Caribbean Community

The Caribbean Community (CARICOM or CC) is an organisation of fifteen Caribbean nations and dependencies having primary objectives to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and to coordinate foreign policy.[4] The organisation was established in 1973. Its major activities involve coordinating economic policies and development planning; devising and instituting special projects for the less-developed countries within its jurisdiction; operating as a regional single market for many of its members (Caricom Single Market); and handling regional trade disputes. The secretariat headquarters is in Georgetown, Guyana. CARICOM is an official United Nations Observer.[5]

CARICOM was established by the English-speaking parts of the Caribbean, and currently includes all the independent anglophone island countries plus Belize, Guyana and Montserrat, as well as all other British Caribbean territories and Bermuda as associate members. English was its sole working language into the 1990s. The organization has become multilingual with the addition of Dutch-speaking Suriname in 1995 and Haitian- and French-speaking Haiti in 2002. Furthermore, it has been suggested that Spanish should also become a working language.[6] In July 2012, CARICOM announced that they were considering making French and Dutch official languages.[7] In 2001, the heads of government signed a revised Treaty of Chaguaramas that cleared the way to transform the idea of a common market CARICOM into a Caribbean (CARICOM) Single Market and Economy. Part of the revised treaty establishes and implements the Caribbean Court of Justice.

Flag of Caribbean Community Dutch: Caribische Gemeenschap French: Communauté caribéenne Spanish: Comunidad del Caribe
Flag
  Full members   Associate members   Observers
  Full members
  Associate members
  Observers
Seat of SecretariatGeorgetown, Guyana
Largest cities
Official languagesEnglish, Dutch, French, Spanish
Working languageEnglish
Other languages
TypeSupranational organisation
Member states
Leaders
• Chairman
Timothy Harris
Irwin LaRocque
Establishment
4 July 1973
• Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas
2001
Area
• Total
458,480 km2 (177,020 sq mi)
Population
• 2018 estimate
18,265,664[1]
• Density
34.8/km2 (90.1/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$145.3 billion[2]
• Per capita
$7,954.82
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$77.232 billion
• Per capita
$4,228
HDI (2018)Increase 0.730[3]
high
Currency

Membership

Currently CARICOM has 15 full members, 5 associate members and 8 observers. All of the associate members are British overseas territories, and it is currently not established what the role of the associate members will be. The observers are states which engage in at least one of CARICOM's technical committees. Although the group has close ties with Cuba, that nation was excluded due to lack of full democratic internal political arrangement. In 2017 Cuba and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) bloc signed the "CARICOM-Cuba Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement"[8] to facilitate closer ties.

CARICOM members[9]
Status Name Join date Notes
Full member  Antigua and Barbuda 4 July 1974
 Bahamas 4 July 1983 Not part of customs union
 Barbados 1 August 1973 One of the four founding members
 Belize 1 May 1974
 Dominica 1 May 1974
 Grenada 1 May 1974
 Guyana 1 August 1973 One of the four founding members
 Haiti 2 July 2002 Provisional membership on 4 July 1998
 Jamaica 1 August 1973 One of the four founding members
 Montserrat 1 May 1974 British overseas territory
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 26 July 1974 Joined as Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
 Saint Lucia 1 May 1974
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1 May 1974
 Suriname 4 July 1995
 Trinidad and Tobago 1 August 1973 One of the four founding members
Associate  Anguilla July 1999 British overseas territory
 Bermuda 2 July 2003 British overseas territory
 British Virgin Islands July 1991 British overseas territory
 Cayman Islands 16 May 2002 British overseas territory
 Turks and Caicos Islands July 1991 British overseas territory
Observer  Aruba Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
 Colombia
 Curaçao Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
 Dominican Republic
 Mexico
 Puerto Rico Unincorporated territory of the United States
 Sint Maarten Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
 Venezuela

Organisational structure

Structures comprised by the overall Caribbean Community (CARICOM).[10]

Under Article 4 CARICOM breaks its 15 member states into two groups: Less Developed Countries (LDCs) and More Developed Countries (MDCs).[11]

The countries of CARICOM which are designated as Less Developed Countries (LDCs) are:[11]

  • Antigua & Barbuda
  • Belize
  • Commonwealth of Dominica
  • Grenada
  • Republic of Haiti
  • Montserrat
  • Federation of St. Kitts & Nevis
  • St. Lucia
  • St. Vincent & the Grenadines

The countries of CARICOM which are designated as More Developed Countries (MDCs) are:[11]

  • Commonwealth of the Bahamas
  • Barbados
  • Co-operative Republic of Guyana
  • Jamaica
  • Republic of Suriname
  • Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Chairmanship

The post of Chairman (Head of CARICOM) is held in rotation by the regional Heads of State (for the republics) and Heads of Government (for the realms) of CARICOM's 15 member states. These include: Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Haiti, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Bahamas, Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago.

Heads of government

CARICOM contains a quasi-Cabinet of the individual Heads of Government. These heads are given specific specialised portfolios of responsibility for overall regional development and integration.[12]

Secretariat

  • Secretariat of the Caribbean Community, The term of office of the Secretary-General is five years, which may be renewed. (Chief Administrative Organ)
  • Secretary-General of the Caribbean Community, the CARICOM Secretary General (Chief Executive) handles foreign and community relations.
  • Deputy Secretary-General of the Caribbean Community, handles human and social Development.
  • General Counsel of the Caribbean Community, handles trade and economic integration.

The goal statement of the CARICOM Secretariat is:

To provide dynamic leadership and service, in partnership with Community institutions and Groups, toward the attainment of a viable, internationally competitive and sustainable Community, with improved quality of life for all.

Organs and bodies

Principal organs
Organ Description
CARICOM Heads of Government Consisting of the various heads of Government from each member state
Standing Committee of Ministers Ministerial responsibilities for specific areas, for example the Standing Committee of Ministers responsible for Health will consist of Ministers of Health from each member state

Community Council

The Community Council consists of ministers responsible for community affairs and any other Minister designated by the member states in their absolute discretion. It is one of the community's principal organs; the other is the Conference of the Heads of Government. It is supported by four other organs and three bodies.

Secondary organs
Secondary organ Abbreviation
Council for Finance and Planning COFAP
Council for Foreign and Community Relations COFCOR
Council for Human and Social Development COHSOD
Council for Trade and Economic Development COTED
Bodies
Body Description
Legal Affairs Committee provides legal advice
Budget Committee examines the draft budget and work programme of the Secretariat and submits recommendations to the Community Council.
Committee of the Central Bank Governors provides recommendations to the COFAP on monetary and financial matters.

Institutions

The 23 designated institutions of CARICOM are as follows:

Institutions
Institution Abbreviation
Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency CDEMA
Caribbean Meteorological Institute CMI
Caribbean Meteorological Organisation CMO
Caribbean Food Corporation CFC
Caribbean Environment Health Institute CEHI
Caribbean Agriculture Research and Development Institute CARDI
Caribbean Regional Centre for the Education and training of Animal Health and Veterinary Public Health Assistants REPAHA
Assembly of Caribbean Community Parliamentarians ACCP
Caribbean Centre for Development Administration CARICAD
Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute CFNI
CARICOM Implementation Agency for Crime and Security IMPACS
Caribbean Examinations Council CXC
CARICOM Single Market and Economy CSME
Caribbean Court of Justice CCJ
CARICOM Competition Commission CCC
Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism CRFM
Caribbean Regional Organisation for Standards and Quality CROSQ
Caribbean Telecommunications Union CTU
Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre CCCCC
Caribbean Organisation of Tax Administrators COTA
Council of Legal Education CLE
Caribbean Aviation Safety and Securing Oversight System CASSOS
Caribbean Regional Information and Translation Institute CRITI

The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) is based in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago and was chiefly developed to act as a settlement unit for disputes on the functioning of the Caribbean (CARICOM) Single Market and Economy (CSME) (known as "original jurisdiction"). In addition, some of the region's Commonwealth Caribbean member states of CARICOM have opted to supplement original jurisdiction with "appellate jurisdiction" which by practice replaces the Privy Council (in London, United Kingdom) with the CCJ.

As of 2018, the majority of member states continue to utilize the Privy Council as their final appellate court and three member states do not use the CCJ for either its original jurisdiction or its appellate jurisdiction because they have either not signed the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas (the Bahamas and Haiti) or are a current United Kingdom Overseas Territory (Montserrat). A handful of various public propositions have been held in several countries of CARICOM polling on public support for transitioning of appellate jurisdiction to the CCJ, and to date the majority of these measures held have failed.

Associate institutions

The six designated associate institutions of CARICOM are as follows:

Associate institutions
Associate institution Abbreviation
Caribbean Development Bank CDB
University of Guyana UG
University of the West Indies UWI
Caribbean Law Institute / Caribbean Law Institute Centre CLI / CLIC
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States OECS
West Indies Cricket Board WICB

Standard and song

The flag of the Caribbean Community was chosen and approved in November 1983 at the Conference of Heads of Government Meeting in Port of Spain, Trinidad. The original design by the firm of WINART Studies in Georgetown, Guyana was substantially modified at the July 1983 Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government.[13] The flag was first flown on 4 July 1984 in Nassau, Bahamas at the fifth Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government.[14]

The flag features a blue background, but the upper part is a light blue representing sky and the lower, a darker blue representing the Caribbean Sea. The yellow circle in the centre represents the sun on which is printed in black the logo of the Caribbean Community, two interlocking Cs. The two Cs are in the form of broken links in a chain, symbolising both unity and a break with the colonial past. The narrow ring of green around the sun represents the vegetation of the region.[13]

For CARICOM's 40th anniversary, a competition to compose an official song or anthem for CARICOM was launched in April 2013[15] to promote choosing a song that promoted unity and inspired CARICOM identity and pride. A regional panel of judges comprising independent experts in music was nominated by member states and the CARICOM Secretariat. Three rounds of competition condensed 63 entries to a final three, from which judges chose Celebrating CARICOM by Michele Henderson of Dominica[15] in March 2014.[16] Henderson won a US$10,000 prize.[17] Her song was produced by her husband, Roland Delsol Jr., and arranged by Earlson Matthew. It also featured Michael Ferrol on drums and choral input from the St. Alphonsus Choir. It was re-produced for CARICOM by Carl Beaver Henderson of Trinidad and Tobago.[16]

A second-place entry titled My CARICOM came from Jamaican Adiel Thomas[15] who won US$5,000,[17] and a third-place song titled One CARICOM by Carmella Lawrence of St. Kitts and Nevis,[15] won US$2,500.[17] The other songs from the top-ten finalists (in no particular order) were:

  • One Region one Caribbean from Anguilla,
  • One Caribbean Family from Jamaica,
  • CARICOM’s Light from St. Vincent & the Grenadines,
  • We Are CARICOM from Dominica,
  • Together As one from Dominica,
  • Blessed CARICOM from Jamaica,
  • Together We Rise from Jamaica.[16]

The first official performance of Celebrating CARICOM by Henderson took place on Tuesday 1 July 2014 at the opening ceremony for the Thirty-Fifth Regional Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government in Antigua and Barbuda.[15]

History

CARICOM, originally the Caribbean Community and Common Market, was established by the Treaty of Chaguaramas[18] which took effect on 1 August 1973. The first four signatories were Barbados, Jamaica, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago.

CARICOM superseded the 1965–1972 Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) organised to provide a continued economic linkage between the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean after the dissolution of the West Indies Federation, which lasted from 3 January 1958 to 31 May 1962.

A revised Treaty of Chaguaramas established the Caribbean Community including the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) and was signed by the CARICOM Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community on 5 July 2001 at their Twenty-Second Meeting of the Conference in Nassau, The Bahamas.[11] The revised treaty cleared the way to transform the idea of a common market CARICOM into the Caribbean (CARICOM) Single Market and Economy.

Haiti's membership in CARICOM remained effectively suspended from 29 February 2004 through early June 2006 following the 2004 Haitian coup d'état and the removal of Jean-Bertrand Aristide from the presidency.[19][20] CARICOM announced that no democratically elected government in CARICOM should have its leader deposed. The fourteen other heads of government sought to have Aristide fly from Africa to Jamaica and share his account of events with them, which infuriated the interim Haitian prime minister, Gérard Latortue, who announced he would take steps to take Haiti out of CARICOM. CARICOM thus voted on suspending the participation of Haitian officials from the councils of CARICOM.[21] Following the presidential election of René Préval, Haitian officials were readmitted and Préval himself gave the opening address at the CARICOM Council of Ministers meeting in July.

Since 2013 the CARICOM-bloc and with the Dominican Republic have been tied to the European Union via an Economic Partnership Agreements signed in 2008 known as CARIFORUM.[22] The treaty grants all members of the European Union and CARIFORUM equal rights in terms of trade and investment. Under Article 234 of the agreement, the European Court of Justice handles dispute resolution between CARIFORUM and European Union states.[23]

Statistics

Population and economic statistics of full and associate members
Member Membership Land area (km2)[24] Population (2019) GDP (PPP) Millions USD (2017)[25] GDP Per Capita (PPP) USD (2017) Human Development Index (2018)
 Anguilla associate 91 15,174 175.4 12,200
 Antigua & Barbuda full member 442.6 104,084 2,390 26,300 0.780
 Bahamas full member 10,010 385,340 9,339 25,100 0.807
 Barbados full member 430 287,010 4,919 17,500 0.800
 Belize full member 22,806 398,050 3,230 8,300 0.708
 Bermuda associate 54 63,779 5,198 85,700
 British Virgin Islands associate 151 32,206 500 42,300
 Cayman Islands associate 264 64,420 2,507 43,800
 Dominica full member 751 74,679 851 12,000 0.715
 Grenada full member 344 108,825 1,590 14,700 0.772
 Guyana full member 214,970 786,508 6,367 8,300 0.654
 Haiti full member 27,560 11,242,856 19,880 1,800 0.498
 Jamaica full member 10,831 2,728,864 26,200 9,200 0.732
 Montserrat full member 102 5,220 43.8 8,500
 Saint Kitts and Nevis full member 261 56,345 1,528 26,800 0.778
 Saint Lucia full member 606 180,454 2,384 13,500 0.747
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines full member 389 109,803 1,281 11,600 0.723
 Suriname full member 156,000 573,085 7,928 13,900 0.720
 Trinidad & Tobago full member 5,128 1,359,193 42,780 31,200 0.784
 Turks and Caicos Islands associate 948 37,910 632 29,100
Full members members only 432,510 18,400,316 130,711 15,247 0.730

Thousands of Caricom nationals live within other member states of the Community.

An estimated 30,000 Jamaicans legally reside in other CARICOM member states,[26] mainly in the Bahamas (5,600),[27] Antigua & Barbuda (estimated 12,000),[28] Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago).[26] Also, an estimated 150 Jamaicans live and work in Montserrat.[28] A November 21, 2013 estimated put 16,958 Jamaicans residing illegally in Trinidad & Tobago, as according to the records of the Office of the Chief Immigration Officer, their entry certificates would have since expired.[29] By October 2014, the estimated Jamaicans residing illegally in Trinidad and Tobago was 19,000 along with an estimated 7,169 Barbadians and 25,884 Guyanese residing illegally.[30] An estimated 8,000 Trinidadians and Tobagonians live in Jamaica.[31]

Aguas territoriales CARICOM
Exclusive Economic Zones of the member states of the CARICOM. Considering them, the total area reaches the 2 300 297 km².

Barbados hosts a large diaspora population of Guyanese, of whom (in 2005) 5,032 lived there permanently as citizens, permanent residents, immigrants (with immigrant status) and Caricom skilled nationals; 3,200 were residing in Barbados temporarily under work permits, as students, or with "reside and work" status. A further 2,000-3,000 Guyanese were estimated to be living illegally in Barbados at the time.[32] Migration between Barbados and Guyana has deep roots, going back over 150 years, with the most intense period of Barbadian migration to then-British Guiana occurring between 1863 and 1886, although as late as the 1920s and 1930s Barbadians were still leaving Barbados for British Guiana.[33]

Migration between Guyana and Suriname also goes back a number of years. An estimated 50,000 Guyanese had migrated to Suriname by 1986[34][35] In 1987 an estimated 30-40,000 Guyanese were in Suriname.[36] Many Guyanese left Suriname in the 1970s and 1980s, either voluntarily by expulsion. Over 5,000 were expelled in January 1985 alone.[37] in the instability Suriname experienced following independence, both coups and civil war.[35] In 2013 an estimated 11,530 Guyanese had emigrated to Suriname and 4,662 Surinamese to Guyana.[38]

Relationship to other supranational Caribbean organisations

Organisation of Eastern Caribbean StatesCaribbean CommunityAssociation of Caribbean StatesMontserratAntigua and BarbudaDominicaGrenadaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesThe BahamasBarbadosBelizeGuyanaHaitiJamaicaSurinameTrinidad and TobagoColombiaCosta RicaCubaDominican RepublicGuatemalaHondurasMexicoNicaraguaPanamaEl SalvadorVenezuela
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various Supranational Caribbean Organisations and agreements.

Association of Caribbean States

CARICOM was instrumental in the formation of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) on 24 July 1994. The original idea for the Association came from a recommendation of the West Indian Commission, established in 1989 by the CARICOM heads of state and government. The Commission advocated both deepening the integration process (through the CARICOM Single Market and Economy) and widening it through a separate regional organisation encompassing all states in the Caribbean.[39]

CARICOM accepted the commission's recommendations and opened dialogue with other Caribbean states, the Central American states and the Latin American nations of Colombia, Venezuela and Mexico which border the Caribbean, for consultation on the proposals of the West Indian Commission.[39]

At an October 1993 summit the heads of state and government of CARICOM and the presidents of the then-Group of Three (Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela) formally decided to create an association grouping all states of the Caribbean basin. A work schedule for its formation was adopted. The aim was to create the association in less than a year, an objective which was achieved with the formal creation of the ACS.[39]

Community of Latin American and Caribbean States

CARICOM was also involved in the formation of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) on 3 December 2010. The idea for CELAC originated at the Rio Group–Caribbean Community Unity Summit on 23 February 2010 in Mexico.[40][41][42][43][44]

European Union: Economic Partnership Agreements

Since 2013, the CARICOM-bloc and the Dominican Republic have been tied to the European Union via an Economic Partnership Agreements known as CARIFORUM signed in 2008.[22] The treaty grants all members of the European Union and CARIFORUM equal rights in terms of trade and investment. Within the agreement under Article 234, the European Court of Justice also carries dispute resolution mechanisms between CARIFORUM and the European Union states.[23]

OHADAC Project

In May 2016, Caricom's court of original jurisdiction, the CCJ, signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the ACP Legal Association based in Guadeloupe recognising and supporting the goals of implementing a harmonised business law framework in the Caribbean through ACP Legal Association's OHADAC Project.[45]

OHADAC is the acronym for the French "Organisation pour l'Harmonisation du Droit des Affaires en les Caraïbes", which translates into English as "Organisation for the Harmonisation of Business Law in the Caribbean". The OHADAC Project takes inspiration from a similar organisation in Africa and aims to enhance economic integration across the entire Caribbean and facilitate increased trade and international investment through unified laws and alternative dispute resolution methods.[45]

See also

References

  1. ^ https://countryeconomy.com/countries/groups/caribbean-community
  2. ^ https://www.imf.org/external/datamapper/PPPGDP@WEO/OEMDC/ADVEC/WEOWORLD
  3. ^ List of countries by HDI
  4. ^ Ramjeet, Oscar (2009-04-16). "CARICOM countries will speak with one voice in meetings with US and Canadian leaders". Caribbean Net News. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
  5. ^ https://www.un.org/en/sections/member-states/intergovernmental-organizations/index.html
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2011-11-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Communiqué Issued at the Conclusion of the Thirty-Third Regular Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community, 4-6 July 2012, Gros Islet, Saint Lucia", "Heads of Government recognized that, although English was the official language of the Community, the facility to communicate in their languages could enhance the participation of Haiti and Suriname in the integration process. They therefore requested the conduct of a study to examine the possibilities and implications, including costs, of introducing French and Dutch."
  8. ^ CARICOM-Cuba Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement
  9. ^ "CIA World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. 2017. p. 971.
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ a b c d Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas Archived 2011-11-10 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Regional Portfolios of CARICOM Heads of Government
  13. ^ a b CARICOM Standard
  14. ^ Flag of the Caribbean Community and Common Market
  15. ^ a b c d e "History created as new CARICOM song is launched".
  16. ^ a b c WORD Version of CARICOM song competition Fact Sheet
  17. ^ a b c "CARICOM Song Competition: Terms of Reference" (PDF).
  18. ^ Original Treaty of Chaguaramas Archived October 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "Aristide accuses U.S. of coup d'état". Canadian Broadcast Corporation. 2004-03-02. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
  20. ^ "Aristide launches kidnap lawsuit". BBC News. 2004-03-31. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
  21. ^ "Haiti suspends ties with CARICOM". Trinidadandtobagonews.com. Retrieved 2011-03-25.
  22. ^ a b Caribbean moves afoot to restructure CARIFORUM, Peter Richards, Tuesday April 12th 2011
  23. ^ a b "Letter: Privy Council and EPA" Archived 2014-08-21 at the Wayback Machine, October 8, 2009, Jamaica Gleaner
  24. ^ "Land area rankings". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
  25. ^ "Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP" (2013). World Economic Outlook Database 2014. International Monetary Fund. .
  26. ^ a b 30,000 Jamaicans residing in other CARICOM member states
  27. ^ Jamaicans of the Bahamas
  28. ^ a b Prime Minister Golding calls on Jamaicans in Antigua and Barbuda to cooperate with government and people there
  29. ^ Close to 17,000 Jamaicans residing illegally in Trinidad
  30. ^ 7,000 illegal Bajans in T&T
  31. ^ Bissessar celebrates new Trinidad and Tobago High Commission
  32. ^ Guyanese, British and Americans among illegal immigrants living in Barbados
  33. ^ Mudheads in Barbados, a lived experience
  34. ^ "Ethnologue Languages of Suriname".
  35. ^ a b "Guyanese Creole Survey Report" (PDF).
  36. ^ "Guyanese vital in Suriname".
  37. ^ "Nervous Neighbours - Guyana and Suriname".
  38. ^ "Guyana Migration Profiles" (PDF).
  39. ^ a b c "Evolution of the Association of Caribbean States" (PDF).
  40. ^ "''Mexidata'' (English) March 1, 2010". Mexidata.info. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
  41. ^ "Acuerdan crear Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños". Associated Press. February 23, 2010.
  42. ^ "América Latina crea una OEA sin Estados Unidos". El País. February 23, 2010.
  43. ^ US Embassy Cable - Mexico's Latin American Summit 22-23 February
  44. ^ Rio Group approves its expansion at Unity Summit
  45. ^ a b CCJ signs MOU on harmonising business law in Caribbean

External links

British African-Caribbean people

British African-Caribbean (or British Afro-Caribbean) people are residents of the United Kingdom whose ancestors were primarily indigenous to Africa. As immigration to the United Kingdom from Africa increased in the 1990s, the term has sometimes been used to include UK residents solely of African origin or as a term to define all Black British residents, though the phrase African and Caribbean has more often been used to cover such a broader grouping. The most common and traditional use of the term African-Caribbean community is in reference to groups of residents continuing aspects of Caribbean culture, customs and traditions in the UK.

The African-Caribbean population in the UK come from the Islands in the British West Indies such as Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Barbados, Grenada, Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Lucia, Dominica, Montserrat, Anguilla, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Guyana (which although located on the South American mainland is culturally similar to the Caribbean and was historically considered to be part of the British West Indies), and Belize.

African-Caribbean communities are present throughout the United Kingdom's major cities, the UK Census identified the largest concentration is in Birmingham followed by London. Manchester, Bradford, Nottingham, Coventry, Luton, Slough, Leicester, Bristol, Gloucester, Leeds, Huddersfield, Sheffield, Liverpool and Cardiff. In these cities, the community is traditionally associated with a particular area, such as Brixton, Harlesden, Stonebridge, Hackney, Lewisham, Tottenham, Peckham in London, West Bowling and Heaton in Bradford, Chapeltown in Leeds, St. Pauls in Bristol, or Handsworth and Aston in Birmingham or Moss Side in Manchester, St Ann's in Nottingham and Toxteth in Liverpool. According to the 2011 UK Census, the largest number of African-Caribbean people are now found in Croydon, South London.

British Indo-Caribbean people

British Indo-Caribbean people are residents of the United Kingdom who were born in the Caribbean and whose ancestors are indigenous to India. The UK has a large population of Indo-Caribbean people.

CARICOM passport

The CARICOM passport is a passport document issued by the 15 member states of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) for their citizens. It can be used both for intra-regional and international travel. The passport was created to facilitate intra-region travel; however, citizens of the OECS that are citizens from Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines may use a member-state issued drivers licence, national identification card, voters registration card or social security card for travel within the OECS area.

CARIFORUM

The Caribbean Forum (CARIFORUM) is a subgroup of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States and serves as a base for economic dialogue with the European Union. It was established in 1992. Its membership comprises the 15 Caribbean Community states, along with the Dominican Republic. In 2008, they signed an Economic Partnership Agreement with the European Union, though Guyana and Haiti had expressed reservations and did not attend the signing ceremony. Tensions within the group have grown over issues of trade and immigration; the Dominican Republic, with the group's largest economy, has expressed reservations over its current structure.

CARIPASS

CARIPASS is a voluntary travel card programme that will provide secure and simple border crossings for Caribbean Community (CARICOM) citizens and some legal residents of CARICOM nations. The CARIPASS initiative is coordinated by the Implementation Agency for Crime and Security (CARICOM IMPACS), and seeks to provide standardised border control facilities within participating Caribbean communities.The CARIPASS will be accepted as a valid travel document within and between participating member states and will allow cardholders to access automated gate facilities at immigration checkpoints that will use biometric technology to verify the user.

Caribbean Court of Justice

The Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ; Dutch: Caribisch Hof van Justitie; French: Cour Caribéenne de Justice) is the judicial institution of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). Established in 2003, it is based in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

The Caribbean Court of Justice has two jurisdictions: an original jurisdiction and an appellate jurisdiction:

In its original jurisdiction, the CCJ interprets and applies the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas (which established the Caribbean Community), and is an international court with compulsory and exclusive jurisdiction in respect of the interpretation of the treaty.

In its appellate jurisdiction, the CCJ hears appeals as the court of last resort in both civil and criminal matters from those member states which have ceased to allow appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC). As of March 2015, Barbados, Belize, Dominica and Guyana have replaced the JCPC's appellate jurisdiction with that of the CCJ.

Caribbean Examinations Council

The Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC) is an examination board in the Caribbean. It was established in 1972 under agreement by the participating governments in the CARICOM to conduct such examinations as it may think appropriate and award certificates and diplomas on the results of any such examinations so conducted. The Council is empowered to regulate the conduct of any such examinations and prescribe the qualification requirements of candidates and the fees payable by them. It is now an examining body that provides educational certifications in 16 English speaking Commonwealth Caribbean Countries and Territories and has replaced the General Certificate of Education (GCE) examinations used by England and some other members of the Commonwealth. The CXC is an institution of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM); it was recognised as an Associate Institution of the Community in the 1973 treaty that created the Caribbean Community. Members of the Council are drawn from the 16 territories and the region's two universities, the University of Guyana and the University of the West Indies.

Caribbean Free Trade Association

The Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) was organised on May 1, 1968, to provide a continued economic linkage between the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean. The agreements establishing it came following the dissolution of the West Indies Federation which lasted from 1958 to 1962.

Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology

The Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology was established in 1967 by the member states of the Caribbean Meteorological Organisation (CMO). It was amalgamated with the Caribbean Operational Hydrological Institute (COHI) in the mid-1980s to form the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH), but the name was only officially changed in September 1999 to reflect the dual role of the Institute. Responsibility for the operation of the Institute, which is located in Barbados, rests with the sixteen Commonwealth Governments which comprise the CMO.

Caribbean South America

Caribbean South America is a region of South America consisting of the countries that border the Caribbean Sea, viz. Colombia and Venezuela.

By extension, the Guyanas, while not bordering the Caribbean Sea directly, are commonly reckoned with this region, as well, on account of their close ties with Caribbean countries, e.g. through membership in the Caribbean Community.

Grenadian passport

The Grenadian passport is a travel document is issued to citizens of Grenada, in accordance with Grenada Citizenship Act 1976 (CAP. 54) and the Grenada Constitution, for the purpose of facilitating international travel. It allows the bearer to travel in foreign countries and the Commonwealth of Nations, in accordance with visa requirements, and facilitates the process of securing assistance from Grenadian consular officials abroad, if necessary.

A Grenada passport is a document valid for proof of citizenship. The passport is also a Caricom passport, as Grenada is a member of the Caribbean Community. There are three types of passport booklets: regular, service, or diplomatic passports. Despite the placement of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) logo at the top of the document's cover-page, Grenada passports are issued by the Immigration and Passport Department (an extension arm of the Royal Grenada Police Force) and at the Diplomatic missions and Honorary Consulates of Grenada abroad.

Guyana

Guyana ( or ), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a country on the northern mainland of South America. It is often considered part of the Caribbean region because of its strong cultural, historical, and political ties with other Anglo-Caribbean countries and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and southwest, Venezuela to the west, and Suriname to the east. With an area of 215,000 square kilometres (83,000 sq mi), Guyana is the third-smallest sovereign state on mainland South America after Uruguay and Suriname.

The region known as "the Guianas" consists of the large shield landmass north of the Amazon River and east of the Orinoco River known as the "land of many waters". Major rivers in Guyana include the Essequibo, the Berbice, and the Demerara. Originally inhabited by many indigenous groups, Guyana was settled by the Dutch before coming under British control in the late 18th century. It was governed as British Guiana, with a mostly plantation-style economy until the 1950s. It gained independence in 1966, and officially became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. The legacy of British rule is reflected in the country's political administration and diverse population, which includes Indian, African, Amerindian, and multiracial groups.

Guyana is the only South American nation in which English is the official language. The majority of the population, however, speak Guyanese Creole, an English-based creole language, as a first language. Guyana is part of the Anglophone Caribbean. CARICOM, of which Guyana is a member, is headquartered in Guyana's capital and largest city, Georgetown. In 2008, the country joined the Union of South American Nations as a founding member.

Law of Haiti

For Law of Haiti, many legal documents are available in the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC) for Haiti in the Haitian Law Digital Collection. As explained on the Haitian Law Digital Collection page in the Digital Library of the Caribbean, the collection "includes historic through current Haitian law documents and related international documents. Contributors to this collection include dLOC partners in Haiti and around the world, LLMC Digital and its partners for the Haiti Legal Patrimony Project, and others."

Politics of the Caribbean

The politics of the Caribbean are diverse for such a relatively small area. These systems can be related to their colonial history. The major political system is democracy, with many different party systems within many of the countries. Party systems are a variety of political parties combined together.

These systems can be divided into a one-party system, multi-party systems and two-party systems. The one party system can be found in Cuba. It is a revolutionary socialist democracy adopted from communism. Other parties do exist in this environment but are viewed as illegal. Although the word democracy is in the name of the party system, it is by far not democratic. Cuba suggests that democracy is about power and how many have access to it, whereas they believe their system is about how many people have access to basic goods.

Multi-party systems are political parties of three or more groups. Seats are awarded in legislature according to how many votes are received; therefore small parties can win seats. This encourages many small parties to form. Haiti, Suriname and Guyana are all good examples of this practice. Haiti has approximately twenty-eight parties, Suriname twenty-six and Guyana fifteen.

Two party systems are found primarily in the Anglophone countries. Although there are some smaller parties found the two main parties have the greatest chance of winning. Many times these two parties can be found alternating running the government. The classic two party systems can be found in Jamaica and The Bahamas. Jamaica is a classic representation of the British government. It is the only country in the region to have had two parties in the first elections. From 1944 until 1980 there was a perfect record of the parties alternating running the government.

Variations can be found in the two party systems, a one party dominant system. Although there are two parties, one continues to rule. In Trinidad and Tobago, the People's National Movement remained in power from 1956 to 1986. In Antigua, the Antigua Labour Party has remained dominant for the majority of the time since 1951. In Saint Kitts and Nevis, the Saint Kitts and Nevis Labour Party has never before lost the popular vote (since 1962). Grenada’s dominant party was the Grenada United Labour Party in from 1951 until 1979 when it was overthrown in a Marxist coup d'etat led by Maurice Bishop.

In The Bahamas the Progressive Liberal Party remained in power from 1967 until 1992 under the leadership of Sir Lynden Pindling, the party was defeated by the Free National Movement headed by Hubert Ingraham a former member of the Progressive Liberal Party.

Several of the island in the Caribbean remain under the control of colonial powers. The French islands are départements of France and elect representatives to the French National Assembly. The remaining British have elected governments, as do the Dutch West Indies and the American possessions. The Caribbean is a diverse political melting pot, mainly influenced by the variety of colonial history.

Prime Minister of Barbados

The Prime Minister of Barbados is the head of government of Barbados. The Prime Minister is appointed by Elizabeth II, Queen of Barbados (represented by the Governor-General) under the terms of the 1966 Constitution. As the nominal holder of executive authority, the Governor-General holds responsibility for conducting parliamentary elections and for proclaiming one of the candidates as Prime Minister.

Regional organization

Regional organizations (ROs) are, in a sense, international organizations (IOs), as they incorporate international membership and encompass geopolitical entities that operationally transcend a single nation state. However, their membership is characterized by boundaries and demarcations characteristic to a defined and unique geography, such as continents, or geopolitics, such as economic blocs. They have been established to foster cooperation and political and economic integration or dialogue among states or entities within a restrictive geographical or geopolitical boundary. They both reflect common patterns of development and history that have been fostered since the end of World War II as well as the fragmentation inherent in globalization, which is why their institutional characteristics vary from loose cooperation to formal regional integration. Most ROs tend to work alongside well-established multilateral organizations such as the United Nations. While in many instances a regional organization is simply referred to as an international organization, in many others it makes sense to use the term regional organization to stress the more limited scope of a particular membership.

Examples of ROs include, a.o., the African Union (AU), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Arab League (AL), Caribbean Community (CARICOM), Council of Europe (CoE), Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), European Union (EU), South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization (AALCO), Union for the Mediterranean (UfM), Union of South American Nations (USAN).

Secretariat of the Caribbean Community

The Secretariat of the Caribbean Community is the principal administrative organ for the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and is headed by the secretary general, who is the chief executive officer of the community.

The mission statement of the secretariat is: To provide dynamic leadership and service in partnership with Community Institutions and groups, toward the attainment of a viable, internationally competitive and sustainable Community, with improved quality of life for all.

The original home of the CARICOM Secretariat (and its precursor the CARIFTA Secretariat) was at Colgrain House (specifically the southern half of the building, while the northern half was used as the residence of the secretary-General) on Camp Street, Georgetown, Guyana. Ground was broken for a new CARICOM Secretariat headquarters on February 25, 1998, at Liliendaal/Turkeyen. Construction of the CARICOM Secretariat Headquarters Building commenced in May 2001 and on 19 February 2005 the building was officially commissioned in an inauguration ceremony. The building was officially handed over to the CARICOM Secretariat on 15 July 2005 and the secretariat commenced operations in the building on 26 July 2006.

Secretary-General of the Caribbean Community

The Secretary General of the Caribbean Community is the Chief Executive Officer of the Community and the head of its principal administrative organ, the CARICOM Secretariat.

According to both the Original [1] and Revised [2] Treaty of Chaguaramas, the Secretary-General is appointed by the Conference of Heads of Government, on the recommendation of the Community Council of Ministers (and previously the Common Market Council in the Original Treaty), for a term not exceeding five years and may be reappointed by the Conference.

The Secretary-General, subject to the Organs of the Community and in accordance with various regulations, performs the following functions:

representing the Community;

developing, as mandated, decisions of competent Organs of the Community into implementable proposals;

identifying and mobilising, as required, external resources to implement decisions at the regional level and undertake studies and develop decisions on relevant issues into implementable proposals;

implementing, as mandated, decisions at the regional level for the achievement of Community objectives;

implementing, with the consent of the Member State concerned, Community decisions which do not require legislative or administrative action by national authorities;

monitoring and reporting on, as mandated, implementation of Community decisions;

initiating or developing proposals for consideration and decision by the competent Organs in order to achieve Community objectives

and such other functions assigned by the Conference or other competent Organs.The current Secretary-General is Ambassador Irwin LaRocque (Dominica) who was appointed in 2011.

All Secretaries-General, including the Secretaries-General of CARIFTA, have resided at Colgrain House on Camp Street, Georgetown, Guyana.

West Indian Americans

West Indian Americans or Caribbean Americans are Americans who can trace their recent ancestry to the Caribbean, unless they are of native descent. As of 2016, about 3,019,686 people residing in the United States — 0.934% of the total US population — have West Indian ancestry.The Caribbean is the source of the United States' earliest and largest Black immigrant group and the primary source of growth of the Black population in the U.S. The region has exported more of its people than any other region of the world since the abolition of slavery in 1834. While the largest Caribbean immigrant sources to the U.S. are Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and Haiti, U.S. citizen migrants also come from Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

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