Caretaker governments may be put in place when a government in a parliamentary system is defeated in a motion of no confidence, or in the case when the house to which the government is responsible is dissolved, to be in place for an interim period until an election is held and a new government is formed. In this sense, in some countries which use a Westminster system of government, the caretaker government is simply the incumbent government, which continues to operate in the interim period between the normal dissolution of parliament for the purpose of holding an election and the formation of a new government after the election results are known. Unlike in ordinary times, the caretaker government's activities are limited by custom and convention.
In systems where coalition governments are frequent a caretaker government may be installed temporarily while negotiations to form a new coalition take place. This usually occurs either immediately after an election in which there is no clear victor or if one coalition government collapses and a new one must be negotiated. Caretaker governments are expected to handle daily issues and prepare budgets for discussion, but are not expected to produce a government platform or introduce controversial bills.
Many countries are administered by a caretaker government during election periods, such as:
Heads of caretaker governments are often referred to as a "caretaker" head, for example "caretaker prime minister".
Similarly, but chiefly in the United States, caretakers are individuals who fill seats in government temporarily without ambitions to continue to hold office on their own. This is particularly true with regard to United States Senators who are appointed to office by the Governor of their state following a vacancy created by the death or resignation of a sitting senator. Sometimes governors wish to run for the seat themselves in the next election but do not want to be accused of unfairness by arranging their own appointments in the interim. Also, sometimes they do not wish to be seen as taking sides within a group of party factions or prejudicing of a primary election by picking someone who is apt to become an active candidate for the position. At one time, widows of politicians were often selected as caretakers to succeed their late husbands; this custom is rarely exercised today, as it could be viewed by some as nepotism.
In Canada and most other English-speaking countries, the more widely accepted term in this context is interim, as in interim leader. In Italy this kind of premier is the President of Government of Experts.
The following is a list of individuals who have been considered caretaker (or provisional or interim) heads of state or heads of government:
The Eighth National Parliamentary Elections 2001 (Bengali: অষ্টম জাতীয় সংসদ নির্বাচন ২০০১) were held in Bangladesh on 1 October 2001. 300 single-seat constituencies for the Jatiya Sangsad were contested by 1,935 candidates representing 54 parties and including 484 independents. The election was the second to be held under the caretaker government concept, introduced in 1996. The chief adviser of the caretaker government was Justice Latifur Rahman. The result was a win for the Bangladesh Nationalist Party with its leader Khaleda Zia becoming Prime Minister.2006–08 Bangladeshi political crisis
The 2006–2008 Bangladeshi political crisis began as a caretaker government (CTG) assumed power at the end of October 2006 following the end of term of the Bangladesh National Party administration. Under the constitution, the CTG manages the government during the interim 90-day period and parliamentary elections. Political conflict began with the appointment of a Chief Advisor, a role which devolved to the President, Dr. Iajuddin Ahmed, because of the failure by the major parties to agree on a candidate from among five considered. The interim period was marked from the beginning by violent protests initiated by the Awami League, with 40 people killed and hundreds injured in the first month. The Bangladesh National Party had its own complaints about the process and the opposition.
After extensive negotiations as the CTG tried to bring all the political parties to the table and had agreement for a scheduled election, on 3 January 2007, the Awami League said that it and the smaller parties of its Grand Alliance would boycott the general election to be held on 22 January 2007. They complained about the lack of an accurate voters list. More widespread violence and political rioting followed.The "bitter rivalry" between the Awami League and BNP has affected the nation for the last two decades, although their political positions are not so far apart. The parties are led by women who represent assassinated leaders: Sheikh Hasina, the eldest daughter of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, since 1981 has been head of the Awami League. Khaleda Zia, the head of the BNP, is the widow of the popular Ziaur Rahman, who as President founded the party in the late 1970s; he was assassinated in 1981.
On 11 January 2007 the military intervened to support the caretaker government of President Iajuddin, who had already declared a state of emergency. He accepted the resignations of most of his advisors. He also resigned as Chief Advisor, being replaced on 12 January by Fakhruddin Ahmed, who had worked for the World Bank. The government suppressed political activity to try to restore stability. In the spring, it started to work on corruption cases, charging 160 persons, including both party leaders, other politicians, civil servants and businessmen for actions going back to the late 1990s. The nation has had an extreme reputation for corruption under both the major political parties. In addition, some observers speculated that the caretaker government was trying to force both party leaders into exile to stabilise the country and reduce the political polarisation. The CTG also charged Sheikh Hasina for alleged murder for the deaths of four persons during protests in the fall of 2006. The High Court held that Khaleda Zia could not be charged under emergency law for events that happened prior to the emergency but on appeal, in September 2007 the Bangladesh Supreme Court ruled that the Zia trial should proceed. Near the end of 2008, the caretaker government moved to restore democratic government and held elections in December. The Awami League and Grand Alliance won by a two-thirds majority, and formed a government in 2009.2008 Bangladeshi general election
The Ninth National Parliamentary Elections 2008 (Bengali: নবম জাতীয় সংসদ নির্বাচন ২০০৮) were held in Bangladesh on 29 December 2008. The two main parties in the election were the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), led by Khaleda Zia, and the Bangladesh Awami League Party, led by Sheikh Hasina. The Bangladesh Awami League Party formed a fourteen-party Grand Alliance including Ershad's Jatiya Party, while the BNP formed a four-party alliance which included the Islamist party Jamaat-e-Islami. The election was originally scheduled for January 2007, but it was postponed by a military-controlled caretaker government for an extended period of time.
The election resulted in a landslide victory for the Awami League-led grand alliance, which won 263 seats out 300. The main rival four-party alliance received only 32 seats, with the remaining four going to independent candidates. Polling in the constituency of Noakhali-1 was postponed due to the mysterious death of the AL candidate. The election for the seat was held on 12 January 2009 instead and was won by the BNP candidate.Anisuzzaman
Anisuzzaman (born 18 February 1937) is a Bangladeshi academic of Bengali literature.
He was an activist who took part in the Language Movement (1952), participated in Mass Uprising (1969), and took part in the War of Liberation (1971).
He was a member of the Planning Commission to the Government of Bangladesh during the Bangladesh liberation war and a member of the National Education Commission set up by the government after liberation. He was inducted as a National Professor by the Government of Bangladesh in 2018.Caretaker government of Australia
In Australian political and constitutional terminology, a caretaker government is a government of Australia from when the House of Representatives (usually but not necessarily concurrently with the Senate) is dissolved by the Governor-General prior to a general election to a period after the election, until the next ministry is appointed. A caretaker government is expected to conduct itself in accordance with a series of well-defined conventions administered by the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, but there is no law compelling the caretaker government to do so.
Under normal circumstances, there is no separate appointment of a caretaker government. The incumbent Prime Minister simply puts the government into "caretaker mode." During the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, the Governor-General, Sir John Kerr, appointed a new government headed by Malcolm Fraser, subject to Fraser's agreement that he would immediately advise a general election, and his government would operate on a caretaker basis in the meantime. It was a unique set of circumstances, leading to a unique solution.Caretaker government of Bangladesh
The Caretaker Government of Bangladesh (Bengali: বাংলাদেশের তত্ত্বাবধায়ক সরকার) was a form of government in which Bangladesh used to be ruled by a selected government for an interim period during the transition from one elected government to another, after the completion of tenure of the former, during the period between 1996 and 2008. The outgoing elected government used to hand over its power to the nonelected nonpartisan caretaker government (CTG).
Top members of the caretaker government did not represent any political party; nor were they allowed to contest the elections. The main objective of the Caretaker Government (CTG) was to create a level playing field environment in which an election could be held in a free and fair manner without any political influence by the outgoing government.
It was not empowered to take any policy decisions unless it was necessary. The head of the Caretaker Government (CTG) was called the Chief Adviser (in place of Prime Minister of Bangladesh) and was selected by the President of Bangladesh. The Chief Adviser selected the other advisers. The top positions of the administration were generally distributed among the advisers. The Chief Adviser and the other advisers were committed for their activities to the President of Bangladesh.Chief Adviser of Bangladesh
The Chief Adviser was the head of the Caretaker Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh who served as the Head of Government for 90 days during transition between one elected government to another during the term of the caretaker government. The Caretaker Government was mandated only to hold the Parliamentary Elections in Bangladesh. The Chief Adviser headed an Advisory Committee comprising ten Advisers. With powers roughly equivalent to those of the Prime Minister of an elected government, his executive power was constrained with certain constitutional limitations. He, as well as the other advisers, were selected from politically neutral individuals so as to be acceptable to all major political parties.Churchill caretaker ministry
The caretaker ministry of 1945 held office for two months from May to July in the United Kingdom, during the latter stages of the Second World War. The head of government was the Prime Minister since 1940, Winston Churchill of the Conservative Party.Fakhruddin Ahmed
Fakhruddin Ahmed (born 1 May 1940) is a Bangladeshi economist, civil servant, and a former governor of the Bangladesh Bank, the country's central bank.
On 12 January 2007, he was appointed as the Chief Adviser (Head of the Government) of the non-party interim caretaker government of Bangladesh, amidst Bangladeshi political crisis in 2006. He continued in that post for nearly two years, a longer than usual time, but new elections were held in 29 December 2008, and the Awami League assumed power based on its majority.Government of Spain
The Government of Spain (Spanish: Gobierno de España) is the central government which leads the executive branch and the General State Administration of the Kingdom of Spain. It is also commonly referred to as the Government of the Nation, or simply the Government.
The Government consists of the Prime Minister and the Ministers; the prime minister has the overall direction of the Ministers and can appoint or terminate their appointments freely and all of them belong to the supreme decision-making body, known as the Council of Ministers. The Government is responsible before the Parliament (Cortes Generales), and more precisely before the Congress of the Deputies, a body which elects the Prime Minister or dismisses him through a motion of censure. This is because Spain is a parliamentary system established by the Constitution of 1978.
Its fundamental regulation is placed in Title IV of the Constitution, as well as in Title V of that document, with respect to its relationship with the Cortes Generales, and in Law 50/1997, of November 27, of the Government. According to Article 97 of the Constitution and Article 1.1 of the Government Act, "the Government directs domestic and foreign policy, the civil and military administration and the defense of the State. It exercises the executive function and the regulatory regulation according to the Constitution and the laws".
The current prime minister is Pedro Sánchez, who took office on 2 June 2018. He is the leader of the Socialist Workers' Party, the second biggest party in the Cortes Generales. Sánchez was appointed to lead the Government through a motion of no confidence against former prime minister Mariano Rajoy, who had filled that office since 2011. This was the first election of a prime minister via motion of no confidence in Spanish history.
The Government is occasionally referred to with the metonymy Moncloa, due to that the residence of the Prime Minister, the Palace of Moncloa, is also the headquarters of the Government.History of Bangladesh after independence
The history of Bangladesh after independence begins in 1971 with the independence of Bangladesh from Pakistan.Iajuddin Ahmed
Iajuddin Ahmed (1 February 1931 – 10 December 2012) was the President of Bangladesh, serving from 6 September 2002 until 12 February 2008. From late October 2006 to January 2007, he also served as Chief Advisor of the caretaker government. From October 2006 to early 2008, his responsibilities as President included the Defense Ministry of the caretaker government.
With a doctorate in soil science, Ahmed became a full professor at the University of Dhaka and chairman of the department. Beginning in 1991, he started accepting appointments to public positions, as chairman of the Public Service Commission (1991 to 1993) and of the University Grants Commission (1995 to 1999). In 2002 he won election as president. In 2004 he helped establish the private university, Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology (ADUST).Iajuddin Ahmed Cabinet
The Iajuddin Ahmed Cabinet led the Caretaker government of Bangladesh from 29 October 2006 to 11 January 2007 following the end of term of the Bangladesh National Party administration.Ioannis Grivas
Ioannis Grivas (Greek: Ιωάννης Γρίβας; 23 February 1923 – 27 November 2016) was a Greek judge, who served as President of the Court of Cassation and served as the Prime Minister of Greece at the head of a non-party caretaker government in 1989.Islami Andolan Bangladesh
Islami Andolan Bangladesh (Bengali: ইসলামী আন্দোলন বাংলাদেশ, lit. 'Islamic Movement of Bangladesh') is an Islamist political party in Bangladesh. It was founded in 1987 by Fazlul Karim as Islami Shashontantra Andolan (Islamic Constitutional Movement), and took its current name in 2008. Its student wing is Islami Shasantanra Chhatra Andolan.They have campaigned in favour of a blasphemy law and organised rallies in support for a restoration of the caretaker government of Bangladesh, as well as demanding punishment of former government minister Abdul Latif Siddiqui for his comments criticizing Hajj and Muhammad.Islami Andolon Bangladesh (IAB) has submitted a memorandum to the UN demanding an end to the violence in Rakhine state of Myanmar. Prior to departing Baitul Mukarram, party leaders Mufti Syed Rezaul Karim had delivered speeches condemning the atrocities against the Rohingya in Myanmar.IAB announced to lay siege to the Prime Minister's Office on April 25, 2017 demanding arrest of 'atheist bloggers who insulted Islam ' and to pass law for punishing those who 'insulted Islam in the parliament'.Leaders of IAB have rejected proposals of both Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina and BNP Chairperson Khaleda Zia regarding the election-time government, saying the proposals are defective and cannot resolve the ongoing political crisis.
They urged the government to dissolve the parliament and hand over the power to a neutral caretaker government for holding a credible election.Khaleda Zia
Khaleda Zia (IPA: kʰaled̪a dʒia; born Khaleda Khanam Putul in 1945) is a Bangladeshi politician who served as the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1991 to 1996, and again from 2001 to 2006. She was the first woman in the country's history and second in the Muslim majority countries (after Benazir Bhutto) to head a democratic government as prime minister. She was the First Lady of Bangladesh during the presidency of her husband Ziaur Rahman. She is the current chairperson and leader of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) which was founded by Rahman in the late 1970s.
After a military coup in 1982, led by Army Chief General H M Ershad, Zia helped lead the continuing movement for democracy until the fall of military dictator Ershad in 1990. She became prime minister following the victory of the BNP in the 1991 general election. She also served briefly in the short-lived government in 1996, when other parties had boycotted the first election. In the next round of general elections of 1996, the Awami League came to power. Her party came to power again in 2001. She has been elected to five separate parliamentary constituencies in the general elections of 1991, 1996 and 2001.
In its list of the 100 Most Powerful Women in the World, Forbes magazine ranked Zia at number 14 in 2004, number 29 in 2005, and number 33 in 2006.Following her government's term end in 2006, the scheduled January 2007 elections were delayed due to political violence and in-fighting, resulting in a bloodless military takeover of the caretaker government. During its interim rule, it charged Zia and her two sons with corruption.For the better part of the last two decades, Zia's chief rival has been Awami League leader Sheikh Hasina. The two women have alternated as non-interim prime ministers since 1991.In February 2018, Zia was jailed for five years for corruption. She was found guilty of embezzling the funds for an orphanage trust set up when she was prime minister.Prime Minister of Bangladesh
The Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Bangladesh (Bengali: গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশের প্রধানমন্ত্রী, translit. Gonoprojatantri Bangladesher Prodhanmontri) is the Head of the Government of Bangladesh. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Parliament, to their political party and ultimately to the electorate.
The position was absent during years of 1975–78, 1982-84 and 1990-91 due to imposed martial law. In each of these periods, the military junta led by the President had the powers of the Prime Minister. During the period between 1996 and 2008, The Chief Adviser of the Caretaker Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh used to take over as the Head of government for 90 days during transition between one elected government to another. The Chief Adviser headed an Advisory Committee comprising ten Advisers. With powers roughly equivalent to those of the Prime Minister of an elected governments, his executive power was constrained with certain constitutional limitations. The system was scrapped in 2011 by 15th amendment of constitution to allow political government to conduct any General Election in future.
The current Prime Minister, Sheikh Hasina Wazed, was appointed on 6 January 2009 by the President of Bangladesh and she is also the longest serving prime minister in the country's history.Sheikh Hasina
Sheikh Hasina Wazed (Bengali: শেখ হাসিনা ওয়াজেদ; English: , SHAYK hə-SEE-nə; born 28 September 1947) is a Bangladeshi politician serving as the 10th Prime Minister of Bangladesh, having held the office since January 2009. She is the longest serving prime minister in the history of Bangladesh.
She is the daughter of Bangladesh's first President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Her political career has spanned more than four decades. She previously served as opposition leader from 1986 to 1990 and from 1991 to 1995, as Prime Minister from 1996 to 2001, and has been leading the Bangladesh Awami League since 1981. In 2008, she returned as Prime Minister with a landslide victory. In January 2014, she became Prime Minister for a third term in an unopposed election, in an election boycotted by the opposition and criticised by international observers. She won a fourth term in December 2018, following an election marred with violence and criticised by the opposition as being rigged.
Hasina is considered one of the most powerful women in the world, ranking 26th on Forbes' list of The World's 100 Most Powerful Women in 2018. and 30th in 2017. Sheikh Hasina has also made her room in the list of top 100 Global Thinkers of the present decade as the famous US-based Foreign Policy journal came up with a register of worldwide thinkers. She is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders, an International network of current and former women presidents and prime ministers.Her tenure as Prime Minister has been marred by several scandals and criticised for authoritarian practices. Scandals under her time include: Padma Bridge Scandal, Hallmark-Sonali Bank Scam, Share market Scandal, Rana Plaza collapse, and Bangladesh road safety protests 2018. She has also been praised for economic growth under her tenure.Third Merkel cabinet
The third cabinet of Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel was sworn in on 17 December 2013. Led by Merkel, the government was supported by a coalition of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), the Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CSU), and the Social Democrats (SPD).The CDU received five ministries in addition to the positions of Chancellor and Chancellery Chief of Staff/Minister for Special Affairs. The SPD controlled six ministries and the CSU three. Although the CSU received a disproportionate share of ministries relative to its weight in the Bundestag, the six most powerful ministries were divided equally between the CDU and the SPD: the CDU controls the ministries for finance, internal affairs, and defense, while the SPD controls the ministries for foreign affairs, economics and energy, and justice and consumer protection.The term of office of the third Merkel cabinet officially ended with the constitution of the 19th Bundestag on Tuesday, 24 October 2017. Merkel and her cabinet ministers received their discharge papers from the Federal President Frank-Walter Steinmeier on the same day. In accordance with Article 69 of the German constitution and at the request of the President of Germany, the cabinet remained in office as the caretaker government until a new government is formed.