholar Baldo, as his chancellor. In 878, he may have been the object of an assassination attempt. According to the Annales Iuvavenses, the king "was surrounded by Count Ermenpert and some of his soldiers" at Ergolding, but the count apparently fled to West Francia, where he was received by Louis the Stammerer.
Carloman groomed his illegitimate son Arnulf for the succession in Bavaria. In a charter issued at Regensburg, he called him "regal son" (filius regalis), a term similar to "the king's son" (filius regis), which was the standard title of a legitimate royal son. This policy had supporters, like Abbot Regino of Prüm and the monks of Saint Gall, but also detractors, who appealed to Carloman's brother Louis. In early 879, Carloman was incapacitated by illness, perhaps a stroke. Louis came to Bavaria to receive the recognition of the aristocracy as future king. By Easter he had left, and Arnulf took control of the kingdom in his father's name. He dismissed some prominent counts, who appealed to Louis to restore them. Carloman tried to legitimise Arnulf's actions by adding his son's name to the prayer provisions of his charters, but in November Louis came to Bavaria to force a resolution of the succession. He restored the deposed counts and Carloman formally abdicated his Bavarian throne to his brother. He also placed Arnulf under Louis's protection. His brother Charles dated his reign in Italy from November 879, so presumably Carloman abdicated that kingdom at the same time as Bavaria.
Regarding Carloman's condition, the Annales Fuldenses (879) record that he lost his voice, but was still able to communicate by writing. Regino of Prüm, writing in his chronicle for the year 880, recalls that he was "erudite in letters" (litteris eruditus), which meant he could write Latin. Regino's entire encomium on Carloman goes:
That most excellent king was learned in letters, devoted to the Christian religion, just, peaceful, and morally upright. The beauty of his body was exceptional, and his physical strength was a wonder to behold. He possessed a very warlike spirit. He waged numerous wars against the Slavic kingdoms with his father, and even more without him. He always returned the victor in triumph and expanded the borders of his empire with glorious iron. He was mild to his own men and a living terror to his enemies. He was charming in speech, humble, and endowed with great cleverness for managing the business of the realm. He was so skilled that he was the very embodiment of royal majesty.
Most sources place Carloman's death in March 880, but the Annales Iuvavenses place it on 21 September. He was buried in the chapel of his palace at Ötting. Carloman left one illegitimate son, Arnulf, who continued as margrave of Carinthia during the reigns of Carloman's brothers, but in 887 became king of East Francia and in 896 emperor.
Carloman of BavariaBorn: 830 Died: 22 March 880
Louis the German
as King of Eastern Francia
| King of Bavaria
Louis the Younger
Charles the Bald
| King of Italy
Charles the Fat
| Prefect of the Pannonian March
William and Engelschalk
Year 828 (DCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.830
Year 830 (DCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.879
Year 879 (DCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.880
Year 880 (DCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.887
Year 887 (DCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.Arn (bishop of Würzburg)
Saint Arn or Arno von Endsee (died 13 July 892) was the Bishop of Würzburg from 855 until his death. He was a pupil of Bishop Gozbald, who died on 20 September 855; Arn was elected bishop in his place. Arn was a warrior-prelate, recorded fighting against almost every external foe of the Germans at one point in his career or another.
In his first year in office, the cathedral of Würzburg was destroyed by lightning and Arn had to rebuild it. He was an active participator in the East Frankish government of Louis the German (who appointed him), Charles the Fat, and Arnulf of Carinthia.
In 871, Louis the German held an assembly at Frankfurt and from there sent Arn and Ruodolt, Margrave of the Nordgau, to defend the border between the Duchy of Bavaria and Great Moravia because he had heard that the Moravians were planning an invasion. The Moravians had constructed a very large, circular wall to force the Germans through a very narrow opening and thus cut them off from fleeing. Arn, however, aware of the trap, caught a Moravian army leading back a Bohemian bride offguard and forced it into the trap. The Moravian were forced to abandon their horses and flee on foot. In 872, however, he assisted Carloman of Bavaria against Svatopluk of Moravia and was defeated.In 884, Arn and Henry of Franconia led the forces of all East Francia against a Viking army invading Saxony and were victorious. In 892, Arn, on the advice of Poppo, Duke of Thuringia, had undertaken an expedition against the Wends and was killed, either during a mass on the Chemnitz near Frankenburg or, after withdrawing to Sandberg (perhaps Wiederau or Taurastein), in a decisive battle with the Slavs. Poppo was deposed from his office for his poor counsel and Arn was replaced by Rudolf, a member of the Conradine family.
He is buried in St-Aegidien in Colditz and was immediately reckoned a martyr. He was finally canonised in the 18th century. Around 1250, a chapel was built in his honour at Mittweida.Berengar I of Neustria
Berengar I was a 9th-century nobleman of East Francia, a son of Gebhard, Count of Lahngau, and younger brother of Udo. He and his brother were created Margraves of Neustria by Charles the Bald in 861.
He was possibly a Conradine, a relative for sure of Adalard the Seneschal, a Girardid. Berengar was probably the namesake of Berengar II of Neustria, who was probably the son of Berengar I's successor, Henry of Franconia. He is believed to be the same person as Bérenger I, Count of Ivois.
With his brothers, Udo and Waldo the Abbot, he took part in the 861 revolt of Carloman of Bavaria, possible his cousin-in-law, against Louis the German. The revolt was crushed and the three brothers fled with their relative Adalard to the court of the West Frankish king, Charles the Bald, who granted them wardship of the march against the Vikings while the march against the Bretons was granted to Robert the Strong.
Charles' patronage of the family provoked the jealousy of the Rorgonids, the most powerful family local to Neustria and then controlling the ducatus Cenomannicus (Maine). In 865, they allied with Saloman of Brittany and attacked the brothers. Charles, to attain peace, took the march back and gave it to Gauzfrid, a Rorgonid.
A charter of 879 mentions Berengar and his brothers taking part in the foundation of the college of Gemünden. Evidently, the death of Louis the German in 876 had allowed them to return to the court of Carloman.
His daughter Ota became wife of Arnulf of Carinthia.Carloman
Carloman may refer to:
Carloman (fl. late 6th century), father of Pepin of Landen
Carloman (mayor of the palace) (ruled 741–47)
Carloman I, king of the Franks (768–71)
Carloman, birth name of Pepin of Italy (781–810)
Carloman, son of Charles the Bald (died 876)
Carloman of Bavaria (ruled 876–80)
Carloman II, king of the Franks (879–84)Charles the Fat
Charles III (13 June 839 – 13 January 888), also known as Charles the Fat, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 881 to 888. A member of the Carolingian dynasty, Charles was the youngest son of Louis the German and Hemma, and a great-grandson of Charlemagne. He was the last Carolingian emperor of legitimate birth and the last to rule over all the realms of the Franks.
Over his lifetime, Charles became ruler of the various kingdoms of Charlemagne's former empire. Granted lordship over Alamannia in 876, following the division of East Francia, he succeeded to the Italian throne upon the abdication of his older brother Carloman of Bavaria who had been incapacitated by a stroke. Crowned Emperor in 881 by Pope John VIII, his succession to the territories of his brother Louis the Younger (Saxony and Bavaria) the following year reunited the kingdom of East Francia. Upon the death of his cousin Carloman II in 884, he inherited all of West Francia, thus reuniting the entire Carolingian Empire.
Usually considered lethargic and inept—he is known to have had repeated illnesses and is believed to have suffered from epilepsy—he twice purchased peace with Viking raiders, including at the infamous Siege of Paris (885–886) which led to his downfall.
The reunited empire did not last. During a coup led by his nephew Arnulf of Carinthia in November 887, Charles was deposed in East Francia, Lotharingia, and Kingdom of Italy. Forced into quiet retirement he died of natural causes in January 888, just a few weeks after his deposition. The Empire quickly fell apart after his death, splintering into five separate successor kingdoms; the territory it had occupied was not entirely reunited under one ruler until the conquests of Napoleon.Domagoj of Croatia
Domagoj (Latin: Domagoi) was a duke (Croatian: knez) in Croatia from 864 until his death in 876 and the founder of the Domagojević dynasty. He usurped the Croatian throne after the death of Trpimir I and expelled his sons. He took a more active role in the Adriatic Sea than his predecessors, encouraged the use of force and waged many wars, specifically with the Arabs, Venice and the East Francia. Domagoj's belligerence and the tolerance and support of piracy caused bad relations with Pope John VIII, which was further worsened after Domagoj showed no mercy to his conspirators. Formally a Frankish vassal, he used to his advantage the Frankish succession crisis and started a successful revolt against Carloman of Bavaria. After his death in 876, Domagoj was succeeded by his son who was deposed and expelled by Zdeslav in 878 .Hemma
Emma of Altdorf, also known as Hemma (c. 803 – 31 January 876), a member of the Elder House of Welf, was Queen consort of East Francia by marriage to King Louis the German, from 843 until her death.Lambert I of Spoleto
Lambert I (died 880) was the duke and margrave (dux et marchio) of Spoleto on two occasions, first from 859 to 871 and then from 876 to his death.
Lambert was the eldest son of Guy I of Spoleto and Itta, daughter of Sico of Benevento. He married Judith, daughter of Eberhard of Friuli.
In his first year of rule, he joined Gerard, count of the Marsi; Maielpoto, gastald of Telese; and Wandelbert, gastald of Boiano, to prevent Sawdan, the Saracen emir of Bari, from reentering his city after a campaign against Capua and the Lavorno. Despite a bloody battle, he successfully entered Bari.
In April 860, Lambert joined with Hildebert, count of Camerino, in rebelling against the Emperor Louis II. Chased by an imperial army into the Marsi, from there they fled to Benevento and took refuge under Prince Adelchis. Louis surrounded the city and pardoned both Lambert and his protector in return for their loyalty. Hildebert, however, fled further to Bari.
In 866, Louis unsuccessfully besieged Landulf II, the count-bishop of Capua. He even granted Lambert the county of Capua to continue the siege. At that moment, the duchy of Spoleto had reached its greatest extent.
Lambert left the siege of Capua and went Rome after the election of Adrian II on 13 November 867. On 13 December, Lambert plundered Rome during the papal coronation ceremony. He was promptly excommunicated and, as the emperor supported Adrian's pontificate, lost the patronage of Louis. It was three years before he rebelled a second time, though. In 871, after the emperor greatly increased his power and prestige by taking Bari, Lambert allied with Guaifer of Salerno, Sergius II of Naples, and Adelchis of Benevento and entered into open revolt against the emperor. The Saracens, however, landed new forces and attacked Salerno. Adelchis, who had imprisoned the emperor while Lambert was staying in Benevento, released his captive to lead the forces against the infidels. The free emperor immediately deposed Lambert from his imperial position and replaced him with Suppo III, a cousin of his wife Engelberga.
Louis returned to the Mezzogiorno in 873, the pope having absolved him from the oaths he had sworn to Adelchis in return for liberty. He besieged Benevento, but failed to take Lambert. After his death, he was replaced as emperor by his uncle Charles the Bald, who reappointed Lambert to his old post in Spoleto (February or June 876). He also appointed Lambert's younger brother Guy as margrave of Camerino with the job of protecting the pope. On 16 July, at Ponthion, Charles confirmed the donation of a large part of Spoletan territory to the papacy, but Lambert was still the most powerful lord in the central peninsula and a practically independent prince.
In 877, Charles died and Lambert supported Carloman of Bavaria over Charles' heir, Louis the Stammerer, for the kingship of Italy and the emperorship. Lambert himself entered Rome with the intent of making himself king, but was dissuaded by Pope John VIII. In March 878, Lambert and Adalbert I of Tuscany forced the populace to acknowledge Carloman as king. The two then besieged the pope in the Leonine City for thirty days and John fled Rome for Troyes. At Troyes, he held a synod in which he offered to crown Louis the Stammerer emperor, adopted Boso of Arles as his son, and excommunicated his Italian enemies (Lambert and Adalbert). The pope even accused Lambert of desiring the imperial crown for himself, which is probable considering the subsequent history of his dynasty.
Lambert returned his sights to Capua after this Roman episode. He died besieging that city in 880. He was succeeded by his son Guy II. His brother Guy became king and emperor, as did his nephew and namesake Lambert II. The Archbishop of Rheims Fulk the Venerable, cautioned Lambert II against following his eponymous uncle's example.Louis the German
Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) "the German" (c. 806 – 876), also known as Louis II, was the first king of East Francia, and ruled from 843-876 AD. Grandson of emperor Charlemagne and the third son of emperor of Francia, Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, he received the appellation Germanicus shortly after his death in recognition of Magna Germania of the Roman Empire, reflecting the Carolingian's assertions that they were the rightful descendants of the Roman Empire
After protracted clashes with his father and his brothers, Ludwig received the East Frankish Empire in the 843 Treaty of Verdun. His attempts to conquer the West Frankish Empire of his half-brother Charles the Bald in 858-59 were unsuccessful. The 860s were marked by a severe crisis, with the East Frankish rebellions of the sons, as well as struggles to maintain supremacy over his realm. In the Treaty of Meerssen he acquired Lotharingia for the East Frankish Empire in 870. On the other hand, he tried and failed to claim both the title of Emperor and Italy. In the East, Ludwig was able to reach a longer-term peace agreement in 874 after decades of conflict with the Moravians. Due to a decline in the written form in administration and government, Ludwig's reign predates Ottonian times.March of Pannonia
The Eastern March (Latin: marcha orientalis) or March of Pannonia was a frontier march of the Carolingian Empire, named after the former Roman province of Pannonia. It was erected in the mid-ninth century in the lands of the former Avar Khaganate against the threat of Great Moravia and lasted only as long as the strength of that state. It was referred to in some documents as terminum regni Baioariorum in Oriente or "the end of the kingdom of the Bavarians in the east" and from this is sometimes called the "(Bavarian) eastern march," a term more commonly used to refer to the later Margraviate of Austria, established in 976 as a sort of late successor state. The East Frankish rulers appointed margraves (prefects) to govern the March.Neidingen
Neidingen is a German village with approximately 100 inhabitants and part of the municipality of Beuron, in Baden-Württemberg. The village is historically important as health retreat and place of death of Emperor Charles the Fat (d. 888) whose death ends the Carolingian Empire (in historiographic accounting) the last of the great Frankish kingdoms of the Early Middle Ages.Suppo II of Spoleto
Suppo II (also Suppo III in the familial genealogy) (Italian: Suppone) (died circa 879) was the Duke of Spoleto from 871 until his death. He was the archiminister (archminister) and consiliarius (counsellor) of the Emperor Louis II. In 869-870 he travelled to Constantinople as imperial missus together with Anastasius the Librarian, to negotiate a peace with the Byzantines. Throughout Louis's reign he was the most powerful lay magnate in Italy.
He was a member of the Supponid family and was related to Louis's empress, Engelberga, and also to Suppo, count of Parma, Asti, and Turin, his cousin. After Louis's death, at first he supported Carloman of Bavaria for the Italian throne. After Charles the Bald obtained the crown, he pacified with him but in February 876 he was stripped of the duchy of Spoleto, in favour of the previous duke, Lambert I.
Suppo III died between March 877 (when he is mentioned in a document) and August 879 (when a letter from Pope John VIII laments his death.
Suppo's wife was a sister of Eberhard of Friuli and he had a son named Unroch, who in turn had a son named Rudolph.Timeline of German history
This is a timeline of German history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Germany and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Germany. See also the list of German monarchs and list of Chancellors of Germany and the list of years in Germany.Udo of Neustria
Udo was a 9th-century nobleman of East Francia, a son of Gebhard, Count of Lahngau, and older brother of Berengar I of Neustria. He and his brother were afforded their position in the March of Neustria both by kinship to Adalard the Seneschal and the favour of Charles the Bald.
With his brothers, Berengar and Waldo, Abbot of St Maximin's, Trier, he took part in the 861 revolt of Carloman of Bavaria, possibly his cousin-in-law, against Louis the German. The revolt was crushed, and the three brothers fled with their relative Adalard to the court of the West Frankish king, Charles the Bald, who granted them wardship of the march held against the Vikings while the march against the Bretons was granted to Robert the Strong.
Charles' patronage of the family provoked the jealousy of the Rorgonids, the most powerful family local to Neustria, which controlled the ducatus Cenomannicus (Maine). In 865, they allied with Saloman of Brittany and attacked the brothers. Charles, to attain peace, took the march back and gave it to Gauzfrid of Neustria, a Rorgonid.
A charter of 879 mentions Udo and his brothers taking part in the foundation of the college of Gemünden. Evidently, the death of Louis the German in 876 had allowed them to return to the court of Carloman.
Udo left a son, Conrad, Duke of Thuringia, who was the founder of the Conradine dynasty and father of Conrad I of Germany. One younger son, Rudolf, became Bishop of Würzburg, and another, Gebhard, became Duke of Lotharingia.Zwentibold
Zwentibold (Zventibold, Swentiboldo, Sventibaldo, Sanderbald; c. 870 – 13 August 900), a member of the Carolingian dynasty, was the illegitimate son of Emperor Arnulf. In 895, his father, then king of East Francia, granted him the Kingdom of Lotharingia, which he ruled until his death. After his death he was declared a saint and martyr by the Catholic Church.
|East Francia within the|
Carolingian Empire (843–911)
|East Francia (911–962)|
|Kingdom of Germany within the|
Holy Roman Empire (962–1806)
|Confederation of the Rhine (1806–1813)|
|German Confederation (1815–1848)|
|German Empire (1848/1849)|
|German Confederation (1850–1866)|
|North German Confederation (1867–1871)|
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