Carl Robert Jakobson

Carl Robert Jakobson (26 July [O.S. 14 July] 1841 – 19 March [O.S. 7 March] 1882) was an Estonian writer, politician and teacher active in the Governorate of Livonia, Russian Empire. He was one of the most important persons of the Estonian national awakening in the second half of the 19th century.

Carl Robert Jakobson
Carl Robert Jakobson
Born26 July 1841
Died19 March 1882 (aged 40)
Resting placeKurgja cemetery
  • Writer
  • politician
  • journalist
  • teacher
MovementEstonian national awakening
FamilyEduard Magnus Jakobson (brother)

Political activity

Between 1860 and 1880, the Governorate of Livonia was led by a moderate nobility-dominated government. Jakobson became the leader of the radical wing, advocating widespread reforms in Livonia. He was responsible for the economic-political program of the Estonian national movement. Jakobson urged Estonians to demand equal political rights with the region's Germans and an end to privileged position of the Baltic-German nobility.

In 1878, Jakobson established the Estonian newspaper Sakala. The paper quickly became a vital promoter of the cultural awakening. He also had a central role in the establishment of the Society of Estonian Literati, which was an influential Estonian association in the second half of the 19th century.



In 1948, the Museum of Carl Robert Jakobson was established by Jakobson's oldest daughter, Linda, in their family estate in Kurgja. The main house of the museum includes an exhibition which introduces the life and activities Jakobson. The museum is designed to illustrate elements of rural life in Estonia during Jakobson's lifetime and remains an active farm with cattle-breeding and land cultivation.[1]

500 kroon note

Jakobson on the 500 kroon note

Carl Robert Jakobson was depicted on the 500 kroon banknote.


  1. ^ "Carl Robert Jakobson Talumuuseum". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 2013-03-28.

External links

500 krooni

The 500 krooni banknote (500 EEK) is a denomination of the Estonian kroon, the former currency of Estonia. Carl Robert Jakobson (1841–1882), who was an Estonian politician, publisher, writer and promoter of agriculture, is featured on the front side of the bill, which is why the 500 krooni bill is often called a "Jakobson".

A barn swallow in flight on a landscape background is featured on the reverse side of the banknote. Before the replacement of the EEK by the euro, the 500 krooni banknote was commonly dispensed by ATMs in Estonia as well as the primary banknote used for withdrawals or cashing checks. It can be exchanged indefinitely at the currency museum of Eesti Pank for €31.96.

Aleksander Kunileid

Aleksander Kunileid (born Aleksander Saebelmann; 22 November 1845 – 27 July 1875), was an Estonian composer. He is one of the founding figures of Estonian choral music.

Ants Laikmaa

Ants Laikmaa (5 May 1866 in Paiba farm, Araste village, Märjamaa Parish – 19 November 1942 in Kadarpiku village, Taebla Parish) was an Estonian painter.

Eduard Magnus Jakobson

Eduard Magnus Jakobson (5 February [O.S. 24 January] 1847 in Torma – 2 August [O.S. 21 July] 1903 in Tallinn) was an Estonian wood engraver and a Baptist missionary. He illustrated many books and designed the masthead logo for Sakala, a newspaper founded by his older brother, Carl Robert Jakobson.

Originally a Lutheran, Eduard Magnus became a member of the Baptist church in 1869.

Estonian kroon

The kroon (sign: kr; code: EEK) was the official currency of Estonia for two periods in history: 1928–1940 and 1992–2011. Between 1 January and 14 January 2011, the kroon circulated together with the euro, after which the euro became the sole legal tender in Estonia. The kroon was subdivided into 100 cents (senti; singular sent). The word kroon (Estonian pronunciation: [ˈkroːn], “crown”) is related to that of the Nordic currencies (such as the Swedish krona and the Danish and Norwegian krone) and derived from the Latin word corona ("crown"). The kroon succeeded the mark in 1928 and was in use until the Soviet invasion in 1940 and Estonia's subsequent incorporation into the Soviet Union when it was replaced by the Soviet ruble. After Estonia regained its independence, the kroon was reintroduced in 1992.

Estonian national awakening

The Estonian Age of Awakening (Estonian: Ärkamisaeg) is a period in history where Estonians came to acknowledge themselves as a nation deserving the right to govern themselves. This period is considered to begin in the 1850s with greater rights being granted to commoners and to end with the declaration of the Republic of Estonia in 1918. The term is sometimes also applied to the period around 1987 and 1988.

Although Estonian national consciousness spread in the course of the 19th century, some degree of ethnic awareness in the literate middle class preceded this development. By the 18th century the self-denomination eestlane along with the older maarahvas spread among Estonians in the then provinces of Estonia and Livonia of the Russian Empire. The Bible was translated in 1739, and the number of books and brochures published in Estonian increased from 18 in the 1750s to 54 in the 1790s. By the end of the century more than half of adult peasants were able to read. The first university-educated intellectuals identifying themselves as Estonians, including Friedrich Robert Faehlmann (1798–1850), Kristjan Jaak Peterson (1801–1822) and Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald (1803–1882), came to prominence in the 1820s. The ruling elite had remained predominantly German in language and culture since the conquest of the early 13th century. Garlieb Merkel (1769–1850), a Baltic German Estophile, was the first author to treat the Estonians as a nationality equal to others; he became a source of inspiration for the Estonian national movement, modelled on Baltic German cultural world before the middle of the 19th century. However, in the middle of the century the Estonians, with such leaders as Carl Robert Jakobson (1841–1882), Jakob Hurt (1839–1907) and Johann Voldemar Jannsen (1819–1890), became more ambitious in their political demands and started leaning towards the Finns as a successful model of national movement and, to some extent, the neighbouring Young Latvian national movement. Significant accomplishments were the publication of the national epic, Kalevipoeg, in 1862, and the organization of the first national song festival in 1869. By the end of the 1860s the Estonians became unwilling to remain reconciled with German cultural and political hegemony. Before the attempts at Russification in the 1880s–1890s their view of Imperial Russia remained positive.

In 1881 seventeen Estonian societies, in a memorandum inspired by Carl Robert Jakobson, called upon Emperor Alexander III of Russia for the introduction of zemstvo institutions (which had already existed in most parts of the Empire), with equal representation for Estonians and Baltic Germans and administrative unification of the ethnic Estonian areas. Postimees, the first Estonian daily, began appearing in 1891. According to the 1897 census, the Estonians had the second highest literacy rate in the Russian Empire after the Finns in the Grand Duchy of Finland (96.1% of the Estonian-speaking population of the Baltic Provinces 10 years and older, roughly equally for males and females). The cities became Estonicized quickly, and in 1897 ethnic Estonians comprised two-thirds of the total Estonian urban population.In response to a period of Russification initiated by the Russian empire in the 1880s, Estonian nationalism took on even more political tones, with intellectuals calling for greater autonomy. As the Russian Revolution of 1905 swept through Estonia, the Estonians called for freedom of the press and assembly, for universal franchise, and for national autonomy. Estonian gains were minimal, but the tense stability that prevailed between 1905 and 1917 allowed Estonians to advance the aspiration of national statehood. Following the February Revolution of 1917 Estonian lands were for the first time united in one administrative unit, the autonomous Governorate of Estonia. After the Bolshevik takeover of power in Russia in the October Revolution of 1917 and the German victories against the Russian army, Estonia declared itself an independent republic on 24 February 1918.

Estonian nationalism

Estonian nationalism refers to the ideological movement for attaining and maintaining identity, unity and autonomy on behalf of a population deemed by some of its members to constitute an Estonian cultural unit of population with a separate homeland, shared ancestral myths and memories, a public culture, common economy and common legal rights and duties for all members.

Hugo Treffner

Hugo Hermann Fürchtegott Treffner (17 July 1845 – 13 March 1912) was the founder and first director of the Hugo Treffner Gymnasium in Tartu, and an important figure in the Estonian national awakening.

Jakobson (surname)

Jakobson is a patronymic surname meaning "son of Jakob". Notable people with the surname include:

August Jakobson (1904–1963), Estonian writer

Carl Robert Jakobson (1841–1882), Estonian journalist, writer, politician and teacher

Edmund Jacobson (1888–1983), an American physiologist

Eduard Magnus Jakobson (1847–1903), Estonian wood engraver

Gregg Jakobson (born 1939), American songwriter

Idel Jakobson (1904–1997), Estonian NKVD investigator

Lars Jakobson (born 1959), Swedish author

Lars Jakobson Thingnæsset (1760–1829), Norwegian farmer and politician

Max Jakobson (1923–2013), Finnish diplomat

Roman Jakobson (1896–1982), Russian linguist

Johann Köler

Johann Köler (8 March 1826 – 22 April 1899) was a leader of the Estonian national awakening and a painter. He is considered as the first professional painter of the emerging nation. He distinguished himself primarily by his portraiture and to a lesser extent by his landscape paintings. Some of his most notable pictures depict the Estonian rural life in the second half of the 19th century.

July 26

July 26 is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 158 days remaining until the end of the year.

List of Estonian poets

A list of notable Estonian poets:


List of people on the postage stamps of Estonia

This is a list of people on postage stamps of Estonia.

Betti Alver (2006)

Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (2003)

Matthias Johann Eisen (2007)

Gustav Ernesaks (1994, 2008)

Friedrich Robert Faehlmann (1938, 1998)

Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (1994)

Jüri Jaakson (2010)

Carl Robert Jakobson (2002)

Johann Voldemar Jannsen (1994, 1999)

Gerd Kanter (2008)

Lydia Koidula (1993, 2002)

Johann Köler (2001, small portrait in margin of block)

Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald (1938, 2003)

Adam Johann von Krusenstern (2003)

Juhan Kukk (2010)

Aleksander Kunileid (1995)

Julius Kuperjanov (2009)

Johan Laidoner (2009)

August Mälk (2000)

Guglielmo Marconi (1996)

Lennart Meri (1999, 2009)

Felix Moor (2001)

Alfred Neuland (1996)

Erki Nool (2001)

Ragnar Nurkse (2007)

Fredrik Pacius (1999)

Kristjan Palusalu (2008)

Louis Pasteur (1995)

Konstantin Päts (1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940)

Ants Piip (2009)

Arnold Rüütel (2003)

Heinrich von Stephan (1997)

Kristina Šmigun (2006)

Otto Strandman (2008)

Anton Hansen Tammsaare (2003)

Eduard Tubin (2005)

Marie Under (1996)

Andrus Veerpalu (2002, 2006)

Lydia Koidula

Lydia Emilie Florence Jannsen, (24 December [O.S. 12 December] 1843 – 11 August [O.S. 30 July] 1886), known by her pen name Lydia Koidula, was an Estonian poet. Her sobriquet means 'Lydia of the Dawn' in Estonian. It was given to her by the writer Carl Robert Jakobson. She is also frequently referred to as Koidulaulik – 'Singer of the Dawn'.

In Estonia, like elsewhere in Europe, writing was not considered a suitable career for a respectable young lady in the mid-nineteenth-century. Koidula's poetry and her newspaper work for her populist father, Johann Voldemar Jannsen (1819–1890) remained anonymous. In spite of this, she was a major literary figure, the founder of Estonian theatre, and closely allied to Carl Robert Jakobson (1841–1882), the influential radical and Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald (1803–1882), writer of the Estonian national epic, Kalevipoeg (The Son of Kalev).

Mihkel Veske

Mihkel Veske (28 January [O.S. 16 January] 1843 in Holstre Parish, Viljandi County – 16 May [O.S. 4 May] 1890 in Kazan) was an Estonian poet and linguist.

Sakala (newspaper)

Sakala is an Estonian language daily newspaper first published in Viljandi on 11 March 1878 by Carl Robert Jakobson, a major figure of the Estonian national awakening period in the 19th century.

Sakala was the first political newspaper in Estonian. It was the most popular newspaper among Estonians in the late 19th century. Today it is the local newspaper of Viljandi County.

The masthead logo of Sakala was designed by Eduard Magnus Jakobson.

Society of Estonian Literati

The Society of Estonian Literati (Estonian: Eesti Kirjameeste Selts - EKmS) was an influential association of Estonian intellectuals based in Tartu between the years 1871 and 1893.


Toila is a small borough (alevik) in Ida-Viru County, in northeastern Estonia. It is located about 10 km (6 mi) northeast of the town of Jõhvi, on the coast of Narva Bay (part of the Gulf of Finland). Toila is known as an important sea resort in Estonia, with a spa hotel, beach and a beautiful park (Oru Park). Toila is the administrative centre of Toila Parish. As of the 2011 Census, the settlement's population was 780, of whom the ethnic Estonians made up 628 (80.5%).

University of Tartu Viljandi Culture Academy

University of Tartu Viljandi Culture Academy (Estonian: Tartu Ülikooli Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia) is an Estonian institution of higher education, situated in the provincial town of Viljandi, central Estonia. The UT Viljandi Culture Academy merged with the University of Tartu in 2005. The UT VCA has been teaching professional higher education and performing applied research within information science, culture education and creative arts since 1952. The academy has about 1000 students, half of whom are open university students. The teaching and instruction are based on the continuity and sustainability of Estonian native culture enriched by new impulses which widen the notion of traditional culture. Director of the UT VCA is Dr. Iñaki Sandoval Campillo.

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