Carl Schurz

Carl Christian Schurz (German: [ʃʊɐ̯ts]; March 2, 1829 – May 14, 1906) was a German revolutionary and an American statesman, journalist, and reformer. He emigrated to the United States after the German revolutions of 1848–49 and became a prominent member of the new Republican Party. After serving as a Union general in the American Civil War, he helped found the short lived Liberal Republican Party and became a prominent advocate of civil service reform. Schurz represented Missouri in the United States Senate and was the 13th United States Secretary of the Interior.

Born in the Kingdom of Prussia's Rhine Province, Schurz fought for democratic reforms in the German revolutions of 1848–49 as a member of the academic fraternity association Deutsche Burschenschaft.[1] After Prussia suppressed the revolution Schurz fled to France. When police forced him to leave France he migrated to London. Like many other "Forty-Eighters," he then emigrated to the United States, settling in Watertown, Wisconsin, in 1852. After being admitted to the Wisconsin bar, he established a legal practice in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He also became a strong advocate for the anti-slavery movement and joined the newly organized Republican Party, unsuccessfully running for Lieutenant Governor of Wisconsin. After briefly representing the United States as Minister (ambassador) to Spain, Schurz served as a general in the American Civil War, fighting in the Battle of Gettysburg and other major battles.

After the war, Schurz established a newspaper in St. Louis, Missouri, and won election to the U.S. Senate, becoming the first German-born American elected to that body.[2] Breaking with Republican President Ulysses S. Grant, Schurz helped establish the Liberal Republican Party. The party advocated civil service reform and opposed Grant's efforts to protect African-American civil rights in the Southern United States during Reconstruction. Schurz chaired the 1872 Liberal Republican convention, which nominated a ticket that unsuccessfully challenged President Grant in the 1872 presidential election. Schurz lost his own 1874 re-election bid and resumed his career as a newspaper editor.

After Republican Rutherford B. Hayes won the 1876 presidential election, he appointed Schurz as his Secretary of the Interior. Schurz sought to make civil service based on merit rather than political and party connections and helped prevent the transfer of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to the War Department. Schurz moved to New York City after Hayes left office in 1881 and briefly served as the editor of the New York Evening Post and The Nation and later became the editorial writer for Harper's Weekly. He remained active in politics and led the "Mugwump" movement, which opposed nominating James G. Blaine in the 1884 presidential election. Schurz opposed William Jennings Bryan's bimetallism in the 1896 presidential election but supported Bryan's anti-imperalist campaign in the 1900 presidential election. Schurz died in New York City in 1906.

Carl Schurz
Carl-Schurz
13th United States Secretary of the Interior
In office
March 12, 1877 – March 7, 1881
PresidentRutherford B. Hayes
James A. Garfield
Preceded byZachariah Chandler
Succeeded bySamuel J. Kirkwood
United States Senator
from Missouri
In office
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1875
Preceded byJohn B. Henderson
Succeeded byFrancis Cockrell
United States Minister to Spain
In office
July 13, 1861 – December 18, 1861
PresidentAbraham Lincoln
Preceded byWilliam Preston
Succeeded byGustav Körner
Personal details
Born
Carl Christian Schurz

March 2, 1829
Liblar, Kingdom of Prussia, German Confederation (now Erftstadt)
DiedMay 14, 1906 (aged 77)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Margarethe Meyer
EducationUniversity of Bonn (BA)
Signature
Carl Schurz's signature
Military service
AllegianceForty-Eighters
 United States
Branch/serviceUnited States Army
(Union Army)
Years of service1848
1862–1865
RankUnion Army major general rank insignia.svg Major General
Battles/warsGerman revolutions of 1848–49
American Civil War (1861-1865)

Early life

Carl Christian Schurz was born on March 2, 1829 in Liblar (now part of Erftstadt), in Rhenish Prussia, the son of Marianne (née Jussen), a public speaker and journalist, and Christian Schurz, a schoolteacher.[3] He studied at the Jesuit Gymnasium of Cologne, and learned piano under private instructors. Financial problems in his family obligated him to leave school a year early, without graduating. Later he graduated from the gymnasium by passing a special examination and then entered the University of Bonn.[4]

Revolution of 1848

Carl Schurz as a young man (cropped)
Carl Schurz as a young man

At Bonn, he developed a friendship with one of his professors, Gottfried Kinkel. He joined the nationalistic Studentenverbindung Burschenschaft Franconia at Bonn, which at the time included among its members Friedrich von Spielhagen, Johannes Overbeck, Julius Schmidt, Carl Otto Weber, Ludwig Meyer and Adolf Strodtmann.[5][6] In response to the early events of the revolutions of 1848, Schurz and Kinkel founded the Bonner Zeitung, a paper advocating democratic reforms. At first Kinkel was the editor and Schurz a regular contributor.

These roles were reversed when Kinkel left for Berlin to become a member of the Prussian Constitutional Convention.[7] When the Frankfurt rump parliament called for people to take up arms in defense of the new German constitution, Schurz, Kinkel, and others from the University of Bonn community did so. During this struggle, Schurz became acquainted with Franz Sigel, Alexander Schimmelfennig, Fritz Anneke, Friedrich Beust, Ludwig Blenker and others, many of whom he would meet again in the Union Army during the U.S. Civil War.

During the 1849 military campaign in Palatinate and Baden, he joined the revolutionary army, fighting in several battles against the Prussian Army.[4] Schurz was adjunct officer of the commander of the artillery, Fritz Anneke, who was accompanied on the campaign by his wife, Mathilde Franziska Anneke. The Annekes would later move to the U.S., where each became Republican Party supporters. Anneke's brother, Emil Anneke, was a founder of the Republican party in Michigan.[8] Fritz Anneke achieved the rank of colonel and became the commanding officer of the 34th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment during the Civil War; Mathilde Anneke contributed to both the abolitionist and suffrage movements of the United States.

When the revolutionary army was defeated at the fortress of Rastatt in 1849, Schurz was inside. Knowing that the Prussians intended to kill their prisoners, Schurz managed to escape and travelled to Zürich. In 1850, he returned secretly to Prussia, rescued Kinkel from prison at Spandau and helped him to escape to Edinburgh, Scotland.[4] Schurz then went to Paris, but the police forced him to leave France on the eve of the coup d'état of 1851, and he migrated to London. Remaining there until August 1852, he made his living by teaching the German language.

Emigration to America

While in London, Schurz married fellow revolutionary Johannes Ronge's sister-in-law, Margarethe Meyer, in July 1852 and then, like many other Forty-Eighters, emigrated to the United States.[4] Living initially in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Schurzes moved to Watertown, Wisconsin, where Carl nurtured his interests in politics and Margarethe began her seminal work in early childhood education.

In Wisconsin, Schurz soon became immersed in the anti-slavery movement and in politics, joining the Republican Party. In 1857, he was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for lieutenant-governor. In the Illinois campaign of the next year between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas, he took part as a speaker on behalf of Lincoln—mostly in German—which raised Lincoln's popularity among German-American voters, though it should be remembered that Senators were not directly elected in 1858, the election being decided by the Illinois General Assembly.

In 1858, he was admitted to the Wisconsin bar and began to practice law in Milwaukee. In the state campaign of 1859, he made a speech attacking the Fugitive Slave Law, arguing for states' rights. In Faneuil Hall, Boston, on April 18, 1859,[9] he delivered an oration on "True Americanism," which, coming from an alien, was intended to clear the Republican party of the charge of "nativism." Wisconsin Germans unsuccessfully urged his nomination for governor in 1859. In the 1860 Republican National Convention, Schurz was spokesman of the delegation from Wisconsin, which voted for William H. Seward. Despite this, Schurz was on the committee which brought Lincoln the news of his nomination.

After Lincoln's election and in spite of Seward's objection, Lincoln sent Schurz as minister to Spain in 1861,[10] in part because of Schurz's European record as a revolutionary. While there Schurz succeeded in quietly dissuading Spain from supporting the South.

American Civil War

DBP 1976 895 Unabhängigkeit USA Carl Schurz
"For freedom in Germany and America": West German commemorative stamp featuring Schurz for the United States Bicentennial, 1976

During the American Civil War, Schurz served with distinction as a general in the Union Army. Persuading Lincoln to grant him a commission in the Union army, Schurz was commissioned brigadier general of Union volunteers in April 1862. In June, he took command of a division, first under John C. Frémont, and then in Franz Sigel's corps, with which he took part in the Second Battle of Bull Run in August 1862. He was promoted to major general in 1863 and was assigned to lead a division in the XI Corps at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, both under General Oliver O. Howard. A bitter controversy began between Schurz and Howard over the strategy employed at Chancellorsville, resulting in the routing of the XI Corps by the Confederate corps led by Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. Two months later, the XI Corps again broke during the first day of Gettysburg. Containing several German-American units, the XI Corps performance during both battles was heavily criticized by the press, fueling anti-immigrant sentiments.

Following Gettysburg, Schurz's division was deployed to Tennessee and participated in the Battle of Chattanooga. There he served with the future Senator Joseph B. Foraker, John Patterson Rea, and Luther Morris Buchwalter, brother to Morris Lyon Buchwalter. Senator Charles Sumner (R-MA) was a Congressional observer during the Chattanooga Campaign. Later, he was put in command of a Corps of Instruction at Nashville. He briefly returned to active service, where in the last months of the war he was with Sherman's army in North Carolina as chief of staff of Henry Slocum's Army of Georgia. He resigned from the army after the war ended in April 1865.

Schurz Quijote
Carl Schurz is Don Quixote in this cartoon by Thomas Nast from Harper's Weekly of April 6, 1872

In the summer of 1865, President Andrew Johnson sent Schurz through the South to study conditions. They then quarrelled because Schurz supported General Slocum's order forbidding the organization of militia in Mississippi. Schurz's report, which suggested the readmission of the states with complete rights and the investigation of the need of further legislation by a Congressional committee, was ignored by the President.

Newspaper career

In 1866, Schurz moved to Detroit, where he was chief editor of the Detroit Post. The following year, he moved to St. Louis, becoming editor and joint proprietor with Emil Preetorius of the German-language Westliche Post (Western Post), where he hired Joseph Pulitzer as a cub reporter. In the winter of 1867–1868, he traveled in Germany; his account of his interview with Otto von Bismarck is one of the most interesting chapters of his Reminiscences. He spoke against "repudiation" of war debts and for "honest money"—code for going back on the gold standard—during the Presidential campaign of 1868.

U.S. Senator

In 1868, he was elected to the United States Senate from Missouri, becoming the first German American in that body. He earned a reputation for his speeches, which advocated fiscal responsibility, anti-imperialism, and integrity in government. During this period, he broke with the Grant administration, starting the Liberal Republican movement in Missouri, which in 1870 elected B. Gratz Brown governor.

After Fessenden's death, Schurz became a member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs where Schurz opposed Grant's Southern policy as well as his bid to annex Santo Domingo. Schurz was identified with the committee's investigation of arms sales to and cartridge manufacture for the French army by the United States government during the Franco-Prussian War.

In 1869, he became the first U.S. Senator to offer a Civil Service Reform bill to Congress. During Reconstruction, Schurz was opposed to federal military enforcement and protection of African American civil rights, and held nineteenth century ideas of European superiority and fears of miscegenation.[11][12]

In 1870, Schurz helped form the Liberal Republican Party, which opposed President Ulysses S. Grant's annexation of Santo Domingo and his use of the military to destroy the Ku Klux Klan in the South under the Enforcement Acts.

In 1872, he presided over the Liberal Republican Party convention, which nominated Horace Greeley for President. Schurz's own choice was Charles Francis Adams or Lyman Trumbull, and the convention did not represent Schurz's views on the tariff. Schurz campaigned for Greeley anyway. Especially in this campaign, and throughout his career as a Senator and afterwards, he was a target for the pen of Harper's Weekly artist Thomas Nast, usually in an unfavorable way.[13] The election was a debacle for the Greeley supporters. Grant won by a landslide, and Greeley died shortly after the election.

Schurz lost the 1874 Senatorial election to Democratic Party challenger and former Confederate Francis Cockrell. After leaving office, he worked as an editor for various newspapers. In 1875, he assisted in the successful campaign of Rutherford B. Hayes to regain the office of Governor of Ohio. In 1877, Schurz was appointed Secretary of the Interior by Hayes, who had been by then been elected President of the United States. Although Schurz honestly attempted to reduce the effects of racism toward Native Americans and was partially successful at cleaning up corruption, his recommended actions towards American Indians "in light of late twentieth-century developments" were repressive.[14] Indians were forced to move into low quality reservation lands that were unsuitable for tribal economic and cultural advancement.[14] Promises made to Indian chiefs at White House meetings with President Rutherford B. Hayes and Schurz were not always kept.[14]

Secretary of the Interior

Schurz Forester1
Carl Schurz and James Blaine in a Puck political cartoon of c. 1878 by J. Keppler

In 1876, he supported Hayes for President, and Hayes named him Secretary of the Interior, following much of his advice in other cabinet appointments and in his inaugural address. In this department, Schurz put in force his belief that merit should be the principal consideration in appointing civil servants to jobs in the Civil Service. He was not in favor of permitting removals except for cause, and supported requiring competitive examinations for candidates for clerkships. His efforts to remove political patronage met with only limited success, however. As an early conservationist, he prosecuted land thieves and attracted public attention to the necessity of forest preservation.

Ute delegation
Delegation of Ute Indians in Washington, D.C. in 1880. Background: Woretsiz and general Charles Adams (Colorado) are standing. Front from left to right: Chief Ignatio of the Southern Utes; Carl Schurz US Secretary of the Interior; Chief Ouray and his wife Chipeta.

During Schurz's tenure as Secretary of the Interior, a movement began, a movement strongly supported by Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman, to transfer the Office of Indian Affairs to the control of the War Department.[15] Restoration of the Indian Office to the War Department, which was anxious to regain control in order to continue its "pacification" program, was opposed by Schurz, and ultimately the Indian Office remained in the Interior Department. The Indian Office had been the most corrupt office within the Interior Department. Positions therein were based on political patronage and were seen as granting license to use the reservations for personal enrichment. Schurz realized that the service would have to be cleansed of such corruption before anything positive could be accomplished, so he instituted a wide-scale inspection of the service, dismissed several officials, and began civil service reforms, whereby positions and promotions were to be based on merit not political patronage.[16]

Schurz's leadership of the Indian Affairs Office was not uncontroversial. While certainly not an architect of the campaign to push Native Americans off their lands and into tribal reservations, he continued the practice of the Bureau of Indian Affairs of resettling tribes on reservations. In response to several nineteenth-century reformers, however, he later changed his mind and promoted an assimilationist policy.[17][18]

Later life

Bronx Yankee and park
When a statuary tribute to German poet Heinrich Heine was resisted because of anti-Semitic opponents in Germany, Schurz's activism aided in its relocation across the Atlantic to New York.[19]

Upon leaving the Interior Department in 1881, Schurz moved to New York City. That year German-born Henry Villard, president of the Northern Pacific Railway, acquired the New York Evening Post and The Nation and turned the management over to Schurz, Horace White and Edwin L. Godkin.[20] Schurz left the Post in the autumn of 1883 because of differences over editorial policies regarding corporations and their employees.[21]

In 1884, he was a leader in the Independent (or Mugwump) movement against the nomination of James Blaine for president and for the election of Grover Cleveland. From 1888 to 1892, he was general American representative of the Hamburg American Steamship Company. In 1892, he succeeded George William Curtis as president of the National Civil Service Reform League and held this office until 1901. He also succeeded Curtis as editorial writer for Harper's Weekly in 1892 and held this position until 1898. In 1895 he spoke for the Fusion anti-Tammany Hall ticket in New York City. He opposed William Jennings Bryan for president in 1896, speaking for sound money and not under the auspices of the Republican party; he supported Bryan four years later because of anti-imperialism beliefs, which also led to his membership in the American Anti-Imperialist League.

True to his anti-imperialist convictions, Schurz exhorted McKinley to resist the urge to annex land following the Spanish–American War.[22] In the 1904 election he supported Alton B. Parker, the Democratic candidate. Carl Schurz lived in a summer cottage in Northwest Bay on Lake George, New York which was built by his good friend Abraham Jacobi.

Death and legacy

Schurz died at age 77 on May 14, 1906 in New York City and is buried in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Sleepy Hollow, New York.[23]

Schurz's wife, Margarethe Schurz, was instrumental in establishing the kindergarten system in the United States.[24]

Schurz is famous for saying: "My country, right or wrong; if right, to be kept right; and if wrong, to be set right."[25]

Works

Schurz published a number of writings, including a volume of speeches (1865), a two-volume biography of Henry Clay (1887), essays on Abraham Lincoln (1899) and Charles Sumner (posthumous, 1951), and his Reminiscences (posthumous, 1907–09). His later years were spent writing the memoirs recorded in his Reminiscences which he was not able to finish — he only reached the beginnings of his U.S. Senate career. Schurz was a member of the Literary Society of Washington from 1879 to 1880.[26]

Memorials

Carl schurz statue
Schurz monument in New York City
Schurzpark nyc2
Carl Schurz Park, Upper East Side Manhattan, New York City
Carl Schurz Gravesite
Carl Schurz grave, Sleepy Hollow, N.Y.

Schurz is commemorated in numerous places around the United States:

Several memorials in Germany also commemorate the life and work of Schurz, including:

Harper's Weekly gallery

Schurz Conspirators

Schurz and other anti-Grant "conspirators" – March 16, 1872

Schurz French Arms

French Arms investigation – May 11, 1872

Schurz Victims

Schurz and his victims – September 7, 1872

Carpetbagger

Schurz is depicted as a carpetbagger - November 9, 1872.

Schurz Senate Exit

Schurz leaves the U.S. Senate – March 20, 1875

Schurz Corruption

Schurz reforms the Indian Bureau – January 26, 1878

Schurz Have Patience With Indians

Schurz counsels a wounded settler – December 28, 1878

Schurz and Kaiser Wilhelm II

Schurz and Wilhelm II – July 14, 1900

Schurz Worships Aguinaldo

Schurz and Emilio Aguinaldo – August 9, 1902

Schurz Departing Interior Department

- February 26, 1881

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Helge Dvorak (2002). "Schurz, Carl Christian". Biographisches Lexikon der Deutschen Burschenschaft (in German). Band I: Politiker Teilband 5: R-S. Heidelberg: Univesitätsverlag C. Winter. pp. 372–376. ISBN 3-8253-1256-9.
  2. ^ "404 Error: File Not Found - Wisconsin Historical Society". Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  3. ^ Greasley, Philip A. (30 May 2001). "Dictionary of Midwestern Literature, Volume 1: The Authors". Indiana University Press. Retrieved 2 November 2016 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ a b c d Dictionary Of American Biography (1935), Carl Schurz, p. 466.
  5. ^ Schurz, Carl. Reminiscences, Vol. 1, pp. 93–94.
  6. ^ Van Cleve, Charles L. (1902). Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity From Its Foundation In 1852 To Its Fiftieth Anniversary. p. 209: Philadelphia: Franklin Printing Company.
  7. ^ Schurz, Reminiscences, Vol. 1, Chap. 6, pp. 159.
  8. ^ W. R. Mc Cormick: BAY COUNTY Memorial Report: Emil Anneke: in: Report of the Pioneer Society of the State of Michigan, Vol. XIV, 1890, Lansing, Michigan, W. S. George & Co., State Printers & Binders, Page 57–58 Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Hirschhorn, p. 1713.
  10. ^ Dictionary Of American Biography (1935), Carl Schurz, p. 467
  11. ^ Mejías-López (2009), The Inverted Conquest, p. 132.
  12. ^ Brands (2012), The Man Who Saved the Union: Ulysses S. Grant in War and Peace, p. 489.
  13. ^ This story, and the conflict between Nast and Harper's editorial writer George William Curtis, is related by Albert Bigelow Paine in Thomas Nast: His Period and His Pictures, 1904.
  14. ^ a b c Fishel-Spragens (1988), Popular Images of American Presidents, p. 121
  15. ^ "Army charges answered". The New York Times: 5. December 7, 1878. ARMY CHARGES ANSWERED; THE INDIAN SERVICE UPHELD BY MR. SCHURZ. WHY IT WOULD BE UNWISE TO TRANSFER THE INDIAN BUREAU TO THE WAR DEPARTMENT--INCONSISTENT AND INACCURATE STATEMENTS BY MILITARY OFFICERS--LOOSE MANAGEMENT UNDER THE ARMY. INCONSISTENT AND INACCURATE STATEMENTS BY ARMY OFFICERS. ALLEGED ARMY DISHONESTY. MEASURES OF IMPORTANCE. MR. SCHURZ CROSS-EXAMINED. OTHER WITNESSES
  16. ^ Trefousse, Hans L., Carl Schurz: A Biography, (U. of Tenn. Press, 1982)
  17. ^ Hoxie, Frederick E. A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880-1920, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1981.
  18. ^ "Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior, November 1, 1880," In Prucha, Francis Paul, ed., Documents of United States Indian Policy, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2000. See Google Books.
  19. ^ Sturm und Drang Over a Memorial to Heinrich Heine. The New York Times, May 27, 2007.
  20. ^ Villard, Oswald Garrison (1936). "White, Horace". Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  21. ^ "No Longer an Editor; Carl Schurz Severs his Connection with the 'Evening Post'." The New York Times, December 11, 1883
  22. ^ Tucker (1998), p. 114.
  23. ^ Carl Schurz at Find a Grave
  24. ^ "404 Error: File Not Found - Wisconsin Historical Society". Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  25. ^ Schurz, Carl, remarks in the Senate, February 29, 1872, The Congressional Globe, vol. 45, p. 1287. See Wikisource for the complete speech.
  26. ^ Spauling, Thomas M. (1947). The Literary Society in Peace and War. Washington, D.C.: George Banta Publishing Company.
  27. ^ "Schurz Monument - Postcard - Wisconsin Historical Society". Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  28. ^ Federal Writers' Project (1941). Origin of Place Names: Nevada (PDF). W.P.A. p. 53.
  29. ^ "Schurz Bridge". Retrieved 2 November 2016.

References

  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Schurz, Carl" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • Tucker, David M. (1998). Mugwumps: public moralists of the gilded age. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 0-8262-1187-9.
  • Yockelson, Mitchell, "Hirschhorn", Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds., W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, ISBN 0-393-04758-X.

Further reading

  • Schurz, Carl. The Reminiscences of Carl Schurz (three volumes), New York: McClure Publ. Co., 1907–08. Schurz covered the years 1829–1870 in his Reminiscences. He died in the midst of writing them. The third volume is rounded out with A Sketch of Carl Schurz's Political Career 1869–1906 by Frederic Bancroft and William A. Dunning. Portions of these Reminiscences were serialized in McClure's Magazine about the time the books were published and included illustrations not found in the books.
  • Bancroft, Frederic, ed. Speeches, Correspondence, and Political Papers of Carl Schurz (six volumes), New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1913.
  • Brown, Dee, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, 1971
  • Donner, Barbara. "Carl Schurz as Office Seeker," Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 20, no.2 (December 1936), pp. 127–142.
  • Donner, Barbara. "Carl Schurz the Diplomat," Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 20, no. 3 (March 1937), pp. 291–309.
  • Fish, Carl Russell. "Carl Schurz-The American," Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 12, no. 4 (June 1929), pp. 346–368.
  • Fuess, Claude Moore Carl Schurz, Reformer, (NY, Dodd Mead, 1932)
  • Nagel, Daniel. Von republikanischen Deutschen zu deutsch-amerikanischen Republikanern. Ein Beitrag zum Identitätswandel der deutschen Achtundvierziger in den Vereinigten Staaten 1850-1861. Röhrig, St. Ingbert 2012.
  • Schafer, Joseph. "Carl Schurz, Immigrant Statesman," Wisconsin Magazine of History, vol. 11, no. 4 (June 1928), pp. 373–394.
  • Schurz, Carl. Intimate Letters of Carl Schurz 1841-1869, Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1928.
  • Trefousse, Hans L. Carl Schurz: A Biography, (1st ed. Knoxville: U. of Tenn. Press, 1982; 2nd ed. New York: Fordham University Press, 1998)
  • Twain, Mark, "Carl Schurz, Pilot," Harper's Weekly, May 26, 1906.

External links

WMF project links
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
William Preston
United States Minister to Spain
1861
Succeeded by
Gustav Körner
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
John B. Henderson
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Missouri
1869–1875
Served alongside: Charles D. Drake, Daniel T. Jewett, Francis Blair, Lewis V. Bogy
Succeeded by
Francis Cockrell
Political offices
Preceded by
Zachariah Chandler
United States Secretary of the Interior
1877–1881
Succeeded by
Samuel J. Kirkwood
89th Street (Manhattan)

89th Street runs from Riverside Drive, overlooking the Hudson River, to the East River, through the New York City borough of Manhattan. The street is interrupted by Central Park. It runs through the Upper West Side, Carnegie Hill and Yorkville neighborhoods.

The street begins on Riverside Drive overlooking Riverside Park and the Hudson River at the site of the magnificent, Classical, marble Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument.

The first building on the north side of the street at its western end is 173-175 Riverside Drive, a co-operative apartment building with entrances on both 89th and 90th Streets. On the south side of the street stands the former Isaac Rice mansion, now Yeshiva Ketana of Manhattan and a designated New York City Landmark.

The Dalton School, the Dwight School, and the Abraham Joshua Heschel School are all located on 89th Street.

The block between Amsterdam Avenue and Columbus Avenue has the old Claremont Riding Academy, now an extension of the Gaynor School, the West Side Community Garden and the restored 1890s Public School 166, a much admired Collegiate Gothic building in glazed terra cotta.The block between Columbus Avenue and Central Park West is tree-shaded and lined with beautiful restored town houses. The corner of Central Park West is marked by The St. Urban, an apartment building "splendidly crowned by dome and cupola".To the east of Central Park, the street passes the 89th street facade of the National Academy of Design in a block of handsome town houses. Between Madison Avenue and Park Avenue is a handsome gothic Revival church, built by the Episcopalians in 1870, it became a Reformed Church and is now the Roman Catholic Church of St. Thomas More. The block between Lexington Avenue and Third Avenue has a row of "spectacularly romantic" Queen Anne style town houses.East 89th Street is cosigned as Fred Lebow Place between Fifth and Madison Avenues, honoring the founder of the New York City Marathon. This block also contains the offices of the New York Road Runners.

The street ends at Carl Schurz Park on the East River.

Alexander Schimmelfennig

Alexander Schimmelfennig (July 20, 1824 – September 5, 1865) was a German soldier and political revolutionary; then he became a Union Army general in the American Civil War.

Carl-Schurz-Haus Freiburg

The Carl-Schurz-Haus, a German-American Institute, was founded in 1952 as Amerika-Haus (engl.: America-House) in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany. It has operated since the 1960s as a binational cultural center. It annually offers about 250 events (speeches, exhibitions, workshops and readings) on transatlantic topics, at which those interested in societal exchange can engage in conversations with German and American experts and artists. In addition to offering concerts and English film series, the institute houses an American library with more than 20,000 titles as well as a student advisory service for German pupils interested in extended stays in the U.S. Carl-Schurz-Haus also organizes a diverse range of English courses, taught by native English speakers, for children, teenagers, and adults. Several organizations utilize Carl-Schurz-Haus as a meeting place, including the Freiburg-Madison-Gesellschaft, an association that supports relationships with Freiburg’s sister city Madison in the U.S.; the German American Business Community in Baden; a quilting club; the writing workshop Freiburg Writers’ Group; and a square dancing club called Dreisam Swingers. At the end of 2016, members of the institute totaled about 1,660 people. Friederike Schulte has been the director of Carl-Schurz-Haus since 2010, while the chairman of the board is currently attorney-at-law Gerhard Manz.

Carl Forkum

Carl Schurz Forkum (November 21, 1882 – March 19, 1934) was an American football and baseball player and coach. He served as the 11th head football coach at West Virginia University and he held that position for two seasons, from 1905 to 1906. His coaching record at West Virginia was 13–6.Forkum died in 1934 of "complications of diseases" after a month in a hospital. At the time of his death he worked for a steel company and served on the local school board. He was buried in Franklin Cemetery in Franklin, Pennsylvania.

Carl Schurz High School

Carl Schurz High School is a public 4–year high school located in the Irving Park neighborhood on the northwest side of Chicago, Illinois, United States. The school is named after German–American Carl Schurz, a statesman, soldier, and advocate of democracy in Germany. The school building, which represents a combination of the Chicago and Prairie schools of architecture, was designed in 1910 by Dwight H. Perkins and designated a Chicago Landmark on December 7, 1979. It is considered one of "150 great places in Illinois" by the American Institute of Architects. The AIA has described the school as Perkins's masterpiece, "an important example of early-twentieth century architecture, utilizing elements of both the Chicago and Prairie schools." In celebration of the 2018 Illinois Bicentennial, Carl Schurz High School was selected as one of the Illinois 200 Great Places by the American Institute of Architects Illinois component (AIA Illinois).

Carl Schurz Park

Carl Schurz Park German: [ʃʊɐ̯ts]; is a 14.9 acres (6.0 ha) public park in the Yorkville neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, named for German-born Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz in 1910, at the edge of what was then a solidly German-American community of Yorkville. The park contains Gracie Mansion, the official residence of the Mayor of New York.

Carl Schurz Vrooman

Carl Schurz Vrooman (October 5, 1872 - April 8, 1966) was the Assistant United States Secretary of Agriculture under Woodrow Wilson. He started the victory garden campaign during World War I.

Charles D. Drake

Charles Daniel Drake (April 11, 1811 – April 1, 1892) was a United States Senator from Missouri.

East River Greenway

The East River Greenway (also called the East River Esplanade) is an approximately 9.44-mile-long (15.19 km) foreshoreway for walking or cycling on the east side of the island of Manhattan on the East River. It is part of the Manhattan Waterfront Greenway. The largest portions are operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. It is separated from motor traffic, and many sections also separate pedestrians from cyclists. The greenway is parallel to the Franklin D. Roosevelt East River Drive for a majority of its length.

Parts of the greenway were built at different times. Most of the greenway was built in the 1930 to 1950s in conjunction with the nearby FDR Drive, with exceptions:

Waterside Plaza: 1973

East River Waterfront: Late 1990s

Stuyvesant Cove: 2002

United Nations portion (under construction): 2015–24

Erftstadt

Erftstadt is a town located about 20 km south-west of Cologne in the Rhein-Erft-Kreis, state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The name of the town derives from the river which flows through it, the Erft. Carl Schurz, a German revolutionary, American statesman and reformer, and Union Army General in the American Civil War was born in Erftstadt-Liblar on March 2, 1829, as was Joseph Kentenich, a Catholic Priest of the Pallottine order and founder of the Schoenstatt Movement, on 16 November 1885. He is also remembered as a thinker, theologian, and educationalist.

Forty-Eighters

The Forty-Eighters were Europeans who participated in or supported the revolutions of 1848 that swept Europe. In the German states, the Forty-Eighters favored unification of the German people, a more democratic government, and guarantees of human rights. Disappointed at the failure of the revolution to bring about the reform of the system of government in Germany or the Austrian Empire and sometimes on the government's wanted list because of their involvement in the revolution, they gave up their old lives to try again abroad. Many emigrated to the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia after the revolutions failed. These emigrants included Germans, Czechs, Hungarians, and others. Many were respected and politically active, wealthy, and well-educated. A large number went on to be very successful in their new countries.

Gottfried Kinkel

Johann Gottfried Kinkel (11 August 1815 – 13 November 1882) was a German poet also noted for his revolutionary activities and his escape from a Prussian prison in Spandau with the help of his friend Carl Schurz.

Gracie Mansion

Archibald Gracie Mansion (commonly called Gracie Mansion) is the official residence of the Mayor of the City of New York. Built in 1799, it is located in Carl Schurz Park, at East End Avenue and 88th Street in the Yorkville neighborhood of Manhattan. The mansion overlooks Hell Gate channel in the East River.

Liberal Republican Party (United States)

The Liberal Republican Party of the United States was an American political party that was organized in May 1872 to oppose the reelection of President Ulysses S. Grant and his Radical Republican supporters in the presidential election of 1872. The party emerged in Missouri under the leadership of Senator Carl Schurz and soon attracted other opponents of Grant. The party opposed Grant's Reconstruction policies and sought civil service reform. It lost in a landslide and disappeared after the 1872 election.

The Republican Party had emerged as the dominant party in the aftermath of the Civil War, but many original Republicans became dissatisfied with the leadership of President Grant. Prominent Liberal leaders like Schurz, Charles Sumner and Lyman Trumbull had been leaders in the fight against slavery and for the first stages of Reconstruction. They considered the job done and by 1872 demanded an end to Reconstruction and a restoration of self-government to the South. Liberal Republicans decried the scandals of the Grant administration and sought civil service reform.

The 1872 Liberal Republican convention nominated a ticket consisting of Horace Greeley, longtime publisher of the New-York Tribune; and Missouri Governor Benjamin Gratz Brown. Seeking to defeat Grant, the Democratic Party nominated the Liberal Republican ticket and endorsed the Liberal Republican platform. However, Grant emerged triumphant in the election, capitalizing on superior party organization. Democrats lacked of enthusiasm for Greeley, who for decades had denounced them. Greeley received 44% of the popular vote, winning the states of Texas, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia and Maryland. Grant received 286 of the 352 electoral college votes. Greeley died shortly after the election.

The Liberal Republican Party vanished immediately after the election, though a handful of its leaders continued to serve in Congress. Former Liberals party members scattered into the Democratic and Republican parties. By cutting the allegiance of liberal elements to the Republican Party, the Liberal Republicans made it possible for many of these leaders, such as Schurz, to move to the Democratic Party.

Mount Schurz

Mount Schurz el. 11,007 feet (3,355 m) is a mountain peak in the Absaroka Range in Yellowstone National Park. Mount Schurz is the second highest peak in Yellowstone. The mountain was originally named Mount Doane by Henry D. Washburn during the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expedition in 1871. Later the name Mount Doane was given to another peak in the Absaroka Range by geologist Arnold Hague. In 1885, Hague named the mountain for the 13th U.S. Secretary of the Interior, Carl Schurz (1877–1881). Schurz was the first Secretary of the Interior to visit Yellowstone and a strong supporter of the national park movement.

Rathaus Spandau

The Rathaus Spandau is the town hall of the borough of Spandau in the western suburbs of Berlin, the capital city of Germany. It was designed by Heinrich Reinhardt and Georg Süßenguth, and was built between 1910 and 1913. Until 1920, when Spandau was incorporated into Greater Berlin, it was the city hall of the independent city of Spandau.

The Rathaus Spandau is situated on Carl-Schurz-Straße at the southern edge of the Altstadt Spandau. The Rathaus Spandau station, on U-Bahn line U 7, and the Berlin-Spandau station, served by S-Bahn, regional and intercity railway routes, are both situated nearby.

SMS Geier

SMS Geier ("His Majesty's Ship Vulture") was an unprotected cruiser of the Bussard class built for the German Imperial Navy (Kaiserliche Marine). She was laid down in 1893 at the Imperial Dockyard in Wilhelmshaven, launched in October 1894, and commissioned into the fleet a year later in October 1895. Designed for service in Germany's overseas colonies, the ship required the comparatively heavy armament of eight 10.5 cm (4.1 in) SK L/35 guns and a long cruising radius. She had a top speed of 15.5 kn (28.7 km/h; 17.8 mph).

Geier spent the majority of her career on foreign stations, including tours in the Americas, East Asia, and Africa. In 1897, she was deployed to the Caribbean, and during the Spanish–American War the following year, she ferried Europeans out of the war zone to Mexico by crossing the blockade lines around Cuban ports. After being transferred to the western coast of the Americas in 1899, Geier was reassigned to China to help suppress the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. She remained in East Asian waters through 1905 before being recalled to Germany for major repairs. In 1911, the ship was assigned to the colony in German East Africa, though she served little time in the area, as the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–1912 and the Balkan Wars of 1912–13 required German warships in the Mediterranean to safeguard German interests. Geier returned to East Africa in early 1914, but in June that month, the new light cruiser Königsberg arrived, and Geier headed to China for second deployment there.

Geier was still en route to the German base in Tsingtao when war broke out in Europe in August 1914. Slipping out of still-neutral British Singapore days before Britain declared war on Germany, she crossed the central Pacific in an attempt to link up with Maximilian von Spee's East Asia Squadron. While at sea, she captured one British freighter, but did not sink her. In need of engine repairs and coal, Geier put into the neutral United States port at Honolulu, Hawaii, in October 1914, where she was eventually interned. After the American entrance into the war in April 1917, the US Navy seized Geier, commissioned her as USS Schurz, and placed her on convoy duty. She was ultimately sunk following a collision with a freighter off the coast of North Carolina, with one man killed and twelve injured. She rests at a depth of 115 feet (35 m) and is a popular scuba diving site.

Westliche Post

Westliche Post (literally "Western Post") was a German-language daily newspaper published in St. Louis, Missouri, United States. The Westliche Post was Republican in politics. Carl Schurz was a part owner for a time, and served as a U.S. Senator from Missouri for a portion of that time.

XI Corps (Union Army)

Not to be confused with XI Corps (United States).

The XI Corps (Eleventh Army Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its involvement in the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg in 1863.

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