Carl Röver

Carl Georg Röver (12 February 1889 in Lemwerder – 15 May 1942 in Berlin) was a German Nazi Party official. His main posts were as Gauleiter of Weser-Ems and Reichsstatthalter of Oldenburg/Bremen.

Carl Georg Röver
Gauleiter of Weser-Ems
In office
1929–1942
Succeeded byPaul Wegener
Reichsstatthalter of the Free State of Oldenburg
In office
1933–1942
Prime MinisterGeorg Joel
Preceded byNone
Succeeded byPaul Wegener
Reichsstatthalter of the Free City of Bremen
In office
1933–1942
Preceded byNone
Succeeded byPaul Wegener
Minister-President of the Free State of Oldenburg
In office
1932–1933
Preceded byFriedrich Cassebohm
Succeeded byGeorg Joel
Personal details
BornFebruary 12, 1889
Lemwerder, German Empire
DiedMay 15, 1942 (aged 53)
Berlin, Germany
Political partyNational Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)

Early years

Röver saw service in the First World War, initially with the regular army before joining the Propaganda department of the Oberste Heeresleitung. He became a member of the Nazi Party in 1923.[1] He also joined the Sturmabteilung, rising to the rank of Obergruppenführer.[1]

Nazi career

Already before the Nazis came to power, Carl Röver acted as Gauleiter in Oldenburg, that by 1932 was already ruled by the National-Socialists. When in September 1932 the Oldenburg superior church council, the executive board of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg, decided to give permission to use the St. Lambert's Church in Oldenburg city for the sermon of the African Pastor Robert Kwami Röver reacted immediately, directing racist tirades against Kwami, the Norddeutsche Mission and the superior church council demanding to postpone the sermon. The Nazi-party called upon the State Ministry of Oldenburg, the Nazi-dominated state government, to stop the sermon.[2] Despite the public threats by the local Nazis that were later become known as the so-called Kwami Affair, the sermon was carried out as planned September 20, 1932. Röver was appointed to the post of Reichsstatthalter for the states of Oldenburg and Bremen in April 1933 after the Nazi regime reorganised local government in Germany.[3] In this post he played a role in the perpetration of the Holocaust as he personally signed the order for every Jew deported from Bremen during his life.[4]

However, in this role Röver also clashed with Hermann Göring as the Reichsmarschall, as Minister President of Prussia, made no secret of his desire to incorporate Bremen into Prussia. Röver, however, opposed the move consistently and managed to convince Adolf Hitler to decline Göring's requests.[5]

He was something of a favourite of Martin Bormann, a fact that helped to ensure that when an Arbeitsbereich ("working sphere" - an external unit of the Nazi Party) was set up in the neighbouring occupied Netherlands most of its staff were drawn from Weser-Ems.[6]

Death

Röver suffered a stroke in May 1942 and died soon afterwards, Paul Wegener succeeding him as Gauleiter.[7] His official cause of death was listed as pneumonia.[1] His state funeral proved a lavish event, with Adolf Hitler himself in attendance and Alfred Rosenberg delivering the eulogy.[8] Röver's cause of death is disputed by David Irving, who claims in his book Hitler's War that Röver was killed by Nazi agents who had been sent specifically by Martin Bormann.[9]

References

  1. ^ a b c Ernst Klee: Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich. Wer war was vor und nach 1945. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Zweite aktualisierte Auflage, Frankfurt am Main 2005, p. 504.
  2. ^ Georg Joel und Jens Müller an das Oldenburger Staatsministerium. Printed in: Klaus Schaap: Oldenburgs Weg ins „Dritte Reich“. Quellen zur Regionalgeschichte Nordwest-Niedersachsens, Heft 1. Oldenburg 1983, Dokument Nr. 157. See also: Bekenntnisgemeinschaft und bekennende Gemeinden in Oldenburg in den Jahren der nationalsozialistischen Herrschaft. Evangelische Kirchlichkeit und nationalsozialistischer Alltag in einer ländlichen Region, Bd. 39, Teil 5, p. 52.
  3. ^ Peter D. Stachura, The Shaping of the Nazi State, Taylor & Francis, 1978, p. 216
  4. ^ David Cesarani, Holocaust: The "final solution", Routledge, 2004, p. 83
  5. ^ Maiken Umbach, German federalism: past, present, future, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, p. 131
  6. ^ Dietrich Orlow, The History of the Nazi Party 1933-1945 Volume 2, David & Charles, 1973, p. 306
  7. ^ Orlow, The History of the Nazi Party , p. 352
  8. ^ Orlow, The History of the Nazi Party , p. 358
  9. ^ David Irving, Hitler's War, p. 392

External links

Cloppenburg Museum Village

The Cloppenburg Museum Village and Lower Saxon Open-Air Museum (German: Museumsdorf Cloppenburg – Niedersächsisches Freilichtmuseum) located in the Lower Saxon county town of Cloppenburg is the oldest museum village in Germany. The museum is a research and educational establishment specializing in cultural and rural history.The Lower Saxon Open-Air Museum is a non-profit organisation. Although the museum does not set out to compete for visitors, in 2009 the Cloppenburg Museum Village had more visitors than any other museum in Lower Saxony (250,000). In 2004, the museum was visited by more than 60,000 students as a part of their school curriculum.

Counts, dukes and grand dukes of Oldenburg

This is a list of the counts, dukes, grand dukes, and prime ministers of Oldenburg.

Gau Weser-Ems

The Gau Weser-Ems was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the core part of the Free State of Oldenburg, the state Bremen and the western parts of the Prussian Province of Hanover. Before that, from 1928 to 1933, it was the regional subdivision of the Nazi Party in that area.

Gottgläubig

In Nazi Germany, Gottgläubig (literally: "believing in God") was a Nazi religious term for a form of Deism practiced by those Germans who had officially left Christian churches but kept their faith in a higher power or divine creator. Such people were called Gottgläubige, and the term for the overall movement was Gottgläubigkeit. The term denotes someone who still believes in a God, although without having any institutional religious affiliation. The Nazis were not favourable towards religious institutions, nor did they tolerate atheism on the part of their membership: Gottgläubigkeit was a kind of officially sanctioned unorganised religion. The 1943 Philosophical Dictionary defined gottgläubig as: "official designation for those who profess a specific kind of piety and morality, without being bound to a church denomination, whilst however also rejecting irreligion and godlessness." In the 1939 census, 3.5% of the German population identified as gottgläubig.

Karl Kaufmann

Karl Kaufmann (10 October 1900 in Krefeld – 4 December 1965 in Hamburg) was a Nazi Gauleiter in Hamburg—head of the Nazi Party, and government of Hamburg from 1933 until 1945.

Kwami Affair

The so-called Kwami-Affair has been caused by Carl Röver, Nazi-Gauleiter of Weser-Ems, and the Free State of Oldenburg, when he attempted to prevent a sermon held by the Ghanaian Pastor Robert Kwami September 20, 1932, in the St. Lamberti Church in the city of Oldenburg.

Robert Kwami, a representative of the Protestant Ewe-Church, had come to Germany in summer 1932. He was invited by the Norddeutsche Missionsgesellschaft in order to hold a lecture tour with sermons in Northern Germany to inform the German people about Christianity in the former German colony of Togo and to collect donations to support the young African church. Donations had been scarce in the age of depression. 60 events had been planned, but due to the great public interest 150 lectures and sermons were carried out in 82 towns in Lippe, East Frisia, the County of Bentheim and in the Free State of Oldenburg.

By 1932, when in the Supreme Consistory (Oberkirchenrat) of Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg decided to give permission to use the St. Lambertikirche for the sermon of the African pastor, the Oldenburg free state had already been governed by the NSDAP. Gauleiter Carl Röver, who was also Minister-President of Oldenberg, reacted immediately, directing racist tirades against Kwami, the Norddeutsche Mission and the supreme church council demanding to postpone the sermon. The Nazi-party called upon the State Ministry of Oldenburg to stop the sermon.The church parish asked Heinrich Tilemann, member of the Oberkirchenrat, for help, who defended the plans of the church. However, Röver could not be stopped, and in a speech September 16, 1932 incited the members of the Nazi-party to take action. Concerned about the security of Robert Kwami the parish, Oldenburg Pastor Erich Hoyer sent an open letter to 35 German newspapers wherein he accused the Nazi-minister of arousing hatred against the church and the initiators of the sermon, asking for an apology.In the meantime church councillor Dr. Buck, expecting uproar and violence from the Nazis, asked Oldenburg's mayor Dr. Goerlitz for police protection.Despite the public threats by the local Nazis, the sermon was carried out as planned September 20, 1932. Robert Kwami, not only fluent in German, but also of German citizenship, held his sermon in the afternoon and a lecture in the evening. The event was a great success. About 2000 people filled the pews of the church, with people waiting in front of the church to listen, to support Kwami, and to encourage the young African pastor. Due to the open letter that Pastor Hoyer had sent to 35 newspapers, the “Kwami-Affair” had become a topic talk not only in Germany. British and Dutch newspapers too covered the event.

List of Gauleiters

The following list of Gauleiters enumerates those who have held the Nazi party rank of Gauleiter, a type of regional party leader germane only within Adolf Hitler's system.

Of the 44 former Gauleiter of the NSDAP thirteen committed suicide when Nazi Germany surrendered, eight were executed by the allies after the war, one was executed by the SS and one died in Soviet captivity. By 1954, when Karl Wahl became the first former Gauleiter to publish his memoirs, eight were still missing, three in jail and the remaining ten were free men.

List of Nazis (L–R)

A list of notable people who were at some point a member of the defunct Nazi Party (NSDAP). This is not meant to be a list of every person who was ever a member of the Nazi Party. This is a list of notable figures who were active within the party and did something significant within it that is of historical note or who were members of the Nazi Party according to multiple reliable publications. For a list of the main leaders and most important party figures see: List of Nazi Party leaders and officials.

Overview A–E F–K L–R S–Z

List of Vorpostenboote in World War II

A Vorpostenboot (plural Vorpostenboote) was an auxiliary warship used by Germany in both World Wars. Many vorpostenboote also served in other roles, such as sperrbrechers and weather ships. During World War II, the Vorposentenboote were organized into several surface flotillas which were in turn attached to various German ports.

List of former Catholics

Former Catholics or ex-Catholics are people who used to be Catholic for some time, but no longer identify as such. This includes both individuals who were at least nominally raised in the Roman Catholic faith, and individuals who converted to it in later life, both of whom later rejected and left it, or converted to other faiths (including the related non-Roman Catholic faiths). This page lists well-known individuals in history who are former Catholics.

One 2008 Pew Research Center study estimates that 10.1% of people in the United States describe themselves as former Catholics in some sense, in total the study reports that 44% of Americans profess a different religious affiliation than the one they were raised in. A majority converted to another religion while a substantial minority are counted as currently unaffiliated.Note: The list includes those who leave the Catholic Church including any Eastern Catholic Church which is in communion with it. People such as Eddie Doherty, who were allowed to transfer from the Latin Catholic Church to an Eastern Catholic church, or vice versa are not considered as "former Roman Catholics", while Eastern Catholics who convert to a non-Catholic church or another religion are considered as such, even though Eastern Catholics do not typically refer to themselves as "Roman".

List of shipwrecks in July 1942

The list of shipwrecks in July 1942 includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during July 1942.

Nazi Party

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei , abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party (English: ), was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of National Socialism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; DAP), existed from 1919 to 1920.

The Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist, racist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany. The party was created to draw workers away from communism and into völkisch nationalism. Initially, Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois, and anti-capitalist rhetoric, although this was later downplayed to gain the support of business leaders, and in the 1930s the party's main focus shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes.Pseudo-scientific racist theories were central to Nazism, expressed in the idea of a "people's community" (Volksgemeinschaft). The party aimed to unite "racially desirable" Germans as national comrades, while excluding those deemed either to be political dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign race (Fremdvölkische). The Nazis sought to strengthen the Germanic people, the "Aryan master race", through racial purity and eugenics, broad social welfare programs, and a collective subordination of individual rights, which could be sacrificed for the good of the state on behalf of the people.

To protect the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews, Romani, Poles and most other Slavs, along with the physically and mentally handicapped. They disenfranchised and segregated homosexuals, Africans, Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents. The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state set in motion the Final Solution–an industrial system of genocide which achieved the murder of an estimated 5.5 to 6 million Jews and millions of other targeted victims, in what has become known as the Holocaust.Adolf Hitler, the party's leader since 1921, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. Hitler rapidly established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich. Following the defeat of the Third Reich at the conclusion of World War II in Europe, the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers, who carried out denazification in the years after the war.

Paul Wegener (Gauleiter)

Paul Wegener (1 October 1908 in Varel – 5 May 1993 in Wächtersbach) was a German Nazi Party official.

Reichsstatthalter

The Reichsstatthalter (German: [ˈʁaɪçsˌʃtathaltɐ], Imperial lieutenant) was a title used in the German Empire and later in Nazi Germany.

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