Carl Jakob Sundevall (22 October 1801, Högestad – 2 February 1875) was a Swedish zoologist. Sundevall studied at Lund University, where he became a Ph.D. in 1823. After traveling to East Asia, he studied medicine, graduating as Doctor of Medicine in 1830.
He was employed at the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm from 1833, and was professor and keeper of the vertebrate section from 1839 to 1871. He wrote Svenska Foglarna (1856–87) which described 238 species of birds observed in Sweden. He classified a number of birds collected in southern Africa by Johan August Wahlberg. In 1835, he developed a phylogeny for the birds based on the muscles of the hip and leg that contributed to later work by Thomas Huxley. He then went on to examine the arrangement of the deep plantar tendons in the bird's foot. This latter information is still used by avian taxonomists. Sundevall was also an entomologist and arachnologist and in 1862 wrote a monograph proposing a universal phonetic alphabet, Om phonetiska bokstäver.
The Beagle lands at the Galápagos Islands and Charles Darwin collects the finches which bear his name.
Carl Jakob Sundevall develops a phylogeny for the birds in Lärobok i zoologien (Handbook of Zoology). This is based on the muscles of the hip and leg.
Frédéric de Lafresnaye describes the magpie mannikin and the cactus wren in Revue et magasin de zoologie (founded by Félix Édouard Guérin-Méneville.
Death of Alexander Collie
Death of Carl Wilhelm Hahn
Alexander von Nordmann describes spotted redshank in Reise um die erde durch Nord-Asien und die beiden oceane in den jahren 1828, 1829 und 1830 ausgeführt
1835-1839 Philip Barker Webb, Sabin Berthelot and Alfred Moquin-Tandon begin L'Histoire Naturelle des Îles Canaries published in Paris
Charles Thorold Wood publishes The Ornithological Guide
Thomas Barwick Lloyd Baker publishes An Ornithological IndexAltriciality
In biology, altricial species are those in which the young are incapable of moving around on their own soon after hatching or being born. The word is derived from the Latin root alere, meaning "to nurse, to rear, or to nourish" and indicates the need for young to be fed and taken care of for a long duration. By contrast, species whose young are immediately or quickly mobile are called precocial.Anyphaena
Anyphaena is a genus of anyphaenid sac spiders first described by Carl Jakob Sundevall in 1833.Camaroptera
Camaroptera is a genus of small passerine birds in the Cisticolidae family that are found in sub-Saharan Africa.
The genus was erected by the Swedish zoologist Carl Jakob Sundevall in 1850. The type species is the green-backed camaroptera (Camaroptera brachyura). The word Camaroptera comes from the Ancient Greek kamara for "arch" and pteron for "wing".The genus contains the following five species:
Green-backed camaroptera (Camaroptera brachyura)
Grey-backed camaroptera (Camaroptera brevicaudata)
Hartert's camaroptera (Camaroptera harterti)
Yellow-browed camaroptera (Camaroptera superciliaris)
Olive-green camaroptera (Camaroptera chloronota)Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the green-backed and the grey-backed camaroptera are closely related, and some taxonomists treat them as conspecific.Caribbean elaenia
The Caribbean elaenia (Elaenia martinica) is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae found in the West Indies and parts of Central America. Its natural habitats are tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, and heavily degraded former forest.Cisticolidae
The Cisticolidae family of small passerine birds is a group of about 160 warblers found mainly in warmer southern regions of the Old World. They were formerly included within the Old World warbler family Sylviidae.
This family probably originated in Africa, which has the majority of species, but there are representatives of the family across tropical Asia into Australasia, and one species, the zitting cisticola, even breeds in Europe.
These are generally very small birds of drab brown or grey appearance found in open country such as grassland or scrub. They are often difficult to see and many species are similar in appearance, so the song is often the best identification guide. These are insectivorous birds which nest low in vegetation.Dictyna
Dictyna is a genus of cribellate araneomorph spiders in the Dictynidae family, and was first described by Carl Jakob Sundevall in 1833.Elaenia
Elaenia is a genus of passerine birds in the tyrant flycatcher family which occur in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. Except by voice, specific identification is often difficult since many species are very similar.
Elaenia flycatchers are typically brownish, greyish or olive above, and off-white and/or pale yellow on the belly, with a white or pale yellowish eye-ring of variable strength and two or three wing bars. Some species show a crest; often with a semi-concealed white patch/streak.Eremomela
The eremomelas are a genus, Eremomela, of passerines in the cisticola family Cisticolidae. The genus was previously placed with the larger Old World warbler family Sylviidae prior to that genus being broken up into several families. The genus contains eleven species, all of which are found in sub-Saharan Africa. They occupy a range of habitats, from arid scrub to lowland tropical forest. They are intermediate in appearance between crombecs and apalis, and measure between 8.5 to 12 cm (3.3–4.7 in) in length. The sexes are alike in size and plumage.The genus was erected by the Swedish zoologist Carl Jakob Sundevall in 1850. The type species is the yellow-bellied eremomela (Eremomela icteropygialis). The word Eremomela comes from the Ancient Greek erēmos for "desert" and melos for "song" or "melody".Johan Fredrik Victorin
Johan Fredrik Victorin (24 February 1831 Kvarns Bruk, Kristberg, Sweden - 3 November 1855 Kvarns Bruk, Kristberg) was a noted Swedish zoologist and explorer in South Africa. He died at only 24 years of age, soon after returning from his African trip, having collected a large number of natural history specimens including over 2000 insects.He was the eldest son of Per Henric Victorin (1790–1857), an industrialist from Kvarns Bruk, and his cousin 'Hedda' Hedvig Lovisa Westring (1804–1864), the daughter of Johan Petter Westring, physician to Karl XIV Johan of Sweden. Johan Fredrik's siblings were Carl Henrik Victorin, Eric Gabriel Victorin, Axel Rickard Victorin, August Christoffer Victorin, Ture Otto Victorin and Per Arvid Victorin.
Johan Fredrik was first home-schooled by his father before attending a primary school in Linköping in 1844 and then a high school in 1847. He proved to have a sharp mind and excellent memory, with a talent for drawing and painting. Natural history, and in particular vertebrate zoology, soon captured his interest. In the autumn of 1851 he enrolled at Uppsala University, studying natural history and mathematics. Throughout the summer of 1852 he studied the birds on the island of Öland.
Victorin suffered chronic tuberculosis, which eventually led to his death, and in an effort to convalesce he left for the Cape of Good Hope. Docking in Cape Town on 11 November 1853 he set about collecting in the vicinity. He happened to meet fellow naturalist Johan August Wahlberg, who advised him to extend his travels to the eastern parts of the Cape. On 27 February 1854 he sailed to Mossel Bay and then overland to George and Knysna. He stayed there until 1 December, finding a rich collecting ground in the forests. He became acquainted with members of the George Rex family, travelled to Plettenberg Bay, with excursions to Westford and Redburn. Returning to George he crossed over Montagu Pass into the Little Karoo, staying on the farms Roodeval (now Van Wykskraal) and Zeekoegat, near Oudtshoorn, until February 1855. His health declined over this period. He visited to the Cango Caves on 8 February, sailing for Cape Town from Mossel Bay on 9 March. Nine days later he sailed for Sweden and settled in Qvarn, where he died later that year.Victorin's collection from the Cape included 83 mammals (of 30 species), 517 birds (153 species), and 20 amphibians (14 species). The birds he prepared and preserved by himself. He also collected 31 bird's eggs (11 species), some 2000 insects, several shells and other invertebrates, plants, seeds, bulbs, and lichens. Two mammals and two birds from his collection were new to science. Generally his specimens were well prepared and his descriptions meticulous. Most of his collection was housed in the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences which became the Swedish Museum of Natural History. Most of his insects were Coleoptera; his Hemiptera and Orthoptera were described by Carl Stål (1856, 1871) and the Diptera by Hermann Loew (1858, 1860, 1862). The hemipterid Pentatoma victorini was named after the collector.
Victorin's notes on his collections at the Cape were edited by J.W. Grill and published as "Zoologiska Anteckningar" in the "Proceedings of the Royal Academy of Science". Two new bird descriptions by Carl Jakob Sundevall were included in this paper and one of them was named Bradypterus victorini (now Cryptillas victorini, Victorin's Warbler). Grill also published a book in 1863 compiled from Victorin's letters and diaries, "J.F. Victorins resa i Kaplandet åren 1853-1855".Micrathena
Micrathena is a genus of orb-weaver spiders first described by Carl Jakob Sundevall in 1833. It contains more than a hundred species, most of them Neotropical woodland orb-weavers. The name is derived from the Greek "micro", meaning "small", and the goddess Athena. It includes over a hundred species, including four in the United States and Canada. Among these four species, female spined micrathena (M. gracilis) have five pairs of conical tubercles, female M. mitrata have two short posterior pairs, and female arrow-shaped micrathena (M. sagittata) have three pairs. Species with extremely long spines evolved at least eight times in the genus Micrathena and likely function as anti-predator defenses. The only species recorded from Canada is M. sagittata, found in Ontario.These spiders are active during the daytime and build vertical orb webs. Unlike many other orb-weavers, members of Micrathena bite their prey before wrapping it. When laying eggs, females will place the egg sac on vegetation near the web.Moorland chat
The moorland chat (Pinarochroa sordida), also known as the alpine chat or hill chat, is a species of songbird in the Old World flycatcher family. It is endemic to north-east Africa where it is common in its habitat. It lives at high altitudes on moors and grassland, usually above 3,400 m (11,100 ft), but can live as low as 2,100 m (6,900 ft). It has a short tail and long legs. It is bold and will approach people.
The chat was first discovered on Mount Elgon on the Uganda-Kenya border by Jackson. The English geographer Halford Mackinder brought back the same bird from Mount Kenya in 1899. He presented a paper on the first ascent to the Royal Geographical Society in 1900. The scientific results of his expedition were discussed in detail afterwards.
A very curious little bird was found by Mr Jackson on Mount Elgon at a height of 11,000 feet, and I remember saying to Mr. Mackinder that he was bound to find the same sort of little chat on Mount Kenya, at a height of 11,000 feet. This he did, and it was the same species as the Mount Elgon bird, an ordinary-looking little brown chat, with a good deal of white in the tail.
The moorland chat was usually placed in the genus Cercomela, but molecular phylogenetic studies published in 2010 and 2012 found that the species was not closely related to birds in Cercomela or to birds in the closely related genus Oenanthe. The moorland chat was therefore assigned to its own monotypic genus Pinarochroa which had been introduced by the Swedish zoologist Carl Jakob Sundevall in 1872. The genus name Pinarochroa is derived from the Greek word pinaros meaning "dirty" and khroos, khroas meaning "coloured". The specific epithet sordida is from the Latin sordidus meaning "shabby" or "dirty".Opiliones
The Opiliones ( or ; formerly Phalangida) are an order of arachnids colloquially known as harvestmen, harvesters, or daddy longlegs. As of April 2017, over 6,650 species of harvestmen have been discovered worldwide, although the total number of extant species may exceed 10,000. The order Opiliones includes five suborders: Cyphophthalmi, Eupnoi, Dyspnoi, Laniatores, and Tetrophthalmi, which were named in 2014.Representatives of each extant suborder can be found on all continents except Antarctica.
Well-preserved fossils have been found in the 400-million-year-old Rhynie cherts of Scotland, and 305-million-year-old rocks in France, which look surprisingly modern, indicating that their basic body shape developed very early on, and, at least in some taxa, has changed little since that time.
Their phylogenetic position within the Arachnida is disputed; their closest relatives may be the mites (Acari) or the Novogenuata (the Scorpiones, Pseudoscorpiones, and Solifugae). Although superficially similar to and often misidentified as spiders (order Araneae), the Opiliones are a distinct order that is not closely related to spiders. They can be easily distinguished from long-legged spiders by their fused body regions and single pair of eyes in the middle of the cephalothorax. Spiders have a distinct abdomen that is separated from the cephalothorax by a constriction, and they have three to four pairs of eyes, usually around the margins of the cephalothorax.
English speakers may colloquially refer to species of Opiliones as "daddy longlegs" or "granddaddy longlegs", but this name is also used for two other distantly related groups of arthropods, the crane flies of the family Tipulidae, and the cellar spiders of the family Pholcidae, most likely because of their similar appearance. Harvestmen are also referred to as "shepherd spiders" in reference to how their unusually long legs reminded observers of the ways that some European shepherds used stilts to better observe their wandering flocks from a distance.Red-breasted swallow
The red-breasted swallow (Cecropis semirufa), also known as the rufous-chested swallow, is a member of the Hirundinidae family, found in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is confined to the tropical rainforest during the wet season.Spiny orb-weaver
Spiny orb-weavers (Gasteracantha) is a genus of orb-weaver spiders first described by Carl Jakob Sundevall in 1833. They are also commonly called spiny-backed orb-weavers, due to the prominent spines on their abdomen (compare genus Isoxya). The name is derived from the Greek "gaster" (γαστηρ), meaning "belly", and "akantha" (ακανθα), meaning "thorn, spine". Although their abdomen is shaped like a crab shell with spikes, they are not to be confused with the crab spiders.
Orb-weavers' bites are generally harmless to humans.Often brightly colored, spiny orb-weavers have a broad, hard abdomen that can be white, orange, or yellow with red markings. The female shell is ringed by six red or orange spines, whereas the smaller male lacks the spiny projections and instead has four to five stubby dark projections. They can grow up to 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter (measured from spike to spike).Swedish Dialect Alphabet
The Swedish Dialect Alphabet (Swedish: Landsmålsalfabetet) is a phonetic alphabet created in 1878 by Johan August Lundell and used for the narrow transcription of Swedish dialects. The initial version of the alphabet consisted of 89 letters, 42 of which came from the phonetic alphabet proposed by Carl Jakob Sundevall. It has since grown to over 200 letters. The alphabet supplemented Latin letters with symbols adapted from a range of alphabets, including modified forms of þ and ð from Germanic alphabets, γ and φ from the Greek alphabet and ы from the Cyrillic alphabet, and extended with systematic decorations. There are also a number of diacritics representing prosodic features.The alphabet has been used extensively for the description of Swedish dialects in both Sweden and Finland. It was also the source of many of the symbols used by the Swedish sinologist Bernhard Karlgren in his reconstruction of Middle Chinese.Three of the additional letters were included in version 5.1.0 of Unicode (U+2C78 to U+2C7A) for use in a dictionary of Swedish dialects spoken in Finland. A proposal to encode a further 106 characters was made in 2008. As of 2019, this proposal is partially implemented, with some proposed allocations already in use by other characters.Textrix
Textrix is a genus of funnel weavers first described by Carl Jakob Sundevall in 1833. They have a mainly European distribution, with one species in Ethiopia. The type species of the genus is Textrix denticulata.The spiders in the genus Textrix have a strongly recurved posterior row of eyes with the medial eyes larger than the lateral eyes. They have a narrow head which is distinct from the thorax. These spiders may resemble wolf spiders as they are often recorded running about in sunshine, but their long and segmented posterior spinners are very marked and identify them as funnel web weavers.Theridiidae
Theridiidae, also known as the tangle-web spiders, cobweb spiders and comb-footed spiders, is a large family of araneomorph spiders first described by Carl Jakob Sundevall in 1833. This diverse, globally distributed family includes over 3,000 species in 124 genera, and is the most common arthropods found in human dwellings throughout the world.Theridiid spiders are both entelegyne, meaning that the females have a genital plate, and ecribellate, meaning that they spin sticky capture silk instead of woolly silk. They have a comb of serrated bristles (setae) on the tarsus of the fourth leg.
The family includes some model organisms for research, including the medically important widow spiders. They are important to studies characterizing their venom and its clinical manifestation, but widow spiders are also used in research on spider silk and sexual biology, including sexual cannibalism. Anelosimus are also model organisms, used for the study of sociality, because it has evolved frequently within the genus, allowing comparative studies across species, and because it contains species varying from solitary to permanently social. These spiders are also a promising model for the study of inbreeding because all permanently social species are highly inbred.The Hawaiian Theridion grallator is used as a model to understand the selective forces and the genetic basis of color polymorphism within species. T. grallator is known as the "happyface" spider, as certain morphs have a pattern uncannily resembling a smiley face or a grinning clown face on their yellow body.Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat
Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) is a species of megabat in the family Pteropodidae. It is commonly found across southern Africa.