Cargo system

The cargo system (also known as the civil-religious hierarchy, fiesta or mayordomía system) is a collection of secular and religious positions held by men or households in rural indigenous communities throughout central and southern Mexico and Central America. These revolving offices, or cargos, become the unpaid responsibility of men who are active in civic life. They typically hold a given post for a term of one year, and alternate between civic and religious obligations from year to year. Office holders execute most of the tasks of local governments and churches. Individuals who hold a cargo are generally obligated to incur the costs of feasting during the fiestas that honor particular saints.

Where it is practiced, there is generally some expectation of all local men to take part in this cargo system throughout their lives. Office holders assume greater responsibilities as they grow in stature in the community. Such progression requires substantial financial resources, but eventually an individual who holds a requisite number of posts in service to his community retires and joins a group of elders instrumental in community decision-making, including appointing people to cargos.

This expectation of local men to take part in this system is both an economic and a social one, as those who do not contribute are seen as not being deserving of living in the village.[1] It served to create a village system where the old were helped by the young and women helped by men. Furthermore, the legal enforcement of village obligations solidified communal (social) identity, rather than an identity dependent upon and linked to the national state. The cargo system has also been considered influenced by traditional Hispanic customs, as the municipal government provided the tradition of cargas consejiles', where village residents are obligated to serve post terms.[2]

During the 19th and 20th centuries, the cargo system was a ladder system in which indigenous men could climb up. The cargo system was mainly defined as a public labor and community service. Villages that were impoverished were able to get help easier because taxes were not charged, yet public work was given. It was a system in which involved faithful and long term community service. Men and women (husband and wife) were considered one unit, men needed their wives in order to succeed in their community. Women did not claim rights in relation to village government.[3]

History

The origins of the cargo system are tied to the efforts of Spanish missionaries to convert indigenous peoples of the Americas to Christianity while at the same time forestalling their cultural Hispanicization. After the Spanish conquest of Mesoamerica in the 16th century, many Indians were forcibly relocated to pueblos, which like Spanish villages contained a church as the town center. Priests were one of many special interest foreigners who had control over the political and social affairs of indigenous peoples, and they had dominion over many of these pueblos and had the authority to keep other colonists out. The priests were mindful that much of their influence over the Indians stemmed from the priests' ability to speak Indian languages. Despite a 1550 royal edict calling for native peoples to be taught the Spanish language, missionaries continued to minister to them in Nahuatl and other local languages, thus preserving a major source of Indian dependency on the church. The colonial church did not insist on excessive Catholicization of existing indigenous practices, so long as there was no clear conflict between the two.

Because the missionaries were small in number, they increasingly placed religious responsibilities in the hands of trusted members of the villages. The village mayor or alcalde was charged with the responsibility of leading the villagers in a procession to Sunday Mass. Over time, these processions were conducted with greater ceremony, making use of trappings such as crosses, incense, and music.

The cargo system was used and transformed by communities within the context of law to eliminate noble exemption privileges. This brought to an end many internal feuds over principales with regards to nobility. Noble exemptions were opposed by the common people, who were worried that such exemptions would negatively impact the supply of labour to the point of constant service. It was impossible to become part of the nobility by marrying the daughter of a noble, and was instead pushed by claimants based on heritage. Therefore, in practice, the system was not as egalitarian as in the hypothetical sense, because while some men could move to greater positions and into seats of authority, others lacked the prestige to accomplish the same. The dispersal of the ability to accumulate wealth along with prestige also contributed greatly to the transformation of these villages.[4]

On occasion drawing on a Spanish institution called the cofradías, the priests created a hierarchy of village posts in order to better organize the religious and civil lives of their Indians. Indigenous people filled these roles, which in theory gave them greater status within the community. These roles, however, also placed economic obligations on their recipients and the clergy used them as a way to exercise control over the villagers. Villagers were obligated to organize efforts to discharge debts related to cost of food, wafers and wine for the Mass and payment of the priests.

The cargo system could a serve a manner in which people could elevate their station in society. People who faithfully discharged their duties through a series of mundane tasks could increase their social status which resulted in greater access for job opportunities and loftier positions. In short, community service allowed one to move up in the hierarchy of their society. Eventually villagers could reach a high ranking position as members of the principals, who in turn would vote for the communal leader, the gobernadores. The caciques ore pre-Hispanic nobles were exempt from the low standing positions, although a person from meager beginnings could ultimately serve to accumulate wealth and power.

The cargo system also affected marital life. The man would work in the household of his in-laws. After marriage, the wife would move in with the groom’s family in which she served as a domestic servant for her mother-in law.

See also

Sources

  • Frank Cancian, Economics and prestige in a Maya community : the religious cargo system in Zinacantan. Stanford (Calif.) : Stanford University Press, 1965, 238 p.
  • Chance, John K.; William B. Taylor. Cofradías and Cargos: An Historical Perspective on the Mesoamerican Civil-Religious Hierarchy. American Ethnologist, Vol. 12, No. 1. (Feb., 1985), pp. 1–26.
  • Dewalt, Billie R. Changes in the Cargo Systems of MesoAmerica, Anthropological Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 2. (Apr., 1975), pp. 87–105.
  • Friedlander, Judith. The Secularization of the Cargo System: An Example from Postrevolutionary Central Mexico (in Research Reports and Notes). Latin American Research Review, Vol. 16, No. 2. (1981), pp. 132–143.
  • Guardino, Peter. “Community Service, Liberal Law, and Local Custom in Indigenous Villages: Oaxaca, 1750-1850.” Honor, Status and Law in Modern Latin America, Duke University Press, 2005, pp. 50–57.
  1. ^ Sueann Caulfield; Sarah C. Chambers; Lara Putnam, eds. (2005). Honor, status, and law in modern Latin America. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3587-5.
  2. ^ Sueann Caulfield; Sarah C. Chambers; Lara Putnam, eds. (2005). Honor, status, and law in modern Latin America. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3587-5.
  3. ^ Caulfield, Sueann, et al. “Community Service, Liberal Law and Local Custom in Indigenous Villages: Oaxaca, 1750-1850.” Honor, Status, and Law in Modern Latin America, Duke University Press, 2005, pp. 60–63.
  4. ^ Sueann Caulfield; Sarah C. Chambers; Lara Putnam, eds. (2005). Honor, status, and law in modern Latin America. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3587-5.
Cargo control room

The cargo control room, CCR, or cargo office of a tankship is where the person in charge (PIC) can monitor and control the loading and unloading of the ship's liquid cargo. Prevalent on automated vessels, the CCR may be in its own room, or located on the ship's bridge. Among other things, the equipment in the CCR may allow the person in charge to control cargo and stripping pumps, control and monitor valve positions, and monitor cargo tank liquid levels.

Commercial Orbital Transportation Services

Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) was a NASA program to coordinate the delivery of crew and cargo to the International Space Station by private companies. The program was announced on January 18, 2006 and successfully flew all cargo demonstration flights by September 2013. NASA has suggested that "Commercial services to ISS will be necessary through at least 2015."COTS is related but separate from the Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) program. COTS relates to the development of the vehicles, CRS to the actual deliveries. COTS involves a number of Space Act Agreements, with NASA providing milestone-based payments. COTS does not involve binding contracts. CRS on the other hand does involve legally binding contracts, which means the suppliers would be liable if they failed to perform. Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) is a related program, aimed specifically at developing crew rotation services. It is similar to COTS-D. All three programs are managed by NASA's Commercial Crew and Cargo Program Office (C3PO).

NASA signed agreements with SpaceX and Rocketplane Kistler (RpK) in 2006, but later terminated the agreement with RpK due to insufficient private funding. NASA then signed an agreement with Orbital Sciences in 2008. Independently, NASA awarded contracts for cargo delivery to the International Space Station in December 2008, to Orbital Sciences and SpaceX to utilize their COTS cargo vehicles.

NASA's Final Report on the Commercial Orbit Transportation Services program considers it an unqualified success and a model for future public-private collaboration. Compared to traditional costs-plus contracts employed by NASA, such as the $12 billion Orion (spacecraft) contract, the unprecedented efficiency of the $800 million COTS investment resulted in "two new U.S. medium-class launch vehicles and two automated cargo spacecraft".

Comparison of space station cargo vehicles

A number of different spacecraft have been used to carry cargo to and from space stations.

Under development; Operational or inactive; Retired or canceled;

Dashaveyor

The Dashaveyor was an automated guideway transit (AGT) system developed during the 1960s and '70s.

Originally developed by the Dashaveyor Company for moving cargo, the system used motorized pallets that could be routed on the fly to any destination in an extended network. The pallets could run at high speeds between stations, climb steep grades at slower speeds, and even climb vertically. They were designed to replace several manned vehicles with a single automated one, controlled from a central operating station. One such system was installed and operated at the White Pine mine from 1968 to 1972, but was considered a failure.

Bendix Corporation purchased the rights to the basic Dashaveyor system in order to use it as the basis for an AGT system during the heyday of urban transport research in the late 1960s. Often referred to as the Bendix-Dashaveyor in this form, the system used the basic design of the cargo system, but with a larger passenger body running on rubber wheels. Only one such system was installed, the 5 km long Toronto Zoo Domain Ride which operated from 1976 until a lack of proper maintenance led to an accident that forced its closure in 1994.

Dream Chaser

The Dream Chaser Cargo System is an American reusable lifting body spaceplane being developed by Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Space Systems. The Dream Chaser is designed to resupply the International Space Station with both pressurized and unpressurized cargo. The vehicle will launch vertically on an Atlas V or Ariane 5 rocket, and autonomously land horizontally on conventional runways. Potential further development of the spaceplane includes a crewed version called the Dream Chaser Space System, which would be capable of carrying up to seven people to and from low Earth orbit.

Encomienda

Encomienda (Spanish pronunciation: [eŋkoˈmjenda]) was a Spanish labor system. It rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of subject people. It was first established in Spain following the Christian conquest of Muslim territories. It was applied on a much larger scale during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Philippines. Conquered peoples were considered vassals of the Spanish monarch. The Crown awarded an encomienda as a grant to a particular individual. In the conquest era of the sixteenth century, the grants were considered to be a monopoly on the labor of particular groups of Indians (indigenous peoples), held in perpetuity by the grant holder, called the encomendero, and his descendants.Encomiendas devolved from their original Iberian form into a form of "communal" slavery. In the encomienda, the Spanish Crown granted a person a specified number of natives from a specific community, but did not dictate which individuals in the community would have to provide their labor. Indigenous leaders were charged with mobilizing the assessed tribute and labor. In turn, encomenderos were to ensure that the encomienda natives were given instruction in the Christian faith and Spanish language, and protect them from warring tribes or pirates; they had to suppress rebellion against Spaniards, and maintain infrastructure. In return, the natives would provide tributes in the form of metals, maize, wheat, pork, or other agricultural products.

With the ouster of Christopher Columbus, the Spanish crown sent a royal governor, Fray Nicolás de Ovando, who established the formal encomienda system. In many cases natives were forced to do hard labor and subjected to extreme punishment and death if they resisted. However, Queen Isabella I of Castile forbade Indian slavery and deemed the indigenous to be "free vassals of the crown". Various versions of the Leyes de Indias or Laws of the Indies from 1512 onwards attempted to regulate the interactions between the settlers and natives. Both natives and Spaniards appealed to the Real Audiencias for relief under the encomienda system.

Encomiendas had often been characterized by the geographical displacement of the enslaved and breakup of communities and family units, but in Mexico, the encomienda ruled the free vassals of the crown through existing community hierarchies, and the natives were allowed to keep in touch with their families and homes.The abolition of the Encomienda in 1542 marks the first major movement towards the abolition of slavery in the Western world.

FedEx Express

FedEx Express, formerly Federal Express, is a cargo airline based in Memphis, Tennessee, United States. It is the world's largest airline in terms of freight tons flown and the world's ninth largest in terms of fleet size. It is a subsidiary of FedEx Corporation, delivering packages and freight to more than 375 destinations in nearly every country each day.Its headquarters are in Memphis with its global "SuperHub" located at Memphis International Airport. In the United States, FedEx Express has a national hub at Indianapolis International Airport. Regional hubs are located at Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, Oakland International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, Fort Worth Alliance Airport, Piedmont Triad International Airport, and Miami International Airport. International regional hubs are located at Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport, Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport, Kansai International Airport, Toronto Pearson International Airport, and Cologne Bonn Airport. There are a total of 12 air hubs in the company's worldwide network.

Go (programming language)

Go (also referred to as Golang) is a statically typed, compiled programming language designed at Google by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson. Go is syntactically similar to C, but with memory safety, garbage collection, structural typing, and CSP-style concurrency.There are two major implementations:

Google's self-hosting compiler toolchain targeting multiple operating systems, mobile devices, and WebAssembly.

gccgo, a GCC frontend.A third compiler, GopherJS, compiles Go to JavaScript for front-end web development.

List of defunct airlines of Turkey

This is a list of now defunct airlines from Turkey.

Magaya Corporation

Magaya Corporation is a logistics software company founded in 2001 in Miami, Florida. Magaya Corporation's core business is logistics software development for the logistics industry. Offices are located in Miami, Florida, and São Paulo, Brazil.

Mixe

The Mixe (Spanish mixe or rarely mije [ˈmixe]) are an indigenous people of Mexico inhabiting the eastern highlands of the state of Oaxaca. They speak the Mixe languages, which are classified in the Mixe–Zoque family, and are more culturally conservative than other indigenous groups of the region, maintaining their language to this day. A population figure of 90,000 speakers of Mixe were estimated by SIL international in 1993. The Mixe name for themselves is ayuujkjä'äy meaning "people who speak the mountain language" The word "Mixe" itself is probably derived from the Nahuatl word for cloud: mīxtli.

Nissan Rogue

The Nissan Rogue is a compact crossover SUV produced by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Nissan. It made its debut in October 2007 for the 2008 model year. The current model, the second generation launched in 2013, is the United States of America’s and Canada’s version of the Nissan X-Trail.

It is currently Nissan's best-selling vehicle in the United States.The Rogue is powered by a 170 hp (127 kW; 172 PS), 2.5 L four-cylinder QR25DE engine mated to a standard continuously variable transmission, and comes standard with front-wheel-drive. The Rogue costs less than Nissan's Murano crossover SUV, but at 105.8 cu ft (3.00 m3) vs. 108.1 cu ft (3.06 m3) offers only slightly less passenger volume than its V6-powered sibling, and a nearly equal cargo area of 39.3 cu ft (1,110 L) vs. 39.6 cu ft (1,120 L).

The first generation Rogue remained in production for the 2013–2015 model years as the Rogue Select.The Rogue is manufactured at the Nissan Smyrna assembly plant in Tennessee, United States.

Nissan X-Trail

The Nissan X-Trail is a compact crossover SUV produced by the Japanese automaker Nissan since 2000. In third generation, it is a 3-row (which means 7-seater) SUV. It was one of Nissan's first crossovers and was released about the same time as several other companies' competing car based crossovers, including the Ford Escape and its Mazda Tribute sibling, the Hyundai Tucson, Honda CR-V and the Toyota RAV4, as well as the compact body on frame Suzuki Grand Vitara.

The X-Trail is positioned below the truck based Xterra and Pathfinder, and was never offered by dealerships in the United States. The first generation was available in Canada until it was replaced by the Rogue, however, both the Rogue and the X-Trail are sold in Mexico. The Rogue shares the same platform as the second generation X-Trail, and is very similar to the Qashqai.

The X-Trail's All-Mode 4x4 transmission transfer case enables the driver to select between 2WD, 4WD or 4WD Lock through an electronic switch on the dashboard. The company currently offers a hydrogen fuel cell model named the X-Trail FCV on lease to businesses.

The main production plants of the X-Trail are in Kanda, Fukuoka, Kyushu, Japan (2000–present); though parts and engines that are produced in Japan are also assembled by other Nissan plants in numerous countries.

Pentecostalism

Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement within Protestant Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through baptism with the Holy Spirit. The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, the Greek name for the Jewish Feast of Weeks. For Christians, this event commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the followers of Jesus Christ, as described in the second chapter of the Acts of the Apostles.

Like other forms of evangelical Protestantism, Pentecostalism adheres to the inerrancy of the Bible and the necessity of accepting Jesus Christ as personal Lord and Savior. It is distinguished by belief in the baptism in the Holy Spirit that enables a Christian to live a Spirit-filled and empowered life. This empowerment includes the use of spiritual gifts such as speaking in tongues and divine healing—two other defining characteristics of Pentecostalism. Because of their commitment to biblical authority, spiritual gifts, and the miraculous, Pentecostals tend to see their movement as reflecting the same kind of spiritual power and teachings that were found in the Apostolic Age of the early church. For this reason, some Pentecostals also use the term Apostolic or Full Gospel to describe their movement.

Pentecostalism emerged in the early 20th century among radical adherents of the Holiness movement who were energized by revivalism and expectation for the imminent Second Coming of Christ. Believing that they were living in the end times, they expected God to spiritually renew the Christian Church thereby bringing to pass the restoration of spiritual gifts and the evangelization of the world. In 1900, Charles Parham, an American evangelist and faith healer, began teaching that speaking in tongues was the Bible evidence of Spirit baptism and along with William J. Seymour, a Wesleyan-Holiness preacher, he taught that this was the third work of grace. The three-year-long Azusa Street Revival, founded and led by Seymour in Los Angeles, California, resulted in the spread of Pentecostalism throughout the United States and the rest of the world as visitors carried the Pentecostal experience back to their home churches or felt called to the mission field. While virtually all Pentecostal denominations trace their origins to Azusa Street, the movement has experienced a variety of divisions and controversies. An early dispute centered on challenges to the doctrine of the Trinity. As a result, the Pentecostal movement is divided between trinitarian and non-trinitarian branches, resulting in the emergence of Oneness Pentecostals.

Comprising over 700 denominations and a large number of independent churches, there is no central authority governing Pentecostalism; however, many denominations are affiliated with the Pentecostal World Fellowship. There are over 279 million Pentecostals worldwide, and the movement is growing in many parts of the world, especially the global South. Since the 1960s, Pentecostalism has increasingly gained acceptance from other Christian traditions, and Pentecostal beliefs concerning Spirit baptism and spiritual gifts have been embraced by non-Pentecostal Christians in Protestant and Catholic churches through the Charismatic Movement. Together, Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity numbers over 500 million adherents. While the movement originally attracted mostly lower classes in the global South, there is an increasing appeal to middle classes. Middle class congregations tend to be more adapted to society and withdraw strong spiritual practices such as divine healing.

Pumpman

A pumpman is an unlicensed member of the Deck Department of a merchant ship. Pumpmen are found almost exclusively on tankers, and on oil tankers in particular. Variations on the title can include chief pumpman, QMED/pumpman, and second pumpman.A pumpman performs all work necessary for the safe and proper operation of the liquid cargo transfer system. This includes but is not limited to: liquid cargo transfer pumps, liquid cargo stripping pumps, liquid cargo coalesces and separators, strainers, filters, associated piping, valves, fittings, and deck machinery directly related to the transfer of liquid cargo.

SSL (company)

SSL, formerly Space Systems/Loral, LLC (SS/L), of Palo Alto, California, is a wholly owned manufacturing subsidiary of Maxar Technologies.

SSL designs and builds satellites and space systems for a wide variety of government and commercial customers. Its products include high-powered direct-to-home broadcast satellites, commercial weather satellites, digital audio radio satellites, Earth observation satellites and spot-beam satellites for data networking applications.

San Jerónimo Acazulco

San Jerónimo Acazulco is a town and community in the municipality of Ocoyoacac, Mexico State, Mexico. Once an agricultural community, the economy of the ejido is now primarily based on tourist commerce. It is within La Marquesa National Park.

The town is an indigenous community of the Otomi people, and most of the elderly still speak the Acazulco Otomi dialect of the Otomi language. In 2010 census there are 4,827 inhabitants.

The community has an active cargo system of religious fiestas, with leaders of its religious fraternities taking turns putting on public celebrations throughout the year.

Tianzhou (spacecraft)

The Tianzhou (Chinese: 天舟; pinyin: Tiān Zhōu; literally: 'Heavenly Ship') is a Chinese automated cargo spacecraft developed from China's first prototype space station Tiangong-1 to resupply its future modular space station. It was first launched (Tianzhou 1) on the Long March 7 rocket from Wenchang on April 20, 2017 and demonstrated autonomous propellant transfer (space refueling).The first version of Tianzhou has a mass of 12,910 kg and can carry 6,500 kg of cargo.

USNS Soderman (T-AKR-317)

USNS Soderman (T-AKR-317) is a Large, Medium-Speed Roll-on/Roll-off Ship (LMSR) and is part of the Military Sealift Command. The USNS Soderman is in the Preposition Program which station ship across the world with military equipment. The Soderman is Watson-class vehicle cargo ship built by National Steel and Shipbuilding Company. The ship was launched on April 26, 2002 and put into service on the 24 of September 2002. The ship was named after Private First Class William A. Soderman, a Medal of Honor Recipient for World War II.

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