Cardiovascular Diabetology is a peer-reviewed open access medical journal covering the intersection of cardiology and diabetology, meaning the connection between diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. It is published by BioMed Central and was established in 2002, with Enrique Fisman (Tel Aviv University) and Alexander Tenenbaum (Sheba Medical Center) as founding editors-in-chief. A printed version is periodically distributed in India by Panacea Biotec Ltd.
|Edited by||Enrique Fisman, Alexander Tenenbaum|
|License||Creative Commons Attribution|
The journal is abstracted and indexed in Current Contents, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, Science Citation Index, SCImago Journal Rank and Scopus. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 5.235.
Complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C1QTNF3 gene.Complications of diabetes mellitus
The complications of diabetes mellitus are far less common and less severe in people who have well-controlled blood sugar levels. Acute complications include hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, diabetic coma and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma.
Chronic complications occur due to a mix of microangiopathy, macrovascular disease and immune dysfunction in the form of autoimmune disease or poor immune response, most of which are difficult to manage. Microangiopathy can affect all vital organs, kidneys, heart and brain, as well as eyes, nerves, lungs and locally gums and feet. Macrovascular problems can lead to cardiovascular disease including erectile dysfunction. Female infertility may be due to endocrine dysfunction with impaired signalling on a molecular level.
Other health problems compound the chronic complications of diabetes such as smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol levels, and lack of regular exercise which are accessible to management as they are modifiable. Non-modifiable risk factors of diabetic complications are type of diabetes, age of onset, and genetic factors, both protective and predisposing have been found.
Complications of diabetes mellitus are acute and chronic. Risk factors for them can be modifiable or not modifiable.
Overall, complications are far less common and less severe in people with well-controlled blood sugar levels. However, (non-modifiable) risk factors such as age at diabetes onset, type of diabetes, gender and genetics play a role. Some genes appear to provide protection against diabetic complications, as seen in a subset of long-term diabetes type 1 survivors without complications.Diabetic diet
A diabetic diet is a diet that is used by people with diabetes mellitus or high blood glucose to minimize symptoms (most notably high blood glucose) and dangerous consequences of the disease.
Since carbohydrate is the macronutrient that raises blood glucose levels most significantly, the greatest debate is how low in carbohydrates the diet should be. This is because although lowering carbohydrate intake will help reduce blood glucose levels, a low-carbohydrate diet conflicts with the traditional establishment view that carbohydrates should be the main source of calories. It is important to note that carbohydrates from sugar (added or natural as in fruit juices, etc.) or starch (rice, potatoes, bread, pasta, including "brown" or "whole-grain") are the primary culprit in raising blood glucose, while some low glycemic index vegetables have much less of an effect on blood glucose, and may even be beneficial for diabetics in the long-term by improving insulin sensitivity. Recommendations of the fraction of total calories to be obtained from carbohydrate are generally in the range of 20% to 45%, but recommendations can vary as widely as from 16% to 75%..
For overweight and obese people with Type 2 diabetes, any weight-loss diet that the person will adhere to and achieve weight loss on is at least partly effective.The most agreed-upon recommendation is for the diet to be low in sugar and refined carbohydrates, while relatively high in dietary fiber, especially soluble fiber. People with diabetes are also encouraged to eat small frequent meals a day. Likewise, people with diabetes may be encouraged to reduce their intake of carbohydrates that have a high glycemic index (GI), although this is also controversial. (In cases of hypoglycemia, they are advised to have food or drink that can raise blood glucose quickly, such as a sugary sports drink, followed by a long-acting carbohydrate (such as rye bread) to prevent risk of further hypoglycemia.) Others question the usefulness of the glycemic index and recommend high-GI foods like potatoes and rice. It has been claimed that oleic acid has a slight advantage over linoleic acid in reducing plasma glucose.Hyperlipidemia
Hyperlipidemia is abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids or lipoproteins in the blood. It is the most common form of dyslipidemia (which includes any abnormal lipid levels).
Lipids (water-insoluble molecules) are transported in a protein capsule. The size of that capsule, or lipoprotein, determines its density. The lipoprotein density and type of apolipoproteins it contains determines the fate of the particle and its influence on metabolism.
Hyperlipidemias are divided into primary and secondary subtypes. Primary hyperlipidemia is usually due to genetic causes (such as a mutation in a receptor protein), while secondary hyperlipidemia arises due to other underlying causes such as diabetes. Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are common in the general population and are regarded as modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease due to their influence on atherosclerosis. In addition, some forms may predispose to acute pancreatitis.Infections associated with diseases
Infections associated with diseases are those that are associated with possible infectious etiologies, that meet the requirements of Koch's postulates. Other methods of causation are described by the Bradford Hill criteria and Evidence-based medicine. Koch's postulates have been altered by some epidemiologists based upon sequence-based detection of distinctive pathogenic nucleic acid sequences in tissue samples. Using this method, absolute statements are not always possible regarding
causation. Since this is true, higher amounts of distinctive pathogenic nucleic acid sequences would be in those exhibiting disease compared to controls since inoculating those without the pathogen is unethical. In addition, the DNA load should drop or become lower with the resolution of the disease. The distinctive pathogenic nucleic acid sequences load should also increase upon recurrence.
Other conditions are met to establish cause or association including studies in disease transmission. This means that there should be a high disease occurrence in those carrying a pathogen, evidence of a serological response to the pathogen, and the success of vaccination prevention. Direct visualization of the pathogen, the identification of different strains, immunological responses in the host, how the infection is spread and, the combination of these should all be taken into account to determine the probability that an infectious agent is the cause of the disease. A conclusive determination of a causal role of an infectious agent for in a particular disease using Koch's postulates is desired yet this might not be possible.The leading cause of death worldwide is cardiovascular disease, but infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide and the leading cause of death in infants and children.Intelectin-1
Intelectin-1, also known as omentin or intestinal lactoferrin receptor, is an intelectin encoded in humans by the ITLN1 gene. Intelectin-1 functions both as a receptor for bacterial arabinogalactans and for lactoferrin.Having conserved ligand binding site residues, both human and mouse intelectin-1 bind the exocyclic vicinal diol of carbohydrate ligands such as galactofuranose.List of medical journals
Medical journals are published regularly to communicate new research to clinicians, medical scientists, and other healthcare workers. This article lists academic journals that focus on the practice of medicine or any medical specialty. Journals are listed alphabetically by journal name, and also grouped by the subfield of medicine they focus on.
Journals for other fields of healthcare can be found at List of healthcare journals.List of scientific journals
The following is a partial list of scientific journals. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. The list given here is far from exhaustive, only containing some of the most influential, currently publishing journals in each field. As a rule of thumb, each field should be represented by more or less than ten positions, chosen by their impact factors and other ratings.
Note: there are many science magazines that are not scientific journals, including Scientific American, New Scientist, Australasian Science and others. They are not listed here.
For periodicals in the social sciences and humanities, see list of social science journals.Major adverse cardiovascular events
Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, or major adverse cardiac events) is a composite endpoint frequently used in cardiovascular research, comparable to the composite endpoint all-cause mortality. Despite widespread use of the term in clinical trials, the definitions of MACE can differ, which makes comparison of similar studies difficult.The so-called "classical 3-point MACE" is defined as a composite of nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. But another study defines MACE as "CVD events, admission for HF, ischemic cardiovascular events, cardiac death, or MACE".Peptidylprolyl isomerase A
Peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA), also known as cyclophilin A (CypA) or rotamase A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPIA gene on chromosome 7. As a member of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) family, this protein catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of proline imidic peptide bonds, which allows it to regulate many biological processes, including intracellular signaling, transcription, inflammation, and apoptosis. Due to its various functions, PPIA has been implicated in a broad range of inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis and arthritis, and viral infections.SLC25A46
Solute carrier family 25 member 46 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC25A46 gene. This protein is a member of the SLC25 mitochondrial solute carrier family. It is a transmembrane protein located in the mitochondrial outer membrane involved in lipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria. Mutations in this gene result in neuropathy and optic atrophy.Sagittal abdominal diameter
Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) is a measure of visceral obesity, the amount of fat in the gut region. SAD is the distance from the small of the back to the upper abdomen. SAD may be measured when standing or supine. SAD may be measured at any point from the narrowest point between the last rib and the iliac crests to the midpoint of the iliac crests.SAD is a strong predictor of coronary disease, with higher values indicating increased risk independent of BMI.For persons of normal BMI, SAD should be under 25 centimetres (9.8 in). The amount this measure exceeds 30 centimetres (12 in) correlates to increased cardiovascular risk and insulin resistance. SAD measure of men in their 40s, greater than 25 cm, also predicts significantly higher risk of Alzheimer's disease 30 years later. An article in Annals of Neurology links visceral fat to lower brain volume.A related measurement is Supine Abdominal Height (SAH), the abdominal height as measured in the supine position. The SAH method is easier for self-monitoring, but gives slightly lower results due to gravity; the values are not directly comparable.Sex hormone-binding globulin
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to androgens and estrogens. Other steroid hormones such as progesterone, cortisol, and other corticosteroids are bound by transcortin. SHBG is found in all vertebrates apart from birds.